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Darlington jMemorial Library 


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Author of " Fifeshire Biography," " Life of Bp. Low," " Professor Tcnnant," &c. 






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The present woi'k consists of a variety of articles on different subjects, 
none of wliicli being long enough to form a book of itself, the whole 
have been combined so as to make a moderately sized volume of mis- 
cellaneous literature. 

The biographical portion of the book is chiefly a collection of notices 
of individuals who have died since the original work, the " Biographi- 
cal Dictionary of Eminent Men of Fife," was written in 1866, and of 
a few living men who are still going out and in amongst us. It 
contains 69 names ; and while a County biography (a publication of 
which Fife has furnished the first example), is fitted to arrest the 
attention and endear itself to the patriotic feelings of the people, 
whose great and good men it commemorates, the lives of such men 
contain a persuasive lesson to the ingenuous youths by whom the 
manhood of Scotland must in a few years be represented. Biography 
is a picture of human life. It is by such reading that the young can 
be best taught, — by the example of such precursors that they will be 
best animated and directed. What study can be more important or 
more interesting to human beings ? In the instances brought before 
them, they have full proof that however adverse their own circum- 
stances are, everything may be compelled to give way to indomitable 
resolution, unwearying industry, and steady upright integrity of con- 

The Inventory of Old Writings relating to the ancient town of 
Crail, commencing in 1369 and ending in 1775, will, it is thought, 
not be without interest to the antiquary and searcher after ancient 
things, — seeing it comprises accounts of Pajoal bulls, Letter's and 
'Charters from Kings and Queens of Scotland, and other curious 
documents, — and it is hoped that the Historical Notices of the East 
of Fife Burghs will likewise be found not unworthy of perusal. 

The Tales, Legends, and Sketches of the East Neuk of Fife — a 
district which, until lately opened up by railway communication, was 

generally left unvisited by the tourist — arc for the most part founded 
on facts, and descrqitive of the scenery of this part of the country ; 
and though they ai^e, doubtless, all more or less mixed up with what 
is fictitious and imaginative, yet they are, at same time, all of a strictly 
moral and instructive character — suitable for sea-side reading — and 
combine the interesting with the useful. 

The manner in which the Proofs from Science on the Existence of 
the Deity is treated — being very plain and simple, and adapted to the 
comprehension of the humblest capacity, — is, it is believed, more fitted 
to be useful to common people than the more elaborate style of learned 
men, who, in writing on the subject, employ terms and make use of 
philosophical expressions beyond the reach of common itnderstandings. 

Professor Tennant's Lecture on Hebrew Poetry, delivered by him 
in St. Mary's College, St. Andrews, closes the volume ; and which, it 
is supposed, will be received with acceptance by his old students, and 
also be read, not without intei-est, by scholarly men in all ranks and 
conditions of life. 

The book is amply illustrated by numerous engravings, which, it 
will be seen, ai-e chiefly illustrative of interesting historical buildings 
connected with the East of Fife. 

GiLLiNGSHiLL, October, 18G9. 



Notice of the Author, by Mr. Landale, 
Letter from the Duke of Wellington, 
Portrait of Sir Wm. Fergusson, Bart., 
Biographical Notices— 
Adamson, Thomas, Pittenweem, 
Anderson, George, M.P., 
Anderson, Dr., St. Andrews, - 
Anstruther, Major-General Philip, 
Aytoun, W. E., Professor, 
Ballingal, Sir George, 
Bell, Eev. David, Kennoway, - 
Bell, Eev. Patrick, Garmyllie, - 
Beveridge, Erskine, Dunfermline, 
Boyle, Right Hon. James, Earl of 

Glasgow, .... 
Brodie, Rev. James, Monimail, 
Browne, Dr. James, - 
Brown, Rev. Dr. William, 
Bruce, Eev. James, - 
Burt, John, Glasgow, 
Carlyle, Thomas, - - - 
Caw, Rev. David, 
Chalmers, Rev. Dr. Peter, 
Chambers, Robert, LL.D., 
Cook, A. S., Advocate, 
Cook, David, of Carphin, 
Cook, Rev. John, D.D., - 
Craik, The Family of, 
Darsie, Hon. Jolm, Pittsburg, - 
Dempster, Cathcart, - 
Drummond, William, Cupar, - 
Drummond, James, Markinch, 
Duncan, George, Balchrystie, - 
Erskine, Rev. Ralph, 
Espline, Rev. A., 
Fergus, John, of Prinlaws, 
Fergusson, Sir William, Bart., 
Forbes, J.D. Principal, St. Andrews. 

Biographical Notices — 

Fordyce, Alex., Banker, London, 
Goodsir, John, Largo, 
Gray, The Family of. 
Hay, David Balfour of Randerston, 
Henderson Brothers, Glasgow, 
Hetherington, Dr., - - - 
Honey, John, Student, 
Inglis, Robert, of Kirkenay, Crail, 
Johnston, Wilham, Lathrisk, - 
Johnstone, William, Dunfermline, 
Macfarlane, James, Dunfermline, 
Macfarlan, Rev. J., LL.D., Loudon, 
Miller, Henry, - - - - 
Monypenny, Rev. James Isaac, of 

PitmHly, .... 

Moyes, Dr. Henry, - 
Patton, Colonel, of Kinaldy, 
Paton, Sir Joseph, - . - 






Rodger, Alex., Shipowner, Glasgow, 74 
Smith, Thomas, Cellardyke, - 85 
Taylor, Rev. James W., Flisk, - 56 
Thomson, Wm., LL.D., St. Andi-ews, 86 
Ton-ens, Major- Gen. Sir Henry, 87 
Torrens, Major-Gen. Sir Arthur, 89 
Torry, Right Rev. Bishop, - 90 

Touch, Lieutenant Wniiam, 94 

Tytler, Patrick Frazer, - - 94 
Watson, Rev. David, Leuchars, 96 

Webster, George, Dunbar, - 97 
White, Bishop Robert, - - 98 
Wilkie, Dr. William, - - 98 

Wilson, Rev. Robert, Anstruther, 99 
Wilson, Rev. Andrew, Paisley, 100 

Wilson, Alexander, M.D., - 101 

Winram, John, - - - 102 

Wordsworth, Bishop, D.C.L., - 102 
Wynton, Andrew, - - - 103 
Historical Notice of Crail, - - 105 


John Knox Preacliing at Crail, - 109 
Old Charters belonging to Crail, 119 
Papal Bulls, - - - - 126 

Charter by Queen Mary, - - 146 
King Eobert Bruce, - - - 146 
King James VI., - - - - 155 
Contract between the Burghs o£ 

Crail and Anstruther, - - 160 
Act of Parliament passed in favour 

of the Burgh of Crail, - - 173 
Anstruther Easter and Anstruther 

Wester, ----- 179 
James Melville's Manse, (built 1590) 181 
King James the Fifth's Visit to 

Anstruther, . - . - 186 
Sir Wm. Anstruther and the King, 187 
Manor House, Anstruther, - - 189 
Birthplace of Dr. Chalmers, - 191 

Oliver Cromwell's Guard-house, - 193 
Town of Anstruther, - - - 195 
West Anstruther created a Burgh, 196 
Expenses of the Burgh of Anstruther, 199 
History of Pittenweem, by D. Cook, 202 

Burgh Seal, 202 

Isle of May, 203 

St. Fillan's Well, - - - - 203 
Kuias of May Chapel, - - - 204 
Culdees in the East of Fife, - 205 

Pittenweem Priory Seal, - - 210 
Earl of Moray, Eegent, - - 211 
Pittenweem Priory, - - - 211 


John Knox sails from Pittenweem to 

Berwick, ----- 313 
The Lands of Pittenweem sold to 

Mr. Wm. Baird of Elie, - - 214 
Pittenweem noted for Witchcraft, 216 
Janet Cornfoot murdered for Witch- 
craft, 218 

Newark Castle, - - - - 222 
Ruins of Abercrombie Church, - 224 
Legend of Abercrombie Church, 224 

Mungo Murray and Christian White, 230 
Sea Adventures of Remarkable Men 

of Largo, 238 

The Pittenweem Robbery and Por- 
teous Mob, ... - 253 

Paul Jones, 269 

Inventory of Old Writings relating 

to the Priory of Pittenweem, &c., 294 
View of Pittenweem, - - - 293 
Scotstarvit's Mortification, - - 299 
View of Crawford Priory, - - 303 
The Earl of Glasgow, - - - 306 
Addenda to Article on Ales. Selkirk^ 307 
Pope Leo X., - - - - 308 
Proofs from Science of the Existence 

of the Deity, by M. F. Conolly, 310 
Preliminary to Lecture on Hebrew 

Poetry, ----- 328 
University Seal of St. Andrews, 328 

St. Salvator's College, St. Andrews, 331 
Hebrew Poetry by Professor Tennant, 332 


^he name of i^t^r. (]3onollij has been familiaij to the *' folk of itfife" foil 
mor^e than half a oentm|y, tlur^ing which pe»|iod he has catjtpetl on 
business as a l^ota;|ij Ij^ublic and Law J^gent in rf^nsti|uthe»|, and foi| 
the half of that time has also acted as a Banheij. In the whole of his 
cai;eet| he has so boijne himself, that few impoijtant events have tahen 
place in the Bastei^n disti;ict of !lfife, with which his name has not 
been associated, and in J|egat;d to which his actings and opinions have 
not been viewed with some intei|est. 1$q adds one example to the 
numerous instances which in this favoui]cd counti;i} go to show that 
positions of honoutf and tijust ai|e within the gijasp of evej|ij educated 
and well-conducted pej|son. (^hei;e is no mo»|e useful oi] woije pleasant 
species of litei;atui|c than memoii:s of such men ; and although i%[. 
^onolly has i|eached an advanced age, ijet fi;om the seeming stj|ength 
and vigoui| still possessed by him, it may be hoped that the time is 
ijet somewhat distant when his name and chajjactei] shall become the 
legitimate pvopertij of the i;egulai| biogi;aphei| ; while, in the meantime, 
it maij be intei'esting to many — not meijely his fijiends and atlnui;ei;s 
— to perfuse a slight j;ecord of sundijy facts i;espccting him, not so well 
hnown as his writings, although these ar^e ah;eady widely spread. 

tphe autho^| of the following Biogr^aphical ^betch has no object in 
pr^esenting it to the public, but a desire to pay a tr^ibute of r^especf to 
an eai;ly and most esteemed fr^iend. l$i$ time and attention have been 
devoted mot|e to the duties of an ar;duous pr^ofession than to literjar^y 
putjsuits. "M^ is not a pr^actised W}|iteii. IJjIe mahes no pi|eten$ion to 
literiaiiy attainments. M he aspirjes to is to tell a plain, unvar^nished 
tale, and to ijecor^d some inter^esting facts and $tit;ring incidents of by- 
gone times, in the somewhat active life of his f»|iend, which he thinks 
woi|th pt|eset|ving ; but which, if not tahen down at pr^esent, would 
pr^obably other^wise soon pass into oblivion. 

^li.c.nxcL& ,^culcLclLc. 

Teniplehall, Benuichshirc, 
ISth October, 1S69. 



Matthew Forster Conolly was boru ut Crail, in the Couuty of 
Fife, on the 17th of June, 1789, where his father was many years a 
merchant, and Treasurer of that Burgh. There are some facts 
connected with Mr. Conolly's early life, which may not be con- 
sidered devoid of interest. In June, and on the day he attained his 
fourth year, his father entered him as a pupil at the Burgh or 
Grammar School of Crail, then taught by no mean scholar, viz., 
James Macmin, who gained his appointment after a keen compe- 
titive trial conducted by a Committee of Professors of St. Andrews 
University. The Professors, who were requested by the Heritoi-s 
to examine the candidates, were the late Principal Hill, who then 
occupied the Greek Chair in the United College of St. Andrews, 
and the celebrated Dr. John Hunter, of the Humanity Chair. 
After a severe competition, the merits of the candidates were so 
nicely balanced, that it was proposed the determination of the mat- 
ter should be adjourned till next morning, when Professor Hunter 
having fallen on the expedient of requesting the young men to 
breakfast, thought that the one who enjoyed that repast most 
heartily, would be better fitted for the situation, where regularity 
and temperance were essential requisites. How the young men 
spent the preceding evening, and if they enjoyed supper, is not 
known, but Macmin's appetite was so well whetted and did such 
ample justice to the good things on the table, whilst his rival ate 
so sparingly, that the palm on that account was. awarded to him. 

The school was what is called promiscuous ; the scholars were 
arranged no doubt, into difterent classes, according to their age 
and acquirements, but boys and girls occupied the same forms, 
and were mixed together. It so happened that a fair girl of 
nearly his own age, attracted the attention of our school-boy : slie 
was his equal, if not his superior, in respect of parentage and 
connections, and at the early age of seven years, a friendship or 
sympathy sprang up between them. This feeling subsisted so long 
as they remained at the Grammar School, and it was renewed at 
tlie dancing-school. We shall not attempt to pourtray the various 
efforts and devices in •' The Art of Pleasing," which a school-boy 
might resort to in order to make himself agreeable under such cir- 
cumstances, by describing the numerous pen-mendings (not always 

uecessary) the cnpy-settine;s, and the arithmetical-helpings, which^ 
might be rendered by one intent upon the pleasure and ambition of 
making himself agreeable to such a companion — all these things 
which may or may not have occurred, we leave to the imagination 
of our readers — premising only, that some twenty years afterwards, 
a union took place between the parties, and proved a happy one 
for both ; — not that, before marriage — 

" The course of true love always did run smooth." 
We are not to suppose that during this long intimacy — 

" Call it friendship — caU it love j" 
which, in the words of the poet, 

" Grew with their growth, and strengthened with their strength," — 

we are not to suppose, we say, that no little jealousies sprung up — 
no fancied rivals assumed (through the haze of green-eyed jealousy) 
gigantic proportions, though in reality only pigmies, — would 

" Come like shadows — so < 

and that no "lovers' quarrels" arose — only to end, as such quarrels 
usually do — in a renewal of love ; all those things we say, mir/ht 
have happened ; we do not say they did ; we allow our readers to 
till up the vacuum in the way they may think best, while we pro- 
ceed with our narrative. 

Mr. Conolly afterwards attended the Parish School of Kilrenny, 
chiefly for the purpose of acquiring a knowledge of what is gen- 
erally called " Court hand;" that is, the characters in which the 
old Chancery MSS. were vrritten, in which mystery Mr. John 
Orphat, the teacher, was an adept. This branch of education 
though very seldom resorted to in such cases, was deemed essen- 
tial, as the youth had resolved to follow the legal profession, 
"When his father introduced him to the teacher, he at same time 
bespoke a dinner of bread and milk for his daily supply. Mr. 
and Mrs. Lumsdaine, the laird and lady of Innergellie, (by 
which titles they were at that time generally known,) having 
been acquainted with the boy's father, and having heard of our 
young scholar's attendance at the school, kindly invited him to 
Innergellie House (a short distance from the village,) every day to 
dinner. Of this kind invitation he willingly availed himself, and 
appeared regularly afterwards at the " Big House," while he 
remained at school. 

We may remark, in passing, that the Lumsdaines of Innergellie 
were an ancient and powerful family, and greatly renowned in 
war. Sir James Lumsdaine held a commission as Colonel in the 
army of Grustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden. At the siege of 
Frankfort, he, and Hepburn, who commanded another Scottish 
Regiment in the Swedish service, being called upon by the King, 
forced the gate and entered the city with their men. Sir James 
Lumadaine's regiment alone took eighteen colours. Nor is it out 

of place to inform the reader, that Mrs. LumsJaiue (uamed 
Christina) was the daughter of Sir Philip Anstruther of Balkaskie, 

The young scholar could never forget the kindness he experi- 
enced from the hospitality of the laird and lady, especially the lat- 
ter, whose tall and noble-looking form he used to see walking 
about the grounds with a long cane, reaching near to her shoulder, 
and often kindly showing him her parrots, macaws, and other tame 
animals, besides which, she had wild favourites too. One day in 
spring, she took the youth to the garden, and there called 
for a Robin, whereupon instantly a pretty bird, who knew what 
it was about, descended from a lofty tree, alighted on her shoulder, 
and proceeded to peck crumbs from her hand. This circumstance 
greatly exalted the good lady's character in the estimation of her 
young protege, for (so the young mind argues,) none but good ladles 
could receive such confidence from the birds of the air. 


In 1804, Mr. Conolly became apprentice to the Town- Clerk of 
Pittenweem, a neighbouring burgh. It was near the end of his sti- 
pulated period of service, when he joined a party of ladies and gen- 
tlemen on a pleasure trip to the Island of May. The boat sailed from 
Cellardyke on a fine July morning, well manned, Tvdth a favourable 
wind, and a little swell in the water. But the party had not pro- 
ceeded far, when most of the ladies became sea-sick, and our young 
apprentice who was a good sailor — being accustomed to boating 
when a school-boy, amused himself — Juvenum morejaciantius agere — 
in watching the grim countenances around him, and noting the ges- 
ticulations of pain that had no danger in it. Like most young men 
of his years, he delighted not a little in waggery, and it occurred to 
him that a suitable caricature could be made out of a sketch of the 
boat under sail, in a smart breeze with the sick ladies leaning over 
the gunwale. Accordingly next day, he produced a lively represen- 
tation of the boat with colours flying, and her passengers in many 
grotesque attitudes; — along vsrith the caricature, he composed a 
number of doggerel rhymes, descriptive of the party and their 
dresses, and expressive of the conversation carried on during the 
voyage to the Island. They were somewhat in the style of " Fie, let 
us a' to the bridal;" and when the picture and ballad were pro- 
duced to the parties, some time afterwards, they were amazed, and 
straightway got into speculation as to the authorship. No one 
supposed for a moment that the silent youth who sat in front of 
the boat had been taking notes slyly on his memory, and regarding 
parties with inquisitive glances, in order to reproduce the ludicrous 

ffcene " some other day." Witliiu the last two or three years, a lady 
— oue of the party — signified that she had still in her possession the 
old ballad and caricature. 

On the expiration of his indenture, in 1808, his master delivered 
it up to him honourably discharged, and Mr. Conolly went to Edin- 
burgh, to become a clerk to an accountant who had by chance seen 
his handwriting, and was induced to engage him on account of 
its neatness and distinctness. He afterwards became managing 
clerk to a Writer to the Signet. 

Time rolled on, and Mr. Couolly followed his professional avo- 
cations, devoting his attention to the study and practice of the 
Law, and fitting himself for his future position. In the autumn 
of 1811, a vacancy occurred iu the office of Town-Clerk of 
Anstruther-Easter, when the Edinburgh student was proposed and 
unanimously elected to the office. He did not immediately enter 
on liis duties at Anstruther, however, but appointed a Clerk-Depute 
to act in his room tor a season, and continued in Edinburgh prose- 
cuting his legal studies. In the spring of 1812, he was admitted 
a Notary Public, and soon afterwards removed to Anstruther, and 
commenced business as Writer or Law Agent, in connection with 
his office of Clerk. His father at this time being a septuagenarian, 
and very infirm, for his greater comfort Mr. Conolly brought 
tlie aged gentleman to his own house, and proAided suitably 
for him as long as he lived (five years,) when he reached the age 
of fourscore. His kindness to his respected father was not unob- 
served by his townsmen, — neither was his rule of doing no business 
in the tavern or ale-house (a practice not unfrequently followed by 
some of his predecessors,) left without approbation. Clients were 
not slow to discover that tlieir business was promptly and carefully 
attended to, and themselves treated with attention and courtesy, — 
the sequence being, that our Clerk soon got into good practice. 
Nor was it long after his settlement in Anstruther-Easter, that he 
was appointed Town-Clerk of Anstruther-Wester, Kilrenny, and 
Crail, all neighbouring burghs. 

In 1812, a new Parliament was summoned ; and as the method 
of choosing a member of the House of Commons to represent a 
district of burghs was then very difterent from what it now is, it 
may not be out of place to narrate how this was accomplished : A 
writ or precept was addressed by the Sheriff' of the County to thi^ 
Magistrates and Council of the difii"erent burghs constituting the 
district, commanding them to choose each a Commissioner or 
Delegate to meet together on a certain day to choose a represen- 
tative. On the occasion of the election i]i 1812, the Com- 
missioners or Delegates from the fi\e burghs of the Anstruther 
district, having each received a Commission signed and sealed by 
the Town-Clerk, met in the Council-room of Anstruther-Easter, 
the presiding burgh for the time, and made choice of Sir John 
Anstruther, Bart., to be their representative. Mr. Conolly, as 
returning-officer, on the following dav met with the Sheriff' of Fife, 


and executed an indenture, autlieuticatiug the election, wliieli writ 
the Sheriff transmitted to the Clerk of Parliament. 

Sir John Anstruther represented this District of Burghs in more 
than one Parliament. In the spring of 1818, he died at Edin- 
burgh of tvphus fever at an early age. 

This Sir John left an only son, a posthumous child, by his lady, 
a daughter of General Dewar of Gilston, who died in the 13th year 
of his age, having been accidentally shot by a companion, while on 
a sporting excursion at Eton. During his life the guardians of the 
child being wishful to preserve his family influence till he became 
of age, supported the application of Mr. Alexander Maconochie, 
Lord-Advocate, to be successor to Sir John in representing the 
Burghs in the House of Commons. Mr. Maconochie was success- 
ful, not however without a severe struggle, being elected on 14th 
March, 1818. We mention these historical incidents to show how 
the monotonous routine of the Town-Clerk of a set of obscure 
burghs, could be diversified by connection with a certain arena ot 


As already mentioned, Mr. ConoUy, early in life, became attached 
to a school companion, viz., Miss Catherine, second daughter of 
Robert Murray, Esq., Chief-Magistrate of Crail. She was nearly of 
his own age, and they became husband and wife on 14th December, 
1818. Mrs. Conolly possessed no small share of personal attrac- 
tions' and considerable mental endowments— she had good sense, 
great equanimity of temper, an amiable disposition, and a certam 
eleo-ance of manners, which will be in the recollection of many. 
She brought to him five children, two sons and three daughters ; 
and after participating with him in the vicissitudes of life, enjoy- 
ino- many blessings, and being chastened by many afflictions, 
she died on the 19th day of March, 1836, in the 45th year of 
her a^e. Of Mr. Conolly's children, two are dead, and three sur-^ 
vive ^ His eldest daughter, a remarkably precocious child, died of 
putrid sore throat, after a few days' iUness, in her fourth year. His 
eldest son, Matthew, died at the age of twenty-one, and ot whom 
an aftecting incident is told. From an accident received m his 
eleventh year, he was afflicted with the disease, commonly called 
" white swelling," in the knee-joint, which becoming incurable, the 
limb" was amputated by an eminent surgeon. Chloroform was not 
then in use, but he stood the operation manfully, and at the first 
dressing of the wounded limb, he displayed an uncommon share 
of patient endurance under suffering ; even his surgical attendant 
was surprised at it; and when the poor boy was questioned alter- 


■u-ards as to liis patieuce aud courage, lie made tlie following toucli- 
ing reply : — " I was resolved not to cry, because my crying would 
have distressed my dear mamma, in the next room." He made a 
good recovery, attended the Academy at Perth, and the United 
College at St. Andrews, and served an apprenticeship to his father 
as a Banker ; but ill health succeeded, probably ov^dng to his not 
being able, from the want of a limb, to take sufficient out-of-door 
exercise, and he died with these last words on his lips, " Come, Lord 
Jesus, come quickly!" 


In the course of our narrative, we have seen that Lord-Advocate 
Maconochie was elected Member of Parliament for the District 
of Burghs, in 1818. Soon afterwards he was appointed a Judge of 
the Court of Session, when his political connection with the Burghs 
ceased. He was succeeded both as Lord-Advocate and represen- 
tative of the Burghs, by Sir "William Eae of St. Catherine's, Bart., 
whose first election took place on 29th July, 1819 ; he continued 
their representative from that time down to 1826, having a con- 
test on every occasion, he asked a renewal of his seat ; but in 
the last-mentioned year he was superseded by James Balfour of 
"Whittingham and Balgonie, who succeeded in being returned by 
the narrowest majority. 

As Town-Clerk of four out of the five royal burghs constituting 
the District, Mr. Conolly was called to witness many strange 
scenes connected with elections during his long ofiicial life. Before 
the passing of the Parliamentary Eeform Act of 1832, contested 
elections for representatives to the House of Commons as regarded 
this district, were the rule, with few exceptions. The Magistrates 
and Council, we have seen, chose the Delegates, and the Delegates 
chose the Member of Parliament. In these contests it generally 
happened that two of Mr. ConoUy's burghs were supporters of 
one Candidate, and the other two supported the other Candidate. 
Mr. Conolly attended the meetings consequent on these occasions in 
the forenoon, and as regularly appeared at the dinner parties which 
followed, in the afternoon. It was then that he saw many curious 
phases of human life ; he could peep into the speculum animi vimom, 
and get many insights into character. In Pittenweem, one of the 
burghs of the district, the dissensions of the electors on one occa- 
sion reached the culminating point ; the Council were divided 
into two equal parties — eleven to eleven — one of the parties (that 
which favoured Sir William Eae,) was led by Mr. John Tod, Chief- 
Magistrate, and as Mr. Conolly was called upon to officiate as clerk 
to this party, we shall narrate the proceedings as told by himself. 


At tlie annual election of Magistrates and Councillors of Pitten- 
weem, held upon the 16th of September, 1823, owing to the deser- 
tion of Bailie James Tod, and ten of his friends from the meeting, 
there was not a quorum of Councillors present, but those who 
appeared, having elected Magistrates, Treasurer, and Councillors, 
in the usual form, the election was, on a petition and complaint to 
the Court of Session, presented by the party who wilfully absented 
themselves, set aside, on the ground of a quorum not being 
present. The want of a quorum, under the circumstances which 
produced it, was not, in Mr. Conolly's opinion, a sufficient reason 
of itself for disfranchising the burgh, it being the result of a 
conspiracy of all the complainers, mth one exception, to destroy 
its privileges, and as conspirators, they were barred from com- 
plaining ; but there was one righteous person, so to speak, among 
the complainers, a whale-fisher, who happening to be engaged 
at the time of the election in following his lawful calling, was, 
therefore, not wilfully absent, and as he joined the other com- 
plainers, and the objection of conspiracy not being applicable to 
him, the complaint was sustained, and the burgh disfranchised. 

After its disfranchisement, the burgh was for some time governed 
by managers appointed by the Court. Subsequently both parties 
of the old Council, with some of the burgesses, presented petitions 
to his Majesty, praying for the restoration of the privileges of the 
burgh, whereupon his Majesty appointed a new election of Magis- 
trates and Councillors to take place on the 13th September, 1825, 
by the persons " who composed the Magistrates and Town Council 
of the Burgh on the day preceding the 16th of September, 1823." 

On the day specified in the Royal warrant, twenty-two of the 
persons elected in 1822, assembled in the Town-hall of Pittenweem, 
including Sir William Eae, Lord-A.dvocate, as a Councillor. Of 
these twenty-two persons so assembled, eleven were favourable to 
the interest of John Tod, formerly Chief Magistrate, and eleven 
were favourable to the interest of James Tod, formerly Second 
Magistrate. Long before the hour of meeting specified in the 
Hoyal warrant, however, James Tod being in possession of the keys 
of the Town-hall, entered it with his friends, so that on John 
Tod and his party appearing shortly before the arrival of the 
appointed hour, they found their opponents seated round a table 
under the presidency of the alter Tod, whereupon John Tod 
observing another table in the room, took his place thereat, along 
with his friends, including Sir William Rae. 

The first question which presented itself to the assemblage, 
related to the right of the person to act as preses. John Tod 
claimed the office as Chief Magistrate, on the day preceding the 16th 
September, 1823 ; and James Tod claimed it as head manager of 
the burgh. John Tod, in reply, stated that no mention was made 
of managers in the Eoyal warrant ; and, as a manager, James Tod 
was not entitled to be present at that meeting, but only as one of 
the Magistrates, in which character he might be comprehended in 
the Eoyal order, and entitled to appear. 


The business of the meeting then proceeded. The friends of 
John Tod appointed him to preside over them, and the friends of 
James Tod nominated him to the like office so far as concerned 
them. Mr. Simpson, Town- Clerk of Pittenweem, having refused 
to act as Clerk to the meeting of John Tod and his friends, they 
resolved to appoint Mr. ConoUy Clerk to the meeting, and he being 
called in, a number of constables stationed at the door by James 
Tod's directions, refused to give Mr. Conolly admittance, where- 
upon the meeting resolved that Mr. Duncan M'NeUl, now Lord 
Colonsay, their Counsel, should prepare a petition to the Sheriff, 
praying that Mr. Conolly might be allowed to enter the Town-hall, 
and all constables and others interdicted from obstructing him. 

The craving of this petition being granted by the Sheriff, who 
was in attendance outside, Mr. Conolly obtained admission to the 
Council-room, accepted of the office of Clerk, took the usual oaths, 
and proceeded to the discharge of his duties. 

The friends of Mr. John Tod, then qualified in terms of law, 
in his presence, as preses ; and the friends of Mr. James Tod, 
qualified before him, as preses. Each party prepared a list of new 
Councillors. John Tod and his friends voted for one list ; and 
James Tod and his friends voted for the other list ; each preses 
claiming a casting-vote in case of equality. The number of votes 
on both sides being equal, the question truly turned on the point 
as to the party having right to the casting-vote. Behold the 
strange scene ! — two parties equally balanced sitting at separate 
tables — and strenuously contending for the object of their ambi- 
tion — burghal power. It was evident that whatever took place on 
the occasion would not settle the question of supremacy, wliich 
must be determined elsewhere, but this circumstance only added to 
the responsibilities of the clerk, on whose accuracy and efficiency 
the validity of the proceedings in a great measure turned. So 
situated, Mr. Conolly's duties were of the most onerous kind, and 
he discharged them with energy and efficiency. What added not a 
little however to the singularity of the scene, was the conduct of the 
opposing party. It has been seen that James Tod and his friends 
obtained access to the Town-hall at an early hour, and having met 
with slight interruption in their proceedings, these were completed 
sooner than those of the party to whom Mr. Conolly was attached. 
Accordingly following the iisual custom of concluding an annual 
election of civic rulers, James Tod's party proceeded to regale them- 
selves, and were actually enjoying a feast, toasting, singing and laugh- 
ing, and paying their court to Bacchus, while their hvmgry opponents 
had in the meanwhile to content themselves with an anxious atten- 
tion to the details of business. But as soon as the minutes of elec- 
tion were completed, the party of Tod pri7)ws, including Sir William 
Eae, the Sherifts, Depute and Substitute, Mr. M'Neill, Mr. Cook, 
W.S., Mr. Conolly, and other friends, adjourned to the house of 
the worthy Magistrate to dinner, where doubtless they did due 
justice to the hospitalities of his tabic. 


The day's proceedings gave rise to a process before the Court of 
Session at the instance of John Tod and his supporters, against 
James Tod and his party. It was decided in favour of the latter, not 
on its merits, but on a preliminary objection, viz., that an annual or 
general election of Ma.gistrates and Councillors cannot be challenged 
in any other mode than by a petition and complaint, presented 
within two calendar months of the date of the election complained 
of; and this judgment was affirmed, on appeal, to the House of 

In connection with these electioneering contests, we may just 
give one or two illustrations of the manner in which the business 
was conducted. In a Council Minute-book of one of the burghs, 
there is a page completely obliterated by the spilling of ink on it. 
On inquiring the cause of this, Mr. ConoUy was informed by an old 
friend (probably an eye-witness,) that the ink had not been spilt 
accidentally, but by design. The Council being met on election 
business, and proceedings having gone so far, it was found that an 
important voter was not in the room. Delay thus became necessary 
so as to afford the absentee time to appear, for which purpose 
the Town-Clerk took the inh-hottle standing on the table beside 
the sand-box (then used for drying writing), and dashed its 
contents on the page of the Sederunt-book containing the day s 
proceedings down to that period. The consequence was, that the 
Sederunt had to be re-written, which the clerk was in no hurry in 
doing, apologising at same time to the meeting, for his pretended 
stupidity and absence of mind, in inadvertently lifting the mk-bot- 
tle in place of the sand-box. 

Again, about the year 1830, the struggle for the representa- 
tion of the Burghs in Parliament occurred between Mr. Balfour 
and Mr. Eobert Marsham of Merton College, Oxford, who married 
the Dowager Lady Anstruther. Mr. Balfour's agent being appre-^ 
hensive that some of his constituents, supporters m the Council ol 
Anstruther-Easter might desert on the occasion of electing a Dele- 
gate, prevailed on a neighbouring laii-d (a near connection of the's,) to invite the whole Councillors friendly to Mr. Balfour 
t? dinner, on the day preceding the election. They accepted, and 
enjoyed the laird's hospitality till a late hour, when they proceeded 
to separate, but on attempting to escape, they fonnd the doors ol 
exit locked and the keys nowhere to be found, so there was no 
alternative for them but to return to the dining-room, or go to bed. 
Some preferred the one alternative and some the other ; but the 
result was, that thev all remained under the laird's roof till about 
eleven o'clock on the following day, when they proceeded to the 
Town-hall under the friendly escort of the agent, to choose the 
Delegate. c ^ ^ a 

Treating the electors in other houses than those oi landed 
proprietors was so common in the Burghs about the time we refer 
to, that councillors were known for weeks to spend the greater 
portion of their time in taverns. We have heard that on one oc- 


oasiuu a tailor (au elector) having absented himself from his work- 
shop for an unusual period, his son, who was not duly initiated in 
the mysteries of electioneering, thinking that his father had changed 
his place of business, but had omitted to remove the implements 
of his trade, took his layboard to the tavern, and placed it before 
him on the table, in presence of the assembled company. 


In 1837, King William IV. died, and the Magistrates and Council 
of Anstruther-Wester, at the suggestion of Mr. Conolly, voted an 
address of condolence to Queen Adelaide, which he prepared and 
transmitted to his G-race the Duke of Wellington for presentation. 
Some time afterwards his Grrace acknowledged receipt of the address 
by a holograph letter, and enclosing Her Majesty's answer. Now, 
although there is nothing worthy of particular notice in the 
Duke's letter per se, jet, being not a simple acknowledgment by a 
secretary, or even one written by a secretary and signed by his 
G-race, but holograph of that illustrious warrior and statesman, it 
is thought not unworthy of preservation, and it is therefore here 
given, in the form of a fac simile, assuming that it may gratify the 
curiosity of some of our readers. 

The answer enclosed, is as follows : — 

Bushy House, 
London, July 20th, 1837. 
My Lord Duke, 

I have not failed to submit the address of kind condo- 
lence from the Magistrates, Treasurer, Councillors, and Town Clerk of the 
Royal Borough of Anstruther-Wester, to Queen Adelaide, and am honoured 
by Her Majesty's commands to express how consolatory to the Queen's 
feelings has been this proof of attachment to Herself and of respect to the 
memory of the late King. 

I have the honour to be, 

My Lord Duke, 
Your Grace's obedient hiunble Servant, 

His Grace the Duke of "Wellington. 

Passing to a very different subject, — On 1st July, 1837, a sad 
accident happened to a pleasure party at the Island of May, by 
which thirteen persons, chiefly young women, were drowned, and 
it became the duty of Mr. Conolly, as Procurator-Piscal of the 
district, to investigate the circumstances of this disaster. After 
taking a precognition of witnesses, he obtained a warrant for the 
apprehension of John Sutherland, the master of the boat which 
conveyed the party to the Island. Sutherland was accordingly 






.^..^^ a tailor (an elector) having absented himself from his work- 
shop for an unusual period, his son, who was not duly initiated m 
the mysteries of electioneering, thinking that his father had changed 
his place of business, but had omitted to remove the implements 
of his trade, took his layboard to the tavern, and placed it before 
him on the table, in presence of the assembled company. 


In 1837, King William IV. died, and the Magistrates and Council 
of Anstruther-Wester, at the suggestion of Mr. Conolly, voted an 
address of condolence to Queen Adelaide, which he prepared and 
transmitted to his Grace the Duke of Wellington for presentation. 
Some time afterwards his Grace acknowledged receipt of the address 
by a holograph letter, and enclosing Her Majesty's answer. Now, 
although there is nothing worthy of particular notice m the 
Duke'sletter^erse, yet, being wo^ a simple acknowledgment by a 
secretary, or even one written by a secretary and signed by his 
Grace, but holograph of that illustrious warrior and statesman, it 
is thou^^ht not unworthy of preservation, and it is therefore here 
given, in the form of a fac simile, assuming that it may gratify the 
curiosity of some of our readers. 

The answer enclosed, is as follows : — 

Bushy House, 
London, July 20th, 1837. 

^ ' I have not failed to submit the address of kind condo- 

lence from the Magistrates, Treasurer, Councillors, and Town Clerk of the 
Koval Borough of Anstruther-Wester, to Queen Adelaide, and am honoured 
bv Her Maiesty's commands to express how consolatory to the Queens 
feelings has been this proof of attachment to Herself and of respect to the 
memory of the late King. 

I have the honour to be, 

My Lord Duke, 
Your Grace's obedient humble Servant, 


His Grace the Duke of Wellington. 

Passing to a very different subject,— On 1st July, 1837, a sad 
accident happened to a pleasure party at the Island of May, by 
which thirteen persons, chiefly young women, were drowned, and 
it became the duty of Mr. Conolly, as Procurator-Eiscal of the 
district, to investigate the circumstances of this disaster. After 
taking a precognition of witnesses, he obtained a warrant for the 
apprehension of John Sutherland, the master of the boat which 
c(mveyed the party to the Island. Sutherland was accordingly 

c:=t^^<^ (J^t:^ 


yZe^it.6^€-,^^^^^ ^^^t:;^*^^^'^^^-^^'^^ 


appreliended, and examined before Greorge Darsie, Esq., one of 
His Majesty's Justices of Peace, but liberated on finding bail to 
appear to answer to a charge of culpable homicide. 

Mr. Conolly reported the case to the Crown lawyers at Edin- 
burgh, and on the 15th of March, 1838, the accused was tried 
before the High Court of Justiciary. 

The indictment charged him with culpably and recklessly taking 
into his boat, at Cellardyke, sixty-five persons, including seven of a 
crew, with the intention of proceeding with them to the Isle of 
May, six miles distant — that this was a greater number than 
the boat, measuring 36 feet in length, by 12 feet 2 inches in 
breadth, could carry with safety — that by such overloading the 
crew were prevented from working and managing the boat, and in 
place of landing the passengers and crew at the " Stand " or 
" Altar Stones," as he ought to have done, he culpably proceeded 
to the Creek called " Kirkenhaven," where he attempted to 
land them, although there was a considerable swell of the sea, 
or surge, setting in at that place. That the boat being only 
propelled with four oars, in place of six or eight, these were 
insufficient to push her through the eddies and broken water which 
she encountered, — she hence became unmanageable, and was driven 
against the rocks on the side of the entrance of the creek, and 
was swamped and sunk, and thirteen persons were thrown into the 
sea and drowned. The names of the parties who suffered were : — 

Margaret Taylor, Mary Skinner or Wilson, 

Magdalene Young, James "Wilson, an infant; 

Catherine Andrews, Euphemia Stevenson, 

Ann Anderson, Euphemia Anderson, 

Janet Muir, Margaret Carstairs, 

Mary Bell or Wilson, Isabel BuUer, 

and Jean Brown. 
To the charge John Sutherland pled " Not G-uilty," and after 
a few witnesses had been examined, the Lord Advocate consented 
to withdraw the charge and liberate the prisoner. 

Notwithstanding the prisoner's discharge, the Court highly com- 
mended the Crown counsel and agents for bringing forward the 
case for trial, for otherwise the public mind would not have been 
satisfied, seeing so many persons had been suddenly deprived of 


One moonlight winter's evening, Mr. Conolly attended a meeting of 
the Town Council of Crail, of which Burgh he was Clerk, and having 
got through the business he proceeded to walk home to Anstruther, 
about four miles. It happened, however, that an Anstruther post-chaise 


was about to return by the same road; Mr. Conolly arranged with t)ie 
driver to obtain a seat in it. In proceeding on the road the driver had 
become drowsy, and pulling the wrong rein, drew the horses and carriage 
to the south side of the I'oad, a little to the westward of Crail, and threw 
them over an embankment of considerable height into a field. The 
sensation felt when the carriage wheels first began to sink may not be 
easily described ; in a moment, the horses and carriage were capsized, 
and the inmate of the latter along with them. The driver, now wide 
awake, sprang on the necks of his horses to prevent them rising and 
dragging the carriage, till Mr. Conolly should get out ; but this was 
no easy matter, for the joinings of the chaise were so strained and 
twisted, that the door on the uppermost side could not be opened, 
and he feared to break the glass lest it should startle the horses. 
But by dint of perseverance he at last got egress, creeping out at the 
uppermost side. Mr. Conolly and the driver then walked to Anstru- 
ther with the horses, leaving the broken carriage. This was the fii-st 
of a series of providential escapes from peril, for which Mr. Conolly 
expressed himself truly thankful. 

Some years after this, a second event occurred on the same Crail 
road, of a no less alarming character. Mr. Conolly was walking to 
Anstruther alone, when he was overtaken by a furious madman, a 
tradesman in the neighbourhood. This person immediately fixed a 
quarrel on him, and working himself up to a high pitch of frenzy 
threatened Mr. Conolly with destruction. The situation was pecu- 
liar ; the pai-ties were alone ; Mr. Conolly was aware of the prover- 
bial cunning of the insane, and that their strength is in proportion 
to their fury. Had assistance not arrived, it is impossible to say 
what might not have happened, but at the appropriate moment, a 
gentleman on horseback came up, and rescued Mr. Conolly from the 
lunatic's hands. 

A third instance of great danger, from which, in the good provi- 
dence of God, Mr. Conolly was happily delivered, was that of a 
lightning stroke. It happened after this manner : — On the 8th of 
August, 1835, Mr. Conolly was sitting in his room at Ansti'uther- 
Wester, about eleven o'clock at night, occupied in reading, when his 
attention was arrested by distant peals of thunder. The storm appeared 
to approach nearer and nearer, and some very vivid flashes of lightning, 
being instantly followed by astounding reports, he felt certain that the 
electric cloud was vei-y near, probably suspended over the town; 
and in order to allay the apprehensions of his wife, who was then con- 
fined to bed, by severe indisposition, in the next room, he laid down 
his book, and walked across the lobby to her apartment. He had not 
been there one minute, when the house was struck by the lightning, 
and a terrific report followed. The house was filled with smoke, 
accompanied by a strong sulphurou.s smell. He comforted his wife 
by stating that the danger was now over, and that they need fear no 
second stroke, for the wind would carry the cloud northward, and the 
next stroke would be a mile or two distant, and so it happened ; but 
he could not help asking himself at the same time, although he and 

liis wife bad escaped, " were tlie cliildreii and sevvauts all alive ?" 
To ascertain this was the work of a moment. He flew to their rooms, 
and was glad to find them all safe, though in a state of conster- 
nation not easily described. His next anxiety regarded the safety 
of the house ; was it split and rendered dangerous 1 was it on fire 1 
or was it only slightly injured ? Having satisfied himself on these 
points, he proceeded to investigate with a view to discover where the 
electric fluid had entered. This proved to be chiefly in the roof, near 
the western chimney-stalk, where an opening had been made, and the 
slates and timber displaced to the extent of between 2 and 3 feet 
square. He found too, that the fluid had burst open and splintered 
the o-arret door, in order to reach (in obedience to the law of attrac- 
tion)" the iron railing of the stair. This it followed from the top of 
the house to the bottom, and on coming to the lowest or scroll step, 
having a conductor no farther, it exploded, and struck off the scroll, 
throwing the fragments of several pounds weight each, upon the 
lobby table. But though the larger portion of the electric fluid 
had entered in this way, a part appeared also to have come down the 
chimney, for on returning to the room where he had been reading, he 
found the grate in the fire-place thrown on the hearth, and the candle 
that had been lit, extinguished. After witnessing these extraordi- 
nary manifestations of the electric force, and thinking how nearly 
he had escaped contact with it, he felt then, and has often felt 
since, a deep debt of gratitude to an Unseen Hand for his won- 
derful preservation. For, it will be observed, if he had continued 
to read a moment longer, in place of passing as he did, into his wife's 
apartment, he would probably have been killed, either by the light- 
ning which threw the grate upon the hearth and extinguished the 
lighted candle, or in passing through the lobby, by that other por- 
tion of the fluid which struck off the stones, and crossed his path 
in the lobby. Indeed, he could not see how he could have escaped, 
had his passing through the lobby been delayed longer than it was. 
It appeared that the thunder-cloud had been very near the earth, and 
highly charged with electricity ; for the lightning struck again at a 
short distance h\ Anstruther Loan, near the toll-bar, and shattered a 
post in the ropewalk ; and passing on towards the mansion-house of 
Airdrie, about two miles distant, struck a third time, and split a 
large tree into many pieces. 

In a few days after this unusual occurrence, Mr. Conolly wrote to 
the late Dr. Forbes, Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University 
of Edinburgh, stating the facts, and requesting the favour of his advice 
as to erecting lightning conductors in connexion with the house. Soon 
afterwards he received an answer from that gentleman thanking him 
for his interesting communication, and kindly giving him his opinion 
in reference to afiixing the conductors. And in accordance with this 
advice, he had them put up, where they have remained ever since. 
The rods are formed of bars of iron about |ths of an inch in diame- 
ter, pointed at the top, and extending from about 2 or 3 feet above 
the chimney top to the foot of the gable wall, and thence carried 


below ground to a distance of 6 or 8 feet away from the foundation 
of the house. These lightning rods are fastened into the gable by- 
glass holdfasts, very thick and massive, cast according to a model 
sent from Newcastle, They have a hole or an aperture at the outer 
end, which projects about one foot beyond the wall, through which 
aperture the lightning rod passes, and is kept in its position about 
12 inches from the building. Along the eaves of the house and 
all round it, Mr. Conolly had a copper ribbon connected with the 
lightning rods for conducting the electric fluid thereto, on whatever 
part of the roof it might fall. No thunder-stroke has affected the 
building since the conductors were put up upwards of thirty years 
ago. Dr. Forbes regularly adverted to this startling occurrence in 
his class for several years, and did Mr. Conolly the honour of reading 
portions of his letter to the young gentlemen attending his prelec- 
tions. It may be added, that the mutilated and disfigured scroll-step 
of the stair has been allowed to remain precisely in the same con- 
dition it was left by the electric fluid, as a faithful remembrancer to 
the family of a marvellous deliverance from peril, by a kind Pro- 


In 1859 Mr. Conolly published the Life of the Right Rev. David 
Low, D.D., Bishop of Ross, Argyle, and Moray. The life of a Pre- 
late of the long-depressed Episcopal Church in Scotland, could scarcely 
be expected to afford a sufficiency of incident to many beyond the 
immediate circle of his own friends, or the somewhat more extended 
number of those who " care for " the communion in which he had 
served. Neither by very remarkable transactions, nor literary pro- 
ductions, nor stirring, nor eventful enterprises, was the even current 
of his life so distinguished as to claim for his personal history any 
general or widely extended interest. Few men indeed, lived more 
retired and unostentatiously; few have used less effort to make them- 
selves a name in the world ; yet partly from certain peculiarities of 
mental organization, — partly from the importance of the events in 
connection with the Church which occurred during his long and 
devoted ministrations, — there are few individuals probably of so 
apparently obscure and isolated a condition whose names have been 
more widely known, or whose influence has been more extended. 
And besides this, his having been the last remaining link between 
the present generation and the proscribed and persecuted clergy of 
the last century, — the last servant of the Scottish Episcopal Church, 
whose ministrations commenced before the repeal of those " penal 
laws" which so late as 1792 rendered it felonious to officiate to more 
than four persons at one time, subjecting the clergy to imprisonment 
or banishment for infringing this law of a Christian Government 
against Christian ordinances, rendered Bishop Low still nxore uu 


ol)ject of interest and veneration, as connecting in his own person the 
Scottish Church in her deepest depression, with her present compara- 
tive prosperity. It was desirable accordingly, that such a man as 
Bishop Low should not be suffered to pass away without some 
attempt being made to produce a more than ephemeral notice of him. 

This biography may be summarised as follows : — ^Bishop Low was 
born at Brechin, in November, 1768, of respectable parentage. He 
was educated in his younger years at Brechin, and at an early age 
entered Marischal College, Aberdeen. On 5th December, 17S7, 
he was ordained Deacon, by Bishop Strachan, and put in charge 
of a non-juring congregation at Perth ; and in February, 1789, 
obtained the office of Priest. In September of the same year he 
was appointed incumbent of Pittenweem, with which was combined 
the charge of a congregation at CraO, where he did duty every third 
Sunday. In 1805 he made his first tour in the Highlands, with Mr. 
Walker, afterwards Bishop of Edinburgh, and again accompanied 
the Earl of Hardwicke in an extended tour through these districts, 
in 1810, In October, 1819, he was elected Bishop of Eoss and 
Argyll, and consecrated at Stirling, on 11th November following. 
In 1820 the Bishop's alma mater conferred on him the degree of 
LL.D. In 1823 he visited his diocese, and delivered his first charge 
to his clergy. In 1827 Bishop Low visited, at Paris, Dr. Luscombe, 
Bishop of the Anglican clergy and congregations in Prance. In 
1841 he assisted, along with the Archbishop of York, and the 
American Bishop of New Jersey, at the ceremony of the consecra- 
tion of the Parish Church at Leeds. In 1855 he subscribed £1000, 
iind subsequently £800 more — making £1800 in all, — to Trinity 
College, Grlenalmond. In 1847 he resigned the diocesan charge of 
Argyll and the Isles, and endowed the new see of the same name to 
the amount of £8000. In 1850 he definitely resigned the whole of 
his diocesan authority. He left £1200 to St. John's Chapel, Pitten- 
weem, where he had ministered for sixty-six years. He died in the 
Priory of Pittenweem, on 26th January, 1855, and was buried in its 
ground, according to his wish, as a Bishop, the body being robed iu 
canonicals, on 1st February following. 

Mr. Conolly's chief object, in this little work, seems to have been 
to convey in a form and style suitable to the humbler classes, par- 
ticularly of his own communion, some personal characteristics of 
the good Bishop as a Man; to let us see him as a friend, a neigh- 
bour, and a shrewd observer of human nature. The collection, 
which the volume contains, of Bishop Low's Jacobitical anecdotes 
and reminiscences, cannot fail to render it attractive to those for 
whose use it is designed. The worthy Prelate is indeed an inter- 
esting character. There was little of the romantic or adventurous 
in his life ; he was neither remarkable for his talents, nor distin- 
guished for his attainments, and yet there is something about him 
which awakens our interest and commands our admiration ; — an 
excellent and amiable man — afiiable, generous, and true-hearted, — 
a thorough and consistent gentleman, qualities before which, when 


combined, all delight to do homage. Of such characters, too, all 
like to hear and read. Every incident which tends to elucidate 
their peculiarities has its own interest, and he who gathers up the 
fragments, and presents them faithfully, confers a boon on his 
generation. As regards the manner in which his biographer has 
done his work, we may say, on the authority of good judges in the 
literary circles of Edinburgh, that, as a book of a peculiar kind, 
and not of so easy execution as many books of pretentious theme, 
— simple, familiar, kindly, and gossipy, — the Memoir of Bishop 
Low is a book that will live and be remembered, and brought up 
from time to time. Mr. Conolly has given us the Man in his en- 
tirety. A faithful full-length portrait is always the best. Along 
with the Bishop's life, Mr. Conolly presents us with an outline of 
the vicissitudes which have afflicted the Scottish Episcopal Church 
during the last hundred years, which is, of course, from a purely 
Prelatical stand-point, and will be, in its historical statements, 
received with some reservation by the general reader ; nevertheless 
it is executed in as impartial a manner as could have been expected. 
In recording an event, or telling an anecdote, Mr. Conolly descends 
into minute pai'ticulars, so that there is not the most remote possi- 
bility of any one misunderstanding him, or losing the point of the 
anecdote. Those who ^dsh to know the pedigree of Auld Eobin 
G-ray, and other particulars relative to that famous old ballad, will 
find them here, as well as much else that vdll interest and amuse 
them. The book is evidently the production of one who esteemed 
liighly the unostentatious habits of his late Diocesan, and who is, 
at the same time, an ardent and devoted member of the Church to 
which he belongs. Mr. Conolly had the good fortune of being one 
of the most valued of the Bishop's friends, and it is to this circum- 
stance we owe the instructive and amusing book he has written. 
His style is natural and easy, and while excellently suited to de- 
scribing a character illustrated by the wtues, it is no less adapted 
to the narrative of the pleasant humorous stories and hons-mots of 
an old chronicler, like the excellent Bishop, his friend and pastor. 

Mr. Conolly has not always felt as a Church-warden merely in 
the Bishop's company, nor has their conversation been only that 
of the Vestry. Nay, while Mr. Conolly traces, -ndth serious hand 
and a loving remembrance, the varied scenes through which his 
Bishop and friend passed, and the stormy -vdcissitudes which his 
Church experienced in the Bishop's time, and previously, he is not 
yet all in all the stern biographer. He relapses continually, and 
with ever recurring welcome on our part, into the familiar friend ; 
and the pages of sombre biography are ever and again made to glint 
with the sparkle of wit and quaint homely humour. 

Belonging to the party of the Scottish Episcopal Jacobites, the 
good Bishop represented, in our generation, a defined order of 
ideas ; but he had the tact of a man who had seen the world, and 
in his free intercourse with society, he learned to see the comic 
side of the opposition long kept up in Scotland to the House of 

21 ■ 

Hanover, aud was prone to tell stories to tlie disadvantage of that 
side, and in favour of the House of Stuart. We string together 
some of these odd illustrations of manners, which would have de- 
lighted Sir Walter Scott: — 

" One old gentleman, when told that his son had lapsed so f\ir 
as to accept the situation of superintendent of the hulks, said, ' It 
the lad had only told him he was anxious for a place, he believed he 
could have got him made hangman of Perth.' 

" The resolution adopted, with the good-will of the majority in 
most congregations after the death of Prince Charles, to introduce 
the prayers for the reigning family, left a minority of the old- 
fashioned people in extreme, though helpless indignation. All they 
could do was to keep shuffling their feet, and blowing their noses, 
whilst these prayers were said. Old Oliphant of Grask, kept at 
home by gout, on hearing of the backsliding of a particular clergy- 
man, who used to come to minister privately at Grask, and on 
these occasions was hospitably entertained, sent him the old surplice 
and gown, which he used to keep in the house for these purposes, 
with a pointed request that he would never attempt to show face 
there again." 

" It happened that Greorge the Third took his unfortunate illness 
soon after the Jacobites commenced praying for him. ' Te see 
what ye've done,' said an old stickler to her clergyman ; ' the 
honest man has never had a day to do weel, ever since ye took him 
by the hand,' " 

The shifts and stratagems were numerous by which Jacobite 
lairds had to conceal their opinions from the officers of the Crown. 
Many such discovered a wise discretion in dealing with the English, 
in the dark and difficult days after Culloden fight. We have two 
or three amusing anecdotes on that point, culled from the table- 
talk of the worthy Bishop : — 

" The same Oliphant of Grask, for instance, had the favourite 
toast ' The King,' and ' The Restoration,' both of them excusable, 
as referring to legitimate objects, yet always pronounced in such a 
significant manner as to leave no doubt that he meant ' James,' not 
' Greorge,' and referred to a potential, not a past restoration. One 
day, when an officer of the army was dining with him, he felt some- 
how rather nervous about giving the latter toast ; so, after ' The 
King' had been given and accepted by the frR^o, in their respective 
senses, he propounded ' The King again, Sir ; ye can have no objec- 
tions to that.' 

" A party of English troops being stationed at Peterhead, under 
the command of a young cornet, and he having received some 
civilities from the inhabitants, resolved to give a party in return ; 
and, in spite of the remonstrances of some Whig friends, he re- 
solved to include in the invitation Bishop Dunbar. The worthy 
Bishop tried to excuse himself, on the ground of age and infir- 
mities, and because there might be political toasts given, in 
wliich he could not join, but the cornet triumphed over every 

scruple. After dinner, 'The King' being given as a toast, Bishop 
Dunbar quietly qualified the noun by adding the word' rightful.' 
' How, Sir !' cried the young officer, ' our rightful King ! By 
Jove, that is not King Greorge !' ' Very well,' said the Bishop ; 
' you see, gentlemen, our landlord is of opinion that King George 
is not " our rightful" sovereign, and certainly I have no wish to 
dispute it.' " 

The good Bishop had a large store of such anecdotes. He knew 
his countrymen in their broadest humours and quaintest aspects, 
and in that period of transition from clan life to civilization which 
Sir "Walter Scott loved to paint. These men of a past generation 
Bishop Low delighted to talk of, in the confidence of filberts and 
elaret, with his banker and church-warden. Some oi the more 
national and characteristic of these stories we present in a bundle : 

" Sir Michael Malcolm, who was noted for having descended to the 
trade of a joiner in IjotkIou, and by virtue of his Jacobite associa- 
tions, was on the scaffold with Lords Kilmarnock and Balmerino as 
their undertaker ; on which occasion an English lady of some fortune, 
who was present as a spectator, fell so much in love with him as in 
time to become his wife. Sir Michael, however, with a tine outside, 
had a common-place mind, and was devoid of polite learning. So 
one day, when presiding at a Justice Court at Kirkcaldy, he was 
rather hard tested by a sharp-witted shoemaker, whom he was con- 
demning to a fortnight's imprisonment for some trivial offience. ' I 
want to know,' said the culprit, addressing Sir Michael, ' what is the 
meaning of those " Latin " words in the sentence 1 ' ' Give that fellow 
two months more for " contempt of court," ' cried the conscious 

" Equally good in its way was a story of General Anstruther of 
Airdrie, who represented the East of Fife Burghs at the time of the 
Porteous riots, and gained such extreme unpopularity by voting with 
the Government against the city of Edinburgh, that, having to cross 
from Fife to England, he deemed it most prudent to avoid the usual 
route, and to get a couple of fishermen to take him from Earlsferry 
across to North Berwick. On the passage he got into conversation 
with the two men: ' Well, I suppose, you fellows are all great smug- 
glers T—' Oh, ay,' said one of them, 'but I dinna think we ever 
smuggled a General before ! ' 

Of a different stamp, partaking more of the humorous than the 
witty, was a legend, regarding a Mrs. Balfour, of Denbog, in 
Fife, who flourished about 1770. The nearest neighbour of Den- 
bog was a Mr. David Paterson, who had the character of being 
a good deal of a humorist. One day when Paterson called, he 
found Mrs. Balfour engaged in one of her half-yearly brewings, 
it being the custom in those days, each March and October, to 
make as much ale as would serve for the ensuing six months. She 
was in a great bother about bottles, her stock of which fell short of 
the number required, and asked Mr. Paterson if he could lend her 
any, ' No/ says Paterson, ' but I think I could bring you a few 


gvey-beards that would hold a good deal; perhaps that woiild do.' 
The lady assented, and appointed a day on which he should come 
again, and bring his grey-beards with him. On the proper day Mr. 
Paterson made his appearance in Mrs. Balfour's little parlour. 'Veil, 
Mr. Paterson, have you brought your grey -beards V 'Oh yes ; 
they're down staii-s waiting for you.' ' How many 1 ' ' Nae less 
than ten.' ' Well, I hope they're pretty large, for really I find I 
have a good deal more ale than I have bottles for?' ' I'se warrant 
ye, mem, ilk ane o' them will baud twa gallons.' ' Oh, that will do 
extremely well." Down goes the lady. ' I left them in the dining- 
room,' said Paterson. When the lady went in she found ten of the 
most bibulous lairds in the north of Fife. She at once perceived the 
joke, and entered heartily into it. After a good hearty laugh had 
gone round, she said she thought it would be as well to have dinner 
before filling the gi-ey-beards ; and it was accordingly arranged that 
the gentlemen should take a ramble, and come in to dinner at two 
o'clock. The extx^a ale is understood to have been duly disposed of. 

" Ross of Pitcalnie, a broken-down Jacobite laircl, was very desirous 
of raising a little money, which, in the state uf his credit, was no easy 
matter. He told a friend that he thought he should get it froiu 
a Mr. Colquhouu Grant, a law agent, although he bore no great 
reputation for liberality. The friend of course, was incredulous, but 
Pitcalnie proceeded to make the attempt. Mr. Grant on being asked 
for the loan of £4:0, pleaded that he should have been happy to oblige 
his old friend, but, unfortunately, the whole of his money was locked 
up in investments and banks, in such a way as that he had no spare 
funds. Ross appeared to accept the excuse, and proceeded to draw^ 
the conversation to the affair of IT-IS, in wliich both he and Grant 
had borne arms. He dwelt particularly on the prowess which Grant 
had shown at Gladsmuir (the battle of Preston), attributing to him 
the whole merit of the victory, inasmuch as he had captured the can- 
non of Sir John Cope, on which everything depended. The astute 
north country writer waxed quite warm under this judicious treat- 
ment, and when Pitcalnie arose to depart, he asked him to stop a 
moment, till he went ' ben the house.' ' I just remembered,' said he, 
in returning, ' that a little money had been left in a desk there, and 
here it is very much at your service.' Pitcalnie appeared exultingly 
before his incredulous friend, and explained how the miracle had been 
achieved. * Stay a wee,' said he, ' this is forty out of Gladsmuir ; 
I've Fa'kirk i' my pouch yet — I wadna gie it for aughty.' " 

These anecdotes have a yet finer flavour. The story of Lord 
Nairne comprises all that is to be said in the vexed question of reason 
and instinct as applicable to convivial life : — 

" The exiled Lord JSTairne took very ill in France with the sober 
habits of the people, so difierent from the bacchanal ianism of his own 
country. Being at length joined by a few more in the same circum- 
stances as himself, he got them all assembled x'ound him at dinner 
one day, and when the cloth was removed, addressed them as follows: 
' I canna express to ye gentlemen, the satisfaction in getting men of 


some sense aboot me, after being plagued for a twelvemonth wi' a set 
of fules, nae better than brute beasts, that winna drink mair than 
what serves them.' " 

" A noble Lord of the middle of the last century, resident near 
Edinburgh, was a man of weak intellect, though he sometimes said 
a clever thing. He was at one time detained in the Canongate 
Jail, as men are now kept in Lunatic Asylums, that he might be 
out of harm's way. Some English officers visiting the prison, asked 
him, with some surprise, how he got there ? ' Much as you got 
into the army,' said the Earl ; * less by my own deserts than by the 
interest of my friends.' 

The figure of a witty Mr. Hamilton starts into vivid life, on one 
or two pages of the Bishop's narrative. Here are two or three 
touches of his quality : — 

" On one occasion Mr. Hamilton was visiting at the house of a 
friend whose wife was rather notorious for her extreme economy. 
The first day there was a pigeon pie for dinner, which was but 
slightly partaken of. The second day it appeared at breakfast, 
dinner, and supper, and on the third also ; but on the remainder, 
now reduced to very small proportions, appearing the fourth day, 
Robbie could stand it no longer, but exclaimed, on seeing it, much 
to the amusement of the guests, ' Hech, sirs! that pie mak's me an 
auld man.' " 

" It is also related of Robbie, that, hearing some thieves rummag- 
ing in his drawers, in the middle of the night, he said quietly, ' Hand 
ye busy, lads ; baud ye busy ! an' if ye find ony siller there i' the 
dark, it's mair than I can do in daylight.' On another occasion, 
all other resources being exhausted, he had a comj)any assembled 
to purchase the trees around his house, and, as usual, in similar 
circumstances, it was hinted to him that it would be well to pro- 
duce a bottle or two of brandy, to inspire competition. ' Lord, 
have a care o' your daft heads,' exclaimed the poor laird ; ' if I had 
two or three bottles o' brandy, d'ye think I'd sell my trees!' " 

" Of the shrewd, sharp sayings for which Scotland is famous above 
most other countries, there is a specimen in another of the Prelate's 
favourite anecdotes : — 

" There was a Dowager Lady Sinclair of Longfonnacus, who 
rented of Sir Robert Anstruther of Balcaskie the old mansion- 
house or Place of Carnbee, situated close to the church of that 
parish, but now pulled down. Lady Sinclair was a decided Jacobite 
and staunch Episcopalian, and attended regularly the chapel at 
Pittenweem belonging to that persuasion. Her landlord. Sir 
Robert, on the contrary, was a Presbyterian, and equally regular 
in his attendance at the parish church of Carnbee, though the 
minister in that day was not very remarkable for his powers as a 
preacher. Sir Robert and Lady Sinclair happened to meet one 
Sunday as they returned home from their respective churches. 
After the usual salutations, Sir Robert said, laughingly, ' Is not 
this very daft-like in us baith, Lady Sinclair ? — in you to trail 


down every Sabbatk-day to Pittenweem, when ye bide close to tlie 
kirk — and in me to gang up to Carnbee, when I am sae much 
nearer Pittenweem ? Suppose we were to differ for a wee while^ 
and you to go to the kirk, and I to the chapel.' ' Na, na,' replied 
the lady, ' I am muckle obliged to ye, Sir Eobert ; if ye please, 
we'll just bide as we are ; but I see it's quite true what folks 
say, that ye'll never catch Sir Eoberb Aaistruther makin' a bad 
bargain.' " 

If not true wit, there is a touch of native salt in this, which is of 
genuine interest ; of far deeper interest, indeed, than mere word- 
play, however bright and clever. We give one other batch of these 
anecdotes : — 

" In a letter to the Eev. J). Mackenzie, Bishop Low relates the 
following anecdote: — 'Mr. Cruickshank lately had occasion to 
read the funeral service, in private, over the corpse of a poor old 
woman, in the house of another poor old woman, who was a 
Presbyterian, and a near relative of the deceased, who, it seems, 
had been for some time a burden upon her. When Mr. Cruick- 
shank was throwing a little mould upon the body, and pronouncing 
the solemn and impressive words — " Earth to earth, dust to dust, 
ashes to ashes" — the old Presbyterian woman flew at him, crying 
out, " Hand yer hand, sir ! what are ye aboot ? Are ye gaun to 
raise the dead wi' yer cantrips?" ' The worthy clergyman's remark 
was, — ' I verily believe the poor Presbyterian imagined that I was 
to bring to life, and to burden her for another six weeks with her 
dead relation.' " 

" The Earl of Stair had a Jacobite servant, whose misfortune it 
was, one morning, to report that a favourite horse of his master's 
was found hanged in the stable at Newliston. His lordship having 
expressed great surprise as to how the horse could have hanged 
himself, not without implying some suspicion of carelessness on 
John's part, that worthy at last ventured to remark,— 'It is strange, 
my Lord, and the puir brute had naething to do either with the 
Revolution or the massacre of Griencoe.' " 

" A minister was preaching in a country kirk, one afternoon, in 
the hay season, and the weather being warm and the sermon none 
of the most rousing, the greater part of the congregation fell asleep. 
Waxing wroth, on observing this, he rebuked them sharply, and 
added, — ' Almost the only person not asleep is that puir idiot in 
the corner there.' ' Ay,' says the imbecile, ' an if I hadna been a 
puir idiot, I wud hae been asleep tae.' " 

Without great pretensions, Mr. ConoUy has succeeded, in his 
Life of Bishop Low, in producing not only a good biography, but 
an interesting and useful book, at once illustrative of the dignified 
clergyman and the Man, as well as the times in which he lived. 



In 1861 Mr. Coiiolly publislied the Life and "Writiugs of William 
Tenuaut, LL.D., Professor of Oriental Languages in the University 
of St. Andrews. The subject of this biographical sketch was born 
at Anstruther, in 1781. 

From an early and continued acquaintance with Professor Tennant, 
Mr. Conolly has been enabled to present to the world the biography 
of an eminent linguist and poet. The Professoi-'s history is traced 
with care from the days of his childhood ; for even then the effect 
of his being unable to engage in the oiit-door spoi'ts with his 
school-fellows through the lameness which compelled him to use 
crutches, drew his attention towards pleasures of a permanent and 
useful character. From the time that we find our poetical hero 
as he proceeded to school, so provoking the village blacksmith, 
that he chased him with a red hot iron till the schoolboy was forced 
to jump into a pool and splash water on him with his crutch in 
defence, up to the time that we find him in St. Andrews College 
translating Greek Odes as exercises, there is nothing remarkable in 
his history. 

We need hardly say that the life of a purely literary man is seldom 
one of marked incident or adventure. It generally partakes a good 
deal of the quiet uniformity of that of the good old Vicar of Wake- 
field and his family. " All our adventures," says he, " were by the 
fireside, and all our migrations from the blue bed to the brown." 
Still keeping in view the great and laHting influence exercised by 
such men, it is matter of interest and instruction to know something 
of the battles waged and the victories won, ere—ehicedet egregia virtua 
— they attained the proud position of guides and instructors of man- 
kind. This is remarkably so, when as in the case of our poet, they 
have to rise from a comparatively low estate, to overcome by the 
unconquerable force of genius, the drawbacks, the almost insurmount- 
able barriers of poverty, and to toil on, uncertain of the reward — 
nay, tempted ever and anon to give up in despair — to succumb to 
difficulties that seem only to increase in numbers as they are resisted. 

The parents of Mr. Tennant were in a respectable position, and 
were reckoned superior to those of their own rank in point of education 
and general attainments. The circumstances of his parents, and bis 
own physical deformity may be said to have been predisposing causes 
of the tenour of his future life. He could not hope to earn his bread 
by manual labour, and his necessary seclusion by throwing the mind 
back upon itself, was the foundation for that mental cultivation which 
enabled him to gain his brightest laurels. In company with Dr. 
Chalmers, the celebrated Divine, his fellow-townsman, he attended 
the burgh school of Anstruther for sevei'al years, making very satis- 
factory progress. When between fourteen and fifteen years of age, he 
entered as a student at St. Andrews, where he continued for two 
sessions, his father's means forbidding a lonaer attendance. Here we 


liu ve the first dawning of liis poetic powei- in the shape of translations 
of G-reek Odes as class exercises. Compelled to give up his University- 
career at the end of his second session, he returned to his father's house 
in 1801 ; but nothing daunted at his hard fate, he wi-ought diligently 
and unrepiningly ab home. Herodotus, Thucydides, Livy, Homer, 
Virgil, yielded their secret beauties to his determined scrutiny, and a 
goodly number of modern authors in foreign languages were compelled 
to follow their example. 

A year or two after this involuntary rustication, Mr. Tennant 
accepted the situation of clerk to his brother, a corn-factor, some time 
in Glasgow, and afterwards in Anstruther. His disposition always 
buoyant and cheerful, seems to have x-eudily adaj^ted itself to his new 
position. With the ledger and business by day, and the classics and 
other kindred studies by night, lie thus sings joyously in 1803, when 
nineteen years of age — 

Not twice'teii times to me the sun 
His circle of the year hath run ; 
Green are my days, and lone I dwell 
Down in the windings of tlie dell. 
There, far aloof from guilt and guile. 
As in a bless' d Hesperian isle, 
I live, and peaceful hear from far 
The din of high ambition's war. 
Each hour that to the statesman bringa 
Sad news, with torment on his wings, 
Still opens to my soul a treasure 
Of rich, exhaustless, golden pleasure ; 
And these briglit hills that rise around 
My dwelling, with a lively bound, 
Form a strong barrier round about 
To the wild waves that rage without. 

The " strong barrier," however, like many another, proved but 
frail, and the wild waves came in, raging and swelling. The affairs of 
his brother became embarrassed, and his creditors not beinjij able to 
secure the principal laid hold of the innocent and unsuspecting clerk 
— " a proceeding which," says Mr. Conolly, " caused him uns])eakable 
disti-ess." How altered his tone now, in 1 808 : — 

All day I musing sit and brood 

Over my dark, uncertain fate, 
Divining in incertitude, 

What God hath fis'd my future fate. 

And when on bed I he reclin'd. 
Hid in the night's world-wrapping gloom, 

I restless am, with musing mind, 
And ponder still my future doom. 

Oft are the dark night-watches spent 
Till sleep disturb the thoughtful theme ; 

E'en then my spirit is intent. 
And questions every dubious dream. 

And yet it was during this time of trouble and darkness, that a 
considerable portion, at least, of one of the most laughter-moving 
books in our language was composed. "AnsterFair" contains one 


stanza which identifies it with the period of the piecediiig wailings, 
The opening lines of the concluding canto are heavy with melan 
choly — 

Gay-hearted I began my playful theme, 

But with a heavy heart I end my song ; 
For I am sick of life's delirious dream, — 

Sick of this world, and all its weignt of wi'oug. 

Even now, when I attempt to stream 

My merry verse, as I was wout, along ; 
'Tween every sportive thought there now and then 

Flows a sad, serious tear upon my pen. 

It would almost seem as if Tennant found refuge from the unde- 
served fate that had befallen him in revelling in the inexhaustible 
and humorous combinations of the real and imaginative which started 
forth at his bidding. Be that as it mav, his days of trial drew to a 
close. In 1812, " Anster Fair" made its appearance quietly and un- 
ostentatiously. It soon asserted a place for its author iu the world 
of letters, and was the means of gaining him several literary and dis- 
tinguished friends. His course was henceforth steadily upward and 

While beginning to acquire the laurels of poetical reputation, in the 
autumn of 1813, Tennant was px-eferred to the vacant office of school- 
master of Dunino, a parish situated between Anstruther and St. 
Andre v/s, one of the teachers of which, the Right Rev. Dr. John 
Strahan, Lord Bishop of Toronto, died on the first of Nov. 1867, in his 
90th year. This was an appointment in many respects suitable to the 
feelings of Mr, Tennant, and had been the summit of his youthful 
wishes. He gave himself to the discharge of his duties in his new 
and responsible sphere with that zeal and assiduity which had always 
characterised him. But while he sedulously sought the improvement 
and advantage of his pupils, he did not neglect the continuous instruc- 
tion of his own mind by engaging in his old and favourite studies. 
Attaining access to the library of the University of St. Andrews, he 
was now enabled to procure access to an extensive collection of 
works on various subjects, and to make himself acquainted with 
every department of literature. But the study of languages Avas 
still his favourite theme, and here he added to his knowledge of 
Hebrew, an acquaintance with the Arabic, Syriac, and Persian lan- 
guages. Poetry, too, was here cultivated with all his former avidity 
and ardour. Though at Dunino Mr. Tennant's income did not 
admit of hazarding much in literary speculation, being barely forty 
pounds a year, yet he was enabled to publish at his own cost a second 
and revised edition of " Anster Fair " in a form and style of typo- 
graphy much superior to the former. The poem now arrested the 
attention of Lord Jeffrey, as the first edition had done that of Lord 
Woodhouselee, and the former in a generous notice in the Edinburgh 
Review, in November 1814, fully blazoned forth its merits to the 

Mr. Conolly notices Tennant's principal poems in the order of their 
publication, giving an analysis of each, illustrated by occasional 


extracts. We agree with him in opinion, that " Anster Fair," the 
earliest of the Professor's poems, is also his best, and that upon which 
his poetic fame will mainly rest. It possesses the charm of drawing 
the reader to it, alike by its plot and general power and skill, more 
decidedly by its smooth flow of numbers, and uninterrupted sweetness 
of versification, altogether irrespective of its humour and drollery. 
Take the following as a sample of the many beauties to be found so 
plentifully scattered among the general mass of fun, frolic, and 
grotesque humour which mainly constitute the poem. It is the 
merry dawn of Anstruther market-day : — 

I wish I had a cottage snug and neat 

Upon the top of many-f ountain'd Ide, 
That I might thence, in holy fervour, greet 

The bright- gown' d morning tripping up her side ; 
And when the evening sun's gay-buskin'd feet 

Walk on the blue wave of the ^gean tide, 
Oh ! I would kneel me down and worship there, 
The God who gamish'd out a world so bright and fair. 

The saffron-elbow'd morning, up the slope 

Of heav'n canaries in her jewell'd shoes, 
And throws o'er Kellie Law's sheep-nibbl'd top 

Her golden aprun, dripping kindly dews, 
And never, since ehe first began to hop 

Up heav'n's blue causeway, of her beams profuse, 
Shone there a dawn so glorious and so gay, 
As shines the merry dawn of Anster market-day. 

Round through the vast circumference of sky 
One speck of small cloud cannot eye behold, 
Save in the east som.e fleeces, bright of dye, 

That stripe tlie hem of heav'n with woolly gold, 
Whereon are happy angels wont to lie 
, Lolling, in amaranthine flow'rs enroll' d. 

That they m.ay spy the precious Hght of God 
Flung from tlie blessed east o'er the fair earth abroad 

The fair earth smiles through aU her boundless range, 
Heaving her green hills high to greet the beam ; 

City and village, steeple, cot, and gi-ange, 
Gilt as with Nature's purest leaf -gold seem ; 

The heaths, and upland muirs, and fallows, change 
Their baiTon brown into a ruddy gleam, 

And, on ten thousand dew-bent leaves and sprays. 

Twinkle ten thousand suns and fling their pretty rays. 

Up from their rnests, and fields of tender corn, 

Full merrily the little skylarks spring. 
And, on their dew-bedabbl'd pinions borne, 

Mount to the heav'n's blue key-stone flickering ; 
, They turn their plume-soft bosoms to the morn, 

And hail the genial light, and cheer'ly sing ; 
Echo the gladsome liills and valleys round. 
As half the bells of Fife ring loud and swell the sound. 

In 1816 Mr. Tennant was transferred from the schoolmastership of 
Bunino to that of Lasswade, near Edinburgh, where he remained 
enjoying the society of several distinguished literary men in the metro- 
polis, till 1819, when he was elected teacher of classical and oriental 
languages in Dollar Academy. There he held an appointment exactly 
suitable to his taste and inclinations, and distinguished liimself not 


more by tlie profundity of his own knowledge of the ancient lan- 
guages, than by his success in imparting it to others. Here he 
remained till 1834, when he was appointed to the Chair of Oriental 
Languages in St. Mary's College, St. Andrews, by his steady friend, 
Lord Jeffrey, then Lord- Advocate for Scotland. This honourable 
position he held with credit to himself and advantage to others, till 
1848, when he was compelled by a stomach disease of long standing, 
totally to discontinue his professional pursuits. 

The following extract may be taken as a specimen of Professor 
Tennant's higher and somewhat ornate style as a prose writer. It is 
from a Lecture on " The Poetry of the Hebrews," his darling theme. 

" We must be at home in the Holy Land, by studying her language, 
ei'e we well can enjoy Holy Writ. That the sweet perfume of the 
roses of Sharon may be most deliciously enjoyed, it is necessary to 
place tliem, in fancy, at least, in their own delightful vale. The 
ckistering flowers in the gardens of Engedi do only in their own 
sweet native soil scatter their just and fullest fragrance. These ani- 
mated compositions cannot be perused in their native language with- 
out being, by all men of judgment and taste, admired; they cannot 
be admired without communicating to the soul some infusion of the 
divine fragrance that exhales, like the breath of Paradise, from the 
garden of their hallowed pages. In thus speaking, gentlemen, and 
in thus conceiving of the beauties of Hebi^ew poetry, I use no bor- 
rowed, or forced, or unfelt words of praise. It is from the heart that 
the commendation proceeds. Smitten at an early age ' with the love 
of sacred song,' I did not choose to rest satisfied with an excellent 
English translation ; but, by resorting to the perusal of the original, 
endeavoured to penetrate within the veil of translation, and to see 
the cherub of beauty and sublimity in her unveiled and native love- 
liness. I came to it unallured by any pi'ospect of reward — by any 
hope of emoiument or secular advantage — uninduced by anything 
saving its own divine attractions, — to drink of wisdom at its purest 
source ; to peruse the pi-udential sayings of Solomon, the enraptured 
devotion of David, the sublime apostrophes of Isaiah, in their own 
simple powerful language. Truly, I may say, ' From the flower till 
the gi'ape was ripe hath my heart delighted in them ;' and as that 
study then, and at all times, ever brought along with it its fulness of 
instruction, satisfaction, and improvement, — so also, by the crowning 
favour of Providence, it brought along with it iv -/.ai^oj durov, a ful- 
ness of reward which was little anticipated, the honourable employ- 
ment of now, from this chair, recommending to you what has so 
rejoiced myself, — a position for which I am indebted altogether to my 
devotedness to that study, and which I consider glorious chiefly as it 
enjoins upon me the duty, and affords me the opportunity of celebrat- 
ing its own praise, of proclaiming the excellence and recommending 
the advantages of a study so ennobling." 

We are only repeating Mr. Conolly, when we say, that as a linguist 
and distinguished philologist. Professor Tennant had few, if any supe- 
riors in his day, while in a knowledge of the Hebrew tongue and its 


cognate dialects, and a thorongli and appreciative acquaintance with 
what we may term the genius of Hebrew poetry and Oriental imagery, 
lie was altogether unrivalled ; nor are we sure that in this, his own 
])eculiar walk, the century has yet produced his equal. Who, then, 
can wonder that a man so gifted, with a heart altogether without 
guile, and in manner gentle, amiable, and cheerful, should have been 
beloved by every one, and almost idolised by his students. He was, 
iu truth, something more than a mere guide to the study of the 
Eastern languages — he was a warm and trustworthy counsellor and 
friend at any age and stage of life, when such is most needed. 

Much credit is due to Professor Tennant for having been among 
the first men in his position publicly to teach that a love of literature 
and the arts and sciences, instead of being incompatible with, and 
antagonistic to the piety and purity of clerical life, is, in truth, its 
fosterer and friend ; so is it gratifying to hear the distinguished 
Principal of that ancient seat of learning in which Professor Tennant 
thus taught (Dr. Tulloch), mindful of his old teacher's doctrine, 
boldly stating that '' there is room for leisure, and literature, and 
poetry, and art even, as we travel to Mount Zion. There is a meeting 
jjointfor all these elements of human culture and the one thing need- 
ful, let Pui'itanism gainsay it as it list." 

It is to Mr. Conolly, also, that we owe our knowledge of the inner 
life of the poet. "Your first interview," he says, "with Dr. Tennant 
made you feel that you were with one whose chief companionship was 
his books." A fragment of one of his own letters depicts the unvary- 
ing style and tenor of his placid life — " I have been so jogged arid 
shaken about since I came to Edinburgh, so dissij)ated with break- 
fasts, and dinners, and suppers, that, far from finding tranquillity of 
mind to write you a letter, I have not found time enough to ease 
and tranquillise my poor coach-shaken bones. It is indeed becoming- 
burdensome to me, and I begin to cast a longing e3'e towards the 
little lowly cottage on the muir, where I may again hold converse 
with myself, and with divine philosophy. It is in the silent and 
fostering shade of retirement that the mind must ripen and expand 
herself into perfection. It is there that the dews of wisdom fall 
rich upon her, and the influences of heaven above and earth beneath 
rmite in nourishing and maturing the divine jJant into the full bloom 
of intellectual excellence. I can indeed be happy everywhere, but 
in my cottage, with my Homer, most happy." There is the spirit 
and the character of the man's life, sketched by his own pen. 

Untiring was his devotedness to study, and it was crowned by a 
ripe scholarship and a Professor's chair. His studies embraced the 
classics of Greece and Pome, and the great writers of modern Italy 
and Germany. But preferred to all was his favourite Hebrew. In 
half-a-year and three days, with only a grammar and a dictionary to 
aid him, was the first reading of the Hebrew Bible completed. Often 
was the reading repeated, and as often did a fresh interest and love 
attend the chosen exercise. But he has told his tale, in his own 
engaging style, in the quotation from his lecture on Hebrew poetry, 
(page 67.) 


Besides several ballads, published iu early life, and his contribu- 
tions to the Edinburgh Literary Journal, Tennant delighted and 
instructed the world with the following works : — " Anster Fair," 
published in 1812; "The Thane of Fife," 1822; "Papistry Stormed," 
1827 ; " Cardinal Bethune," a drama in five acts ; " John Baliol," a 
historical drama; " Hebrew Dramas," founded on incidents in Bible 
history, 1845. But, in addition to these, there still remain unpub- 
lished, Dr. Tennant's Lectures on Palestine and Hebrew Literature. 
It is hoped they may yet be forthcoming, for, if we may take as a 
specimen the introductory lecture, given at page 157 of the poet's 
biography, certainly the public have a rich gratification in store. 

Along with intimate knowledge of the facts of Professor Tennant's 
life, Mr. Conolly possesses thorough admiration of him as a man, a 
scholar, and a poet. We have been delighted and gratified by the 
perusal of the biography, and the gratification is not the less, but all 
the more, that the author of " Anster Fair" and Professor of Hebrew 
has found, in the Town-Clerk of Anstruther, amid the dry details of 
lawyer life, a genial friend, so well fitted to do justice to his memory, 
and to embalm it in a record of high litex'ary merit. It is, indeed, a 
delightful book, and is what all biographies ought to be — amusing 
and most instructive. It has, we are sure, proved to many a source 
of pleasurable and grateful recollection of a great and good man, and 
still more to those who, as students at St. Mary's College, enjoyed 
the benefit of his teaching and prelections. Dr. Tennant's career 
in life was begun, as we have stated, under many disadvantages, and 
p'rosecuted amid many difl&culties ; but by indomitable perseverance, 
and an unwearied exercise of his talents, he was spared to reach, like 
his fellow-townsman. Dr. Chalmers, though in a difierent sphere, an 
honourable position among the most distinguished men of his time 
and country. That position was devoted not less sacredly throughout 
life to the cultivation of piety, and the promotion of the interests of 
religion, in the several spheres which he occupied. We cordially 
concur, therefoi-e, in the statement expressed by Mr. Conolly, in his 
preface to the memoir, that " to the student, the lover of knowledge 
and virtue, the young aspirant for literary distinction and usefulness, 
such a biography is anything but uninteresting and unimportant." 

" Lives of great men all remind us 

We can make our lives sublime, 
And departing, leave behind us 

Footprints on the sand of time ; — 
Footprints, that perhaps another 

Sailing o'er life's solemn main 
A forlorn and shipwreck' d brother 

Seeing shall take heart again." 

While Mr, Conolly has piesented us with many pleasing glimpses 
alike of his boyhood and mature life, of a very remarkable and love- 
able man, he has, at the same time, put before the reader an outline 
of his works from " The Anster Concert," which reveals the quaint 
and playful fancy, and genial kindly heart, of the poet as vividly as 

verse could do, to those fragments that are the result of his attain- 
ments as a classical and Oriental scholar. It is, of course, as the 
author of " Anster Fair" chiefly, that Tennant will be known popu- 
larly, but the reader, who peruses this excellent biography, will not 
fail to be highly interested in the outlines of his sacred dramas, here 
given by Mr. Conolly ; — in a word. Professor Tennant's biographer 
has so delineated his townsman's career, both as an author and a 
man, that none can fail to see that his is a character which cannot 
be studied without manifold advantages, whether his works, or his 
life, or both, form the text-book of his researches. 

Mr. Conolly must be congratulated on his successful accomplishment 
of a task, which, from his personal acquaintance with the subject of his 
memoir, we make bold to say, was to him " a labour of love." We 
had marked several additional passages for extract, but must content 
ourselves with one other short quotation from the Memoir, p. 91 ; — 

"Those who knew Dr. Tennant only as the author of "Anster 
Fair," and Professor of Oriental Languages in the University of St. 
Andrew's, knew but a tithe of the accomplishments of this distin- 
guished man. He was acquainted with the Arabic, the Persian, 
Hindustani, and Coptic, and had made no small proficiency in the 
Sanscrit — that most difiicult of all languages. With the geography 
of the East, and more particularly that of the Bible, he was thoroughly 
acquainted. It is well known that he traced with great labour and 
research the journeyings of the Israelites from Egypt to the land of 
rest ; and his prelections on this subject, will, when jjublished, it is 
believed, throw new light on that part of sacred history. With an 
ardour truly marvellous, did Dr. Tennant, long after his aspirations 
for literary distinction had been gratified to the full by his appoint- 
ment to the chair at St. Andrew's, continue to prosecute his classical 
and other studies. — Day by day found him regularly at his work in 
his delightful retirement near Dollar. 

" In private life he was the inoffensive and apparently unconcerned 
spectator of all that was passmg around him. In the strictest sense 
a student, he made the parlour, or class-room, his house, and his 
libi-ary his chief society. He rose early, and early retired to rest. 
His conversation was generally on his favourite theme of languages, 
wliich indicated careful and extensive reading and research. In domestic 
habits he had a regard to economy. He wrote a curious hand, which 
li.e designated " Italian," and wliich, if difficult to decipher, was at 
least pleasant to look upon." 

Dr. Tennant died at his pleasant villa of Devongrove, Dollar, on 
the 14th of October, 1848, and was buried, according to his own 
expressed v/ishes at Anstruther, on the 19th of the same month. 

Soon after the Professor's death, a number of his friends, admirers, 
and townsmen, erected a monument to his memory in Anstruther 
church-yard. It consists of a handsome obelisk of polished freestone, 
about eleven feet high. His talents and virtues as a scholar, a poet, 
a man, and a Christian, are briefly but faithfully enumerated by his 
iutimate and learned friend, Andrew Scott, Esq., M.A., Professor of 

Oriental Languages in the University of Aberdeen, in an elegant 
Latin inscription, which has been translated into English here, for the 
benefit of oi^dinary readers : — 




Alpha and Omega. 

Here lies interred 

William Tennant, Doctor of Laws, 

Professor of Oriental Languages in St. Mary's College, St. Andrew's, 

A man of great mental endowments, 

And of varied and profound learning ; 

Beloved for his benevolence and urbanity, 

He was a skilful, sweet, and humorous poet. 

Born in this town, of a respectable family, and educated in tlis 

College of St. Salvator and St, Leonard, at St. Andrew's, 

He taught the Classical and Oriental Languages with 

great success, during a period of more than fifteen years, 

in the Academy, at Dollar. 

He was afterwards appointed to the Oriental Chair at 

St. Andrew's, 

Which office he filled for nearly fourteen years 

With universal approbation. 

At length, overcome by age and infirm health, to the great grief 

of his friends, and of all good men. 

He departed this life at Dollar, on the 15th of October, 

in the year of our Lord, 1848, 

And on the 19th day of the same month was here interred 

among the ashes of his Kindred, 

He lived sixty-four Years, five Months, and ten Days. 


Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, yet will 
I tear no evil ; for Thou art with me — Psalm xxiii. 

(greek turned into ENGLISH.) 

He that overcometh shall inherit all things.— Revelations. 


In 1866, Mr. Conolly's largest work, viz., "The Biographical 
Dictionary of Eminent Men of Fife," appeared, and attracted con- 
siderable notice. 

What strikes one most on glancing over this book is the very 
great amount of information, literary, statistical, and biographical, 
embraced in the volume, and the excessive laboiir which Mr. Conolly 


must have had in collecting the materials. The information given 
seems to be drawn from the best sources, and the book is therefore 
reliable as one of reference ; for such a purpose, indeed, it is admira- 
bly adapted. The origin of the principal families of, and connected 
"with Fife, is clearly traced ; their characters, qualifications, and singu- 
larities pourtrayed, in a simple but pleasing style, and here and there 
throughout the volume we meet with some very quaint, amusing, and 
instructive sketches of men and women of olden times, which one 
would hardly expect in a dictionary, but which greatly enhance its 
value and attractiveness. " The Biography of Eminent Men " must 
be classed as Mr. Conolly's chief literary production, and we must say 
he has acquitted himself nobly in producing such a work. It is one 
which will be valued more in after times than now, and we think the 
county fortunate in having such a biographer. Many counties have 
had their statistical accounts, and their topographical and architectural 
delineations well detailed and illustrated, but we are not aware that 
any other has yet found among its literary sons, one who, from love 
to his native soil, has sought to depict and to brina^ together in one 
gallery, nearly all the eminent men whom his own county claims. We 
have had volumes of Scots Worthies, and also Scottish Biographical 
Dictionaries, but we have not hitherto seen a county volume of biogra- 
phy, which, while embracing the higher standard of national and 
world-wide celebrity, also comprehends that lesser circle of fame 
within which many good and creditable men obtain a name entitled 
to remembrance at least in local annals. In the case of Fife, there is 
perhaps something above the common order of counties, for the tradi- 
tion yet lingers among us of the " Kingdom of Fife ;" and Mr. 
Conolly reminds us that there are (perhaps we should now say, were) 
some little kingdoms on the Continent less deserving the title. But 
there can be no doubt that though now only reckoned as a county, 
Fife possesses some points of high distinction. It contained in ancient 
times an Axchiepiscopal See, and a Cathedral city ; and it still boasts 
of St. Andrews as a University town, and as the oldest and not the 
least illustrious seat of learning in Scotland. It exhibits a roll of 
seventeen royal burghs, like a row of gems fringing the mantle that 
it spreads out to the waves. It is a place of royal traditions,- — of 
classical memories — of stirring history, and of interesting remains. 
To use the words of a foreign journalist, quoted by Mr. Conolly, it 
is a county prolific of illustrious Scotsmen from the earliest period 
of our national history. In this volume, Mr. Conolly gives a 
memoir of 547 Fife notabilities. If they are not all '^ illustrious," 
they are doubtless all deserving of the attention they have received 
from their careful biographer. The list embraces the present as well 
as the past, and includes not natives of the county only, for with 
these alone Fife would have been inadequately illustrated, the author 
considering that it would "add to the interest of the work if its 
notices should not be confined to natives of Fifeshire, but comprehend 
also eminent individuals who have been connected with the county 
officially or otherwise " — the last comprehensive term including pro- 



perty, residence, marriage, and the like. Mr. Conolly has made 
his book by this means, not only more interesting, but really much 
more valuable. It possesses, in addition to its local merits, much of 
the advantage of " Men of the Times," including in its notices a 
number of worthies both English and Scotch now living. Of the dis- 
tinguished natives of Fifeshire, Mr. Conolly claims — Sir Michael 
Scott, Sir David Lindsay, Kirkaldy of Grange, Adam Smith, Sir 
John Leslie, Dr. Chalmers, and his stout opponent, Dr. George Cook, 
Lord Chancellor Campbell, &c., &c. Through academical or ecclesias- 
tical connection (or by residence), he claims — John Knox, the Regent 
Murray, Andiew Melville, James Melville, Henry Erskine, Lord 
Chancellor Erskine, Hugh Blair, Ebenezer Erskine, Bishop Low, Sir 
David Brewster, Professor Ferrier, &c. By ties of property, the 
biographer includes James Boswell, Hugo Aruott, W. E. Glad- 
stone, and the Duke of Baccleuch; the latter as owner of Inchkeith, 
in the parish of Kinghorn. And by ties of marriage and descent — 
Viscount Canning and the Marquis of Dalhousie, — a thu'd Governor- 
General of India is claimed for Fife, by the ties of nativity, residence, 
and property, the late Earl of Elgin, of whom we have an admirable 
memoir, especially the account of his last days, which is given with a 
tenderness and affectionate admiration, doing as much credit to the 
heart of the biographer, as the whole book does to his intelligence 
and industry. We believe many of our readers will peruse Mr. 
Conolly 's sketch with interest : — 


" He often asked to hear chosen chaptex-s from the Book of Isaiah 
(as the 40th and 55th), sometimes murmuring over to himself any 
striking verses that they contained, and at other times repeating by 
heart favourite Psalms, one of which recalled to him an early feat of 
his youth, when he had translated into Greek the 137th Psalm, 'By 
the waters of Babylon we sat down and wept.' At times he delighted 
to hear his little girl, who had been the constant companion of his 
travels, repeat some of Keble's hymns, especially those on the festi- 
vities of St. John the Evangelist, and of the Holy Innocents. Years 
ago he had prided himself on having been the first to introduce into 
Scotland ' The Christian Year,' which he brought as a student from 
Oxford, where the first edition — first of its seventy-seven editions — 
had just appeared. How touching a reward to him — how touching 
a tribute to the enduring piety and genius of its venerable author, 
that after the lapse of so long a tract of time to both — of quiet pas- 
toral life and eager controversies for the one, of diplomacy and 
government, war and shipwreck, and travels from hemisphere to 
hemisphere, for the other — that fountain of early devotion should still 
lemain fresh and pure to soothe his dying hours. It will naturally 
be understood that long converse was i-eally impossible. As occasions 
arose, a few words were breathed, an appropriate verse quoted, and a 
tew minutes were all that could be given at any one time to dLscom-«e 


upon it. It is characteristic of his strong cheerful faith, even during 
those last trying moments, that he on one occasion asked to have the 
more supplicatory, penitential Psalms exchanged for those of praise 
and thanksgiving, in which he joined, knowing them already by heart; 
and in the same strain of calm yet triumphant hope, he whispered to 
liimself on the night when his alarming state was tiist made known 
to him, ' Hallelujah : the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth. We shall 
all meet again.' That thought was raised to its highest pitch 
by the sight of a portrait of a beloved son, who had died in England 
during his absence. It arrived on the close of those sad days. He 
recognised it at once with a burst of tenderness and delight which at 
once lifted his mind above the suffering of his mortal illness. Again 
and again he desired to see it, and to speak of it. with the fixed con- 
viction that he and his 'angel boy,' as he called him, would soon meet 
in a better world. ' Oh, when shall I be with you 1 ' ' You know 
where he is ; we shall all go to him ; he is happy.' Every care had 
been taken for the public interests, and for the interests of those still 
nearer and dearer to him. He had laid the most solemn charge on 
his faithful secretary to conduct Lady Elgin home on her mournful 
and solitary voyage, ... It was remarkable that as the end 
drew nearer, the keen sense of public duty once more flashed up 
within him. It was on the 19th that he could not help expressing 
his wonder what was meant by his long lingerhig ; and once, half- 
wandering, he whispered, ' If I did not die, I might get to Lahore, 
and carry out the original programme.' Later in the day he sent for 
Mr. Thurlow, and desired that a message should be sent through Sir 
Charles Wood, expressive of his love and devotion to the Queen, and 
of his determination to do his work to the last possible moment. His 
voice, faint and inaudible at first, gained strength with the earnest- 
ness of the words which came forth as if direct from his heart, and 
which, as soon as pronounced, left him prostrate with the exertion. 
He begged at the same time, that his ' best blessing ' might be sent 
to the Secretaries of the Indian Government, and also a private mes- 
sage to Sir Charles Wood in England. These were his last public 
acts. A few words and looks of intense affection for his wife and 
child were all that escaped him afterwards. One more night of 
agonised restlessness, followed by an almost sudden close of the long 
struggle, and a few moments of perfect calm, and his spirit was 

If Mr. Conolly has not dealt exclusively with eminent men of 
Fife, he has embraced in his histories much interesting information 
of persons of whom, in these busy days, we aie always hearing. 
After all, however, our object is less to point out what Mr. Conolly 
might have done, than to draw attention to what he has done. He 
has written a book which should be in the possession of every onu 
having a taste for biographical literature, — and especially of every 
county family, as a book of reference, when the talk goes in the 
direction of old traditions, the relations of kin, the adventures of 
Hfe men abroad, which Fifeshire shai-es in the ecclesiasiicil, iiolitical. 


naval, and military struggles of the past. We have been unable to 
miss any prominent name in these stirring annals, and as far as we 
have been able to explore, Mr. ConoUy has told as much of authentic 
facts about personages and dates as could, in the space, be reasonably 
expected. The notices, though not long, are very comprehensive, and 
the author seems to have spared no pains to ascertain every parti- 
cular calculated to enhance the value of the volume, both as a book 
of instruction and as one of reference. We may add that we have 
good authority for stating, in addition to our own convictions, that 
all the articles are written with much judgment and clearness, exhi- 
biting, at same time, a breadth and freedom which permits of curious 
anecdotes (always a matter of love with Mr. ConoUy), along with the 
serious requirements of biography. The author has not been content 
with mei-ely collecting materials — a large portion of which are new, — 
but has subordinated his facts to the higher purpose of pourtraying 
character, each notice being, as far as space would allow, a biography 
in itself, expressed in diction worthy of its subject. The Natives of 
the " Kingdom" may well peruse these pages with no little pride, 
for the story of many a worthy achievement and memorable deed is 
told of those of their own immediate kith and kindred. 

We need scarcely say that Mr. Conolly has accomplished his 
laborious task in a spirit of generosity and affection, qualities with- 
out which a work of this kind could never have been successfully 
accomplished, however much his admirable literary qualifications were 
suited to the task. There is not one of all his biographies that does 
not, in some degree, " point a moral or adorn a tale." The volume 
is, indeed, an important contribution to the history of Scotland, as 
well as a welcome accession to every library where tiaditional tales 
and romantic adventures are among the desiderata. 


As a pastime, Mr. Conolly published several of his lighter contri- 
butions to literature in the newspapers and })eriodicals of the day, 
but such productions were more the sallies of a leisure hour, and a 
relief from more important avocations, than serious efforts. Among 
the more enduring of these efforts are his " Tales, Historical and 
Imaginative, of the East Neuk of Fife," and his "Historical Sketches 
of British India," — contributed to Wilson's Tales of the Border, The 
Fife Herald^ East of Fife Record, &c. 

Besides his contributions to literature, Mr. Conolly's exertions to 
benefit the locality of his labours will long be remembered with grati- 
tude. At an early period he took a deep interest in several move- 
ments to obtain a commodious and safe harboiu" for the numerous 
fishing boats belonging to Cellardyke, the port of Kilrenny ; and, 


though his attempts were not crowned with immediate success, it 
is believed they laid the foundation for the new and splendid har- 
bour now in course of erection at Anstruther. 

Many young men, during the half century and upwards which Mr. 
ConoUy has practised as a man of busijiess, served apprenticesliips to 
him. His bearing towards them, when in his employment, was ever 
kind and instructive, and with the utmost cordiality and desire to be 
useful, he never failed to do what he could to promote their welfare, 
after quitting his service. 

His charities have not been few, though not consisting of ostenta- 
tious or lavish and indiscriminate expenditure. He early introduced 
what is now practised by the noblest of the land, — the custom of 
delivering lectures on various moral, literary, and scientific subjects ; 
and although admission was always free, yet, on the audience being 
invited, at the close of the lecture, to contribute such donations as 
the parties thought proper, considerable sums were raised, which, 
along with contributions derived from other sources, were expended 
year by year, during the winter season, in supplying warm and 
nutritious soup for the poorer portion of the inhabitants of the loca- 
lities where the lectures were delivered ; thus not only relieving the 
wants of the needy, but contributing to the amusement and instruc- 
tion of his hearers. 

In an early part of this Memoir, we hinted that Mr. Conolly's 
success in business might, in part, be attributed to habits of temper- 
ance, to which he has steadily adhered, amidst temptations to the 
contrary, which many of his avocations led him to witness and were 
not easily resisted. In one sense, however, it cannot be said that his 
precept always coincided with his own meritorious example ; for fre- 
quently, when a client, feeling deeply the wrong he had sustained, 
or fancied he had sustained, at the hands of another, came for advice, 
and insisted on obtaining redress in a Court of Law, Mr. Conolly's 
rejoinder was — " Your cause seems just, but the Law is uncertain, 
just tak' a pint an' gree" — a sentiment, however relished at the time, 
was generally, in the end, admitted to be sound. 

Mr. Conolly was educated an Episcopalian, and a Tory from his 
earliest years, and has continued through life a firm and consistent 
adherent to his religious and political principles, but without enter- 
taining the slightest tinge of bitterness against those differing from 

In 1829 he purchased the small landed property of Chesterhill, 
near Anstruther, where he usually resides, and some years afterwards 
he acquired the larger property of Gillingshill, about five or six miles 
distant, where he spends the summer months, and follows his favourite 
agricultural and literary pursuits, free from the interi'uptions of pro- 
fessional business incidental to his town residence. The country 
house, of his own design and construction, is finely situated on an 
eminence ornamented with woods planted and reared by himself, and 
commanding many and varied views. 

Having become alive to the privations the woi-king classes in the 


country were subjected to, Ml% Conolly turned liis attention to im- 
])roving their condition, and with that view he erected fourteen 
superior cottages on his property, now occupied by between 50 and 
100 persons. Some of the men are employed in drainage, some in 
wood cutting, and some as hinds, or farm servants ; and of the 
mothers and grown-up daughters, most of them are employed as field 
workers on Mr. Conolly's property, and on the neighbouring farms. 
The children are foi'tunate in having excellent schools to resort to in 
the neighbourhood ; of this numerous population, Mr. Conolly is not 
\mmindful, but watches over their wishes and wants with a patriarchal 

While thus attending to the temporal interests of his tenants, Mr. 
Conolly has not been forgetful of their spiritual welfare. At Gill- 
ingshill House, week-day evening services are frequently conducted 
by clergymen of sundry denominations; and besides the instruction 
imparted by the preachers to their audiences, the psalmody is accom- 
])anied by the performances of Mrs. Gordon, Mr. Conolly's daughter, 
on the organ, an instrument rarely to be seen in the district. 

Many other traits of Mr. Conolly's enterprise and benevolence 
could be given, which, coupled with virbanity of manner, kindly dis 
position, and integrity of conduct, have gained for him general esteem, 
lie is now looked upon as a model worthy of being followed in every 
department of life^ whether professional, social, or domestic. 

He is one of the oldest, if not the senior Town Clerk in Scotland, 
having received his first commission in 1811. Notwithstanding his 
advanced age, Mr. Conolly is still active in literary pursuits, and we 
understand he is now busily occupied with another work connected 
with his native county, whose merits and fame he is ever anxious to 
maintain. It is worthy of remark, that his MS., written in the most 
beautiful style of caligraphy, does not exhibit the slightest trace of 
tremulousness, the usual accompaniment of advanced years; and there 
is likewise something delightful in knowing, that it is not without 
complacency the old gentleman views the improvements his skill and 
industry have eff'ected on his fair acres, and the happiness he has 
diff"used among his tenants and dependants ; thus exhibiting a pleas- 
ing picture of the happy serenity in which he jiasses the evening of 
his days. 

The compiler of these pages deeply regrets that other avocations con- 
strain him to present to the reader so imperfect a sketch of the career 
of an exemplary and very old and esteemed friend ; but he cannot 
conclude without giving utterance to the happiness he feels in having 
been connected with Mr. Conolly from a very early period of life, and 
of expressing his highest sense of gratitude for the instruction received 
from him, and the numerous acts of kindness experienced at his 

" The mother may forsake the son, 

The child that lipsed upon her knee ; 
But thee, Glencairn, I'll ne'er forget, 
And all that thou hast done for me." 

KniNr.URGH, May^ 1869. 











ADAMSON, Thomas, the Patriarcli of 
Pittenweem. This worthy old man was 
bom at Pittenweem, on the 1st of May, 
1746, and died there on 3rd October, 1846, 
and thus had reached the extraordinary 
age of one hundred years and five months. 
Mr. Adamson was a weaver, and con- 
tinued to ply the shuttle until within a few 
years of the time of his death-. He was, 
what most long Hvers are, an early riser ; 
six o'clock scarcely ever found him in bed ; 
he was generally up and at work by five. 
He had a strong clear voice, and was for 
many years precentor m the parish church. 
He had a perfect recollection of seeing 
Paul Jones sailing past Pittenweem, about 
90 years ago, and of the tempest which pro- 
videntially arose and drove the pirate out of 
the Frith. He nev€r was what may be called 
really sick, and never complained of head- 
ache. For the last six months of his life, he 
was confined to his bed, but felt no pain or 
sickness. He retained his senses to nearly 
the last day of his life, and during harvest 
he was every day inquiring about how far 
the different farmers had got iu their 
crops. The failure in the potato crop 
gave him much uneasiness. During the 
whole of his long Ufe he was only three 
weeks absent from Pittenweem. 

AJSTDERSON, George, M. P., is the eldest 
son of the late George Anderson of Luscar, 
Fifeshire. He was bom in 1819, educated 
in Edinburgh, and the University of St. 
Andrews, and was engaged in mercantile 
pursuits in Glasgow. At the general elec 
tion of November, 1868, Mr. Anderson was 
returned as the thii-d Liberal member for 
Glasgow — having polled no less than 17,800 

ANDERSON, Dr. Adam, was, it is be- 
lieved, a native of Perth, and was bom of 
respectable parentage. At an early age he 
became a student of the University of St. 
Andrews, and, early devoting himself to 

the study of Mathematics, Chemistry, and 
Philosophy, he was appointed, in the 
beginning of this century, teacher of these 
branches of science in the Academy of 
Perth, In 1809 he was admitted to the 
Rectorship of the Academy, and in this 
ofiice, for nearly thirty years, he distin- 
guished himself by the profundity of his 
scientific knowledge, and his facility in 
communicating instruction. In 1833 he was 
elected, by the united College, Professor of 
Natural Philosophy in the University of 
St. Andrews. Here he devoted himself 
with the utmost assiduity to the duties of 
his Chair, and was much distinguished for 
the depth of his research, and the accuracy 
of his investigations into the various de- 
partments of physical science. His kind 
and affable manner endeared him to his 
students, to whom he was always ready to 
communicate information on any subject 
connected with science, or to explain any 
difficulty which might occur in the course 
of his public lectures. 

Dr. Anderson died on the morning of the 
4th November, 1846, having been found 
dead in his bed. He had for some weeks 
previously been complaining of general 
debility, though nothing serious was anti- 
cipated. His sudden demise caused a 
general gloom, both in Perth and St. 
Andrews, with which cities he had been 
so advantageously connected. He intro- 
duced water and gas into Perth, and 
planned the splendid reservoir of that 
city, which remains a monument to his 
genius and taste. A few years before his 
death, he had his class-room decorated 
with well-arranged diagrams for the illus- 
tration of the astronomical part of his 
course, and we believe he provided at his 
own expense, a quantity of valuable ap- 
paratus for the use of his class. It is to 
be regretted that he had so scantily com- 
mitted to paper the fruits of his learning 




and research — all his writings being com- 
prised in a few articles in the " Edinburgh 
Encyclopsedia,' ' andother scientific j oumals 
and reviews 

ANSTRUTHER, Major-Gen. Philip, 
C.B., of Thirdpart, and grandson of Sir 
Robert Anstruther, of Balcaskie, Baronet, 
was born on the 12th September, 1807, and 
was educated at Westminster School. In 
1824 he joined the Madras Artillery, and 
served in India, and in the first war in 
Cliina, commanding the Artillery under 
Lord Goughat the battles of Canton, Amoy, 
Ohusan, and others. He was made prisoner 
in 1840, wliile out on a survey near Ningpo, 
and kept in a cage three feet by three, as 
detailed in his letter after narrated. After 
six months' captivity, he was released, 
when a truce was established in the early 
part of the war. General Anstruther served 
on the staff of Lord Gough at the battles of 
ChniianwaUah and Goojerat, in 1849, and 
received the Cross of a Companion of the 
Bath. In 1851 he sei-ved at the Cape of 
Good Hope, in the Kaffir war, under Sir 
Harry Smith, and in 1856, on the death of 
his elder brother, Col. Kobert Anstruther, 
he returned to Scotland. It was princi- 
pally owing to his great talent for drawinpr, 
and his good temper, that his life, and 
the lives of his fellow-piisoners in China, 
•were spared. These fellow- prisoners were 
part of the crew and passengers of the 
Kite, a brig of 281 tons, commanded by 
John Noble, which sailed from Shields to 
Bordeaux in July, 1839 ; thence in October 
to the Mauritius, with a cargo of wines ; 
and early in the foUovdng year to Madras, 
where she was taken up by Government to 
carry stores to the British fleet destined for 
China. On the loth September, 1840, the 
Kite was unfortunately wrecked at the 
mouth of the Teang-tze-Keang River, and 
many perished, among whom was Mr. 
Noble, the commander of the vessel, and 
his infant. Some of the party, among 
whom was Mrs Noble, Lieutenant Douglas, 
a nephew of Lord William Douglas of 
Grangemuir, a Mr. Scott, and others, 
saved themselves in the jolly-boat, and 
were made prisoners on landing, and after- 
wards became fellow-captives of the Gene- 
ral — then Captain Anstruther — at Ningpo. 
Mr. Scott wrote an account of the dangers 
and privations he experienced ; and Mrs. 
Noble also furnished the melancholy de- 
tails of her case, in a letter to a friend, in 
which she expresses the deep obhgations 
she and her companions were under to 
Captain Anstruther, " At Ningpo," she 
says, " I was sorry to find another prisoner, 
Capt. Anstruther, of the Madras Artillery, 
who has since proved to be a most kind 
and true friend." And again she states, a 
little farther on, " Captain Anstnither was 
generally employed in drawing, and I am 
sure his great talent, as well as the patience 
he exhibited, often ensured us kindness." 
From the active service which Captain 

Anstruther rendered to Mrs. Noble and 
her companions in captivity, our readers 
will naturally be desirous to learn the 
manner in which the worthy Captain- 
unhappily for himself, but fortunately fcr 
the other parties — fell into the hands of 
the Chinese ; and this desire we are 
happily enabled to gratify, by quoting the 
following graphic letter of that officer, in 
which the gallantry and spirit of the 
British soldier are pleasingly displayed : — 
" On Wednesday, the 16th September, 
1840, 1 started about ten o'clock to get the 
valleys on the left of the great north road 
from Singhae put down accurately in my 
survey. I went about 1000 yards to where 
there are several houses and gardens, and 
whence a road branches off to the west- 
ward. I am thus particular in naming the 
place and describing it, as I hope B — will 
take a dozen or two of our people, and go 
and bum the place where the rascals 
pinned me. He cannot miss it ; it is the 
valley which divided the hill on a spur- of 
which the Cameronians were pitched, from 
the peaked hill right in front of our mess 
tent ; so go and pitch into them B — , and 
oblige, yours sincerely. I'll do as much 
for you another time. I went dovni the 
western side of the pass, and in a very 
short time was sensible of my imprudence, 
as the path goes past a jos house on the 
right, thick trees overhanging both sides 
of the narrow path, and making it quite 
dark. The jos house is in a walled garden 
full of large trees. I determined as soon 
as I got clear of this dark and dangerous 
looking place to retrace my steps, but on 
getting to the other end of the grove, I 
became aware that we were followed by a 
crowd of Chinamen. I took no notice, 
but turned to the left, meaning to go up 
the hiU again, keeping to the open ground. 
We had hardly turned, when a Chinese 
soldier rushed cut from the crowd with a 
hoe in his hand, and struck at my old Lascar, 
the only man with me. He avoided the 
blow and ran up to me in great alarm. I 
took from him the iron spud which he had 
used to pitch the flag, and met the soldier 
and drove him back ; but a number of 
others, with what they term spears (but 
from their double prongs we should call 
them pitchforks,) charged me and my poor 
old man, and of course we had nothing for 
it but to run. I told the old man to run 
up the hill, and they would only follow me, 
but he refused to leave me. The armed 
people kept on the liill-side to cut off my 
chance of getting up the hiU, so I deter- 
mined to attempt to force my way by the 
long valley. I am but a bad runner, and 
my poor old servant was worse, so I went 
slowly along the valley, turning now and 
then to keep the Chinese at bay. Mean- 
time the whole population of the valley 
gathered with loud shouts in our front, 
and it was evidently a hopeless job. I 
could not get my old man to leave me and 

< .e 




try to escape unnoticed. So we held on, 
and at a turn in the path, I was opposed 
by a few scoundrels with sticks and stones. 
I charged them, and they got all round 
me, and then my poor old man ran back 
about eighty yards, where he was met by 
the crowd foUowing us, and struck down. 
I have an inexpressible reluctance to write 
what follows ; but must. I attempted te 
force my way towards him, but could not, 
and saw the inhuman villains pounding his 
head with large stones as he lay with his 
face downwards. I cannot doubt that he 
died. His two sons are my pensioners 
now at the Mount School, and of course, 
my brother or W. MacT — will see that 
their pension continues to be paid. I saw 
that attempt at flight was useless, and ex- 
pecting a fate simQar to that of my Lascar, 
I set to work to make the rascals pay for 
it, and fought my best. Of course, num' 
bers prevailed, and I was beat down. In^ 
stead of dashing out my braias they set to 
work to tie my hands behiad me, and my 
ankles together, — tied a huge gag on my 
mouth, and then quietly took a large bam- 
boo and hammered my knees just over the 
knee-cap to prevent the possibility of 
escape. I was then put in a palanquin, 
which was evidently kept ready for some 
such contiagency, and we hurried off to a 
vdlage about ten miles west of the Sappers' 
Point. Here we waited till nightfall, my 
conductors comforting me by repeating 
the word Ningpo, and drawing their hands 
across their throats. At about seven p.m. 
we got into a boat with a cover, and I lay 
down and slept. About midnight, as I 
should guess, I was awakened and told 
to get out of the boat, my ankles were set 
free, a chain put round my neck, and I was 
obliged to walk, although my legs were 
hardly able to bear me, and my head ached 
dreadfully from two cuts I had received in 
the skirmish, over the skull. I think they 
were dealt with hoes, but am not sure. 
We travelled in a south-west direction all 
night, and all the next day, till about one 
o'clock, when we reached the banks of a 
river, and got into a boat. About two 
hours rowing with the stream brought us 
into Ningpo, where we landed, and I went 
in a palanquin to mandarins of Ningpo 
outer city, or ' Heen.' Here, I was exam- 
ined as to the number of ships, men, and 
other particulars of our state at Chusan, 
the interpreter being Poo- King-Poo, the 
Compradore, who was seized at Chusan 
about a fortnight after our landing. I 
was fed, and sent to a prison prepared for 
me by the removal of four Chusan man- 
darins, who liad been confined by the 
Emperor's order for allowing the English 
to land at Chusan. I may here mention 
that the Wellesley's first broadside mor- 
tally wounded the naval mandarin, and 
the first shell fired on shore lolled the 
Setpun or Chief Mandarin of the Island, 
and these two deaths had struck great 

terror into the mandarins everywhere, 
as they believed we aimed at them, so M — 
may enjoy the credit of kilHng the chief. 
In the prison I was forced to get into a 
cage of which I will show you the sketches, 
with wooden bars, one yard long, one yard 
high, and two feet wide outside the bars. 
A ring was put round ray neck (of iron) 
and my hands put in handcuffs, locked to 
a stick about one foot long, which was 
fastened to my neck ring. Very heavy leg 
irons had been put on me at the Man- 
darin's, in consequence, I supposed, of the 
abominably exaggerated account my con- 
ductors gave of my resistance, by way of 
showing their own valour in taking so 
fierce a warrior. These irons weighed, I 
think, 18 lbs., and I wore them for four 
weeks. In this horrid little cage a chain 
was locked on to my leg-irons, and a jailor 
slept with a light close to me, so I think 
it would have puzzled Jack Sheppard to 
escape. Next day I went again to the 
Mandarin's, and in course of conversation, 
he asked me about our steamers : I ofiered 
to draw one for him, and did it. He 
became civil and friendly, and gave the 
compradore and myseK a good dinner ; 
after which I got some hot water, and 
washed off some of the blood and dirt of 
the struggle ; found my head handsomely 
laid open to the bone, my legs and arms 
covered with bruises, but no wound of any 
consequence, and the very judicious diet of 
the prison soon cured all the bangs and 
bruises. On the 16th and 20th, I again 
went to the Tagins (Tasin,) and the latter 
day met there seven other prisoners, from 
whom I heard of the wreck of their ship, 
the Kite, and their capture. The Manda- 
rins became more and more friendly in 
their manner towards me, and on this day 
ordered a bigger cage for me ; three feet 
six inches by two feet one inch. This was 
comparative comfort, and was the fruit of 
my drawing for the Mandarins a map of 
Chusan bay, town, and suburb, with ships 
and tents. Next day I was told to draw a 
map of London, and did it ; Westminster 
Abbey, St. Paul's, Windsor Castle, and 
Buckingham Palace, all pleasantly situated 
in a Park, with Grosvenor Place very well 
situated for viewing all four ! Next day I 
had to draw a map of England, showing 
mail coaches and cattle somewhat larger 
than cities or towns ; this day (22d) I met 
Lieut. Douglas, R.N., of the Kite, and a 
nephew of my friend and neighboui-, Wm. 
Robert Keith Douglas, of Grangemuir, in 
Fife. He was in a small cage, and very 
much worse ofi" than I, being in a worse 
prison : next day, Mrs. Noble, wife of the 
captain of the Kite, who %vith his child, 
was lost in the wreck, was brought to 
Ningpo with Mr. Wilts, chief oflicer of 
that ship. The lady was put in a cage in 
the next cell to mine, chained Uke me, only 
the irons were lighter, and so by-the-bye, 
were those of Douglas, Wilts, the marines, 




and sailors. We went every day to the 
Mandarin's to answer all sorts of foolish 
childish questions : ex. gr., ' What relation 
was Mrs. Noble to the Queen of England ?' 
Our ages, and the state of our families; 
our pay, and a thousand other things were 
the daily subjects of our questioning. On 
Monday, the 28th September, came a 
change : Douglas, Wilts, and I, were 
moved into a new prison, a large room, 
with a fine place to walk in, in front ; the 
cages taken away, and good bedsteads 
placed for us, and all very much more 
comfortable; and better than aU, I got 
a letter from B— r, which showed they 
knew where I was, and that the news 
would go to England, not, as I feared, an 
account of my death, but of a mere tem- 
porary imprisonment, just like the Sheriffs 
of Middlesex got from the House of Com- 
mons. On the 20th December I wrote 
this account to be ready for Blondel's next 
visit, so I will put this by, and write out 
the account of the Kite's wreck. Neither 
I nor Douglas have had a minute's sick- 
ness, nor have we been (nor will we be) 
down-hearted for a minute ; we are told 
now that in about ten days we shall be 
free." Here the General's interesting let- 
ter ends. But the following extract from 
Mrs. Noble's letter above-mentioned, will 
show the sequel of this stirring story, by 
the release of the prisoners, after about 
five months' captivity : — " On the 8th of 
February, 1841, I had a visit from some 
Chinese officers, who told me that we were 
to leave Ningpo within a fortnight. We 
thought there was truth in the news, but 
we were not certain until the 14th, when I 
received the glad tidings from yourself."— 

tThe party is not named, but it was doubt - 
ess the person to whom her own letter was 
addressed, and from which we make our 
extracts.] " It will be impossible," Mrs. 
Noble goes on to say, " to describe what 
our feelings were on that occasion. I had 
thought that the gentlemen had known it 
the day before, so that our meeting at the 
first moment was not so joyful as it other- 
wise would have been, but they had no 
sooner read my letter than our congratula- 
tions were warm and most sincere, and I 
again had the happiness of welcoming them 
to my poor prison, where we wrote answers 
to our friends. Nothing was now spoken 
of but the surety of our speedy relief ; as 
for myself, I could scarcely believe it till I 
was on my way to Chinhae. On the 22d 
of February, before I rose, my attendant 
came to my bedside, saying, Chinhae, 
Chusan get up ; and soon afterwards the 
compradore called to me, saying, that we 
were indeed to go to Chinhae. Alas, poor 
fellow, he little thought that he was not to 
form one of the party. I am sure you will 
believe me when I teU you that I knew not 
which thing to do first. Numbers of people 
came round my prison, and I was obliged 
to shut the door to keep them out. After 

my morning devotions, I got my boxes 
packed with the compradore's aid. While 
thus engaged, he was sent for by the Man- 
darins, who told iiim that he was not like 
the other English prisoners ; they would 
not allow him, therefore, to accompany 
them, but send him down to Canton. This 
threw an immediate gloom over my spirits, 
and I felt deeply, when, a few minutes 
afterwards I saw him locked up in his pri- 
son, as he had long been my friend in 
adversity. I now with difficulty got through 
the crowd to the gentlemen's prison, where 
I received a hearty welcome and the warm- 
est congratulations, and was forbidden to 
speak of past troubles. Capt. Anstruther 
now insisted upon seeing the compradore, 
to give him money, and after many en- 
treaties made to the Mandarin, he at last 
succeeded in beating his way through the 
crowd. We walked a great while in the 
prison-yard, until by dint of perseverance 
and much pushing, we got into our palan- 
quins. We had a guard to escort us, and 
having crossed the river in our conveyances, 
I looked back and was astounded at the 
dense mass of spectators. Indeed, the ex- 
citement at Ningpo was indescribable. 
Our ruad to Chinhae led principally along 
the river side, and our travelling was any- 
thing but comfortable ; the pass being so 
bad, I feared that our palanquin-bearers 
would slip. When near Chinhae, one of 
my bearers stumbled, and the palanquin 
thumped upon the ground. I struck my 
head, but the alarm was more than the in- 
jury. I thought my troubles would not be 
ended until 1 reached Chinhae. On the 
road we met several emissaries urging on 
the bearers to use all speed, to the mutual 
gratification of all parties. At last we 
arrived at Chinhae, where we were received 
with due honour by the Mandarins." — We 
have only to add, that the irons with 
which General Anstruther was fettered, 
are at Airth Castle, Stirlingshire ; and the 
cage in which he was confined, is at the 
"United Service Museum, in London. He 
became a General in 1859, when he retired 
from the service, after thirty years of ac- 
tive life, spent in the faithfiil discharge of 
his professional duties. 

AYTOUN, William Edmondstoune, 
Professor of Rhetoric and Belles Lettres in 
the University of Edinburgh, was born in 
June, 1813, and had thus at his death in 
August, 1865, completed his fifty-second 
year. On both sides of his house he was 
weU descended and well connected. His 
father, who was a writer to the signet, and 
the partner of an eminent firm in that pro- 
fession, died when Aytoun was compara- 
tively young. His mother Hved to a great 
age, and died only a few years ago. She 
was an excellent example of an old Scottish 
lady, and from her tendencies and tradi- 
tions her son derived much of his early and 
enduring predilection for the Cavalier 
cause. He was a most attached son and 



brother, and his mother and sisters repaid 
his affection by the strongest feelings which 
an only son and brother could inspire. 
He was educated at the Edinburgh 
Academy, and went through the usual 
curriculum at the University of which he 
was destined to become so distinguished 
an ornament. He afterwards studied for 
some time in Germany, where he acquired 
that love and knowledge of German litera- 
ture of which his writings contain so many 
proofs. He passed as a writer to the 
signet, but soon saw that this was not his 
appropriate sphere, and in 1840 he was 
called to the Scottish Bar. He practised 
for a time with some success, particularly 
in criminal causes, and regularly attended 
the Western Circuit. His literary pro- 
pensities, however, were too strong to be 
repressed. He became well known among 
his companions for various successful jeux 
d' esprit, as well as for compositions of a 
more serious kind, both in verse and prose. 
He furnished at this time several contribu- 
tions to Taifs Magazine, where, in con- 
junction with a congenial coUaborateur, 
his early friend, Theodore Martin, he began 
the "Bon Gaultier BaUads" which now 
form the best and most popular collection 
that exists of that kind of composition. 
In 1839 his connection with Blackwood's 
Magazine commenced, and he found here 
a peculiarly fit and favourable field for the 
exercise of his great and varied powers. 
These soon began to be appreciated ; but 
"The Burial March of Dundee," and 
" Charles Edward at Versailles," which 
were published in the Magazine in 1843, 
were the first things that made him knowTi 
as a true poet, and from that time his 
reputation, and, it may be added, his 
powers of literary execution, continued 
steadily to increase. Shortly after this, 
the railway mania attained the alarming 
height which caused so serious a crisis in 
that form of speculation. Aytoun had seen 
in the circle of his own acquaintance a good 
deal of the ruinous effects which fell upon 
those " who," as he used to express it, 
"wereofrf in the 'Forty -five' of the pre- 
sent century ;" and his reflections on this 
disastrous madness led him to attempt an 
antidote. In October, 1845, there appeared 
in the magazine his celebrated paper, 
"How we got up the Glenmutchkin." The 
picture there presented was not only a most 
amusing piece of comic vmting, but a true 
representation of the existing evils, and a 
powerful and most useful satire upon the 
parties concerned in them. We have 
reason to beheve, from good authority, that 
the article had a good effect at the time in 
moderating the frantic speculations of the 
period, and "The Glenmutchkin" has ever 
since been a byword for denouncing those 
desperate enterprises that are imdertaken 
upon no soHd ground, and promoted by an 
atrocious system of exaggeration and false- 
hood. "The Glenmutchkin" was followed 


by many sketches of social life conceived 
and executed in the same happy vein of 
combined humour and good sense ; but it 
was not easy to find another subject so 
fortunate or so popular. In the beginning 
of 1848, the Magazine contained the poem 
of "Edinburgh after Flodden," an ad- 
mirable composition, and the best, perhaps, 
of that collection of lays on which Mr. 
Aytoun' s permanent reputation is most 
Hkely to stand. We cannot help thinking 
that, vrith the single exception of Sir 
Walter Scott's ballads, this volume ex- 
hibits by far the best and truest specimens 
of this pecuhar and diflieult form of poetry 
that have ever appeared from the pen of 
an individual writer. In 1845, Mr. Ay toun 
had been appointed Professor of Rhetoric 
and Belles Lettres in the University of 
Edinburgh. This chair had been occupied 
by very distinguished men before him ; but 
it was his pecuhar merit to make it more 
practically instructive than it had ever 
previously been. He began with a class of 
about thirty students, and ended with hav- 
ing upwards _ of a hundred and fifty — a 
result which is to be ascribed, not perhaps 
to any superiority of his lectures over those 
of his predecessors, but to his great popu- 
larity with his students, arising from two 
different causes : the one, his strong 
synipathy with their youthful tastes and 
aspirations ; and the other, the unwearied 
industry with which he laboured to train 
them to the art of composidon, by his 
strict examination and diligent correction 
of the papers and essays given in by them. 
This must have been an irksome as well aa 
an inglorious task, but he considered it to 
be a duty imposed on him by his position, 
and he reaped the appropriate fruits of it 
by his great success and eminence as a 
literary teacher. In 1849 he married Jane, 
the youngest daughter of Professor Wilson, 
a most amiable lady, with whom he enjoyed 
ten years of great domestic happiness, 
chequered only by her languid state of 
health, and clouded at last by her death in 
1859. In 1852 he was made Sheriff" of 
Orkney and Shetland, and devoted himself 
vrith his habitual earnestness and assiduity 
to the duties of his office. He usually 
passed a considerable portion of the 
summer months in the islands that com- 
posed his Sheriffdom, and his death is 
deeply lamented by all those over whom he 
was thus placed. The death of his gentle 
and affectionate wife was a severe affliction 
to him, and for a long while his health and 
spirits were seriously affected by it. Time, 
however, brought consolation ; and it was 
a great pleasure to his friends when, in 
December, 1863, he married Miss Kinnear, 
with whose near relatives, the BaKours of 
Trennabie, in Orkney, he had long been 
intimate. This also was a most happy 
union, and his health seemed for a time to 
be regaining its original vigour. During 
winter 1864, however, bad symptoms ap- 




peared, and fears began to be entertained 
that some serious constitutional malady 
was undermining his frame. He com- 
plained of great weakness and languor, 
and felt labour of any kind to be irksome. 
Still he was in good spirits, particularly 
when he met with any friend; and in the 
beginning of June he went with Mrs. 
Aytoun to Blackhills, a pleasant retreat 
near Elgin, of which he had taken a lease 
for summer quarters. The accounts re- 
ceived of him after he went to Morayshire 
were not satisfactory, but no immediate 
danger was apprehended. We think it may 
be interesting to our readers to see the way 
in which he speaks of himself and his state 
of health, in a letter he wrote to a friend 
dated at BlackhUls the 14th of July, 1865 : 
— " Dr. Ross, from whose treatment I have 
received great benefit during the fortnight 
he has attended me, is peremptory against 
my working my brain until I am physically 
stronger ; and I am qmte sure he is right, 
for a few days ago the mere effort of find- 
ing rhymes for some macaronic verses I 
had commenced, wearied me in a way I 
previously would have deemed incredible. 
However, I am, thank God, much better 
than I was, and having, as far as discover- 
able, no organic complaint, I may hope, 
with care and perseverance in a generous 
diet, to get back my strength. As regards 
the stores of the druggist I am 'j^arcus 
cultor et injreqthens, taking nothing beyond 
a solution of iron ; but en revanche, I am 
Tiut upon a most liberal allowance of animal 
food, brandy, and claret. I have abandoned 
the idea of going down to the islands in the 
meantime, and shall put off my visit until 
a much later period of the season. I shall 
hope to be able to take the hiU on the 12th 
August, and would be seriously grieved if 
prevented, for my keeper, who was over 
part of the ground on Monday, gives an 
excellent account of the young broods ; 
and I have purveyed me a steady white 
pony — nomine Missy, which name I have 
elevated into that of 'the Muse' — well 
adapted for trottiag through the heather. 
Do you think you coidd come down here 
for that sport? I need not say how joy- 
fully you will be welcomed; and I can 
assure you that there are few prettier or 
more enjoyable places to be found in the 
north of Scotland than this same residence 
of Blackhills. The range of gi-ouse ground 
is very fair, but the extent of the low 
country shooting is immense ; and though 
partridges have not been very plentiful in 
the district for some years, there are hares 
enough to excite to frenzy the soaiping in- 
stincts of a Choctaw. Think of this ; for 
I certainly shall not migrate southwards 
this year until summoned by the approach- 
ing exigencies of the session." — These 
cheerful anticipations were not to be real- 
ized. His disease latterly made rapid pro- 
gress, and he gradually sank under it, and 
tranciuilly expired on the 4th August, re- 

taining the full possession of his faculties 
to the last, and calmly contemplating with 
the most pious resignation his approaching 
end. His life altogether was a successful 
and happy one. Its success he owed to an 
unusual combination of genius, industry, 
and prudence ; and its happiness to his 
bright and genial temperament and equable 
temper. It was always a pleasure to be 
vrith him, as will be acknowledged by every 
one who remembers him as a travelling or 
a social companion. The little toxirs that 
he made from time to time on the Con- 
tinent formed often the subject of pleasant 
articles in the Magazine, but they were not 
so pleasant on paper as they were in reality 
to those who had the good fortune to be 
his f eUow-traveUers. We cannot close this 
short and imperfect notice without adding 
a statement which we think due alike to 
the memory of the deceased and to the 
cause of true rehgion, at a time when so 
much laxity and false liberaUty prevail upon 
serious subjects. Mr Aytoun was a sincere 
and humble Christian. At no time in his 
most joyous moments of jocularity did any- 
thing faU from his lips or from his pen 
that was irreverent, or in any way at 
variance with religious views ; and his last • 
moments were soothed by partaking of the 
Holy Communion, administered to him by 
the excellent pastor who represented in his 
neighbourhood the Episcopal Church, of 
which Mr. Aytoun was always a devoted 
and exemplary, though never a bigoted, 

BALLINGAL, Sir George, Professor 
of Mihtary Surgery in the University of 
Edinburgh, was the son of the Rev. Robert 
BaUingal, minister of the parish of Forglen, 
Banffshire, and was born at Forglen, on the 
2nd of May, 1780. He received the early 
part of his education at the Parish School 
of Falkland, Ftfeshire, and afterwards 
attended four literary sessions at the 
University of St. Andrews, at which city 
he also served an apprenticeship to the late 
Dr. Melville, the father of James MelviUe, 
Esq.. W.S., Edinburgh. In 1803 he com- 
menced his medical studies at the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, and was for some time 
assistant to the late Dr. Barclay, the well- 
known lecturer on Anatomy. Si« George 
entered the army in May, 1806, as assistant- 
surgeon of the second battalion of the 
Royal Scots or First Royals, which regi- 
ment he accompanied to Madras either in 
1806 or during the coui-se of the following 
year. The late Duke of Kent was the 
Colonel of this regiment, and his Royal 
Highness felt interested in, and showed 
the young surgeon great kindness, not only 
during his connection with the First 
Royals, but up to the time of his deatl . 
In 1811, Sir George volunteered into the 
Twenty-second Dragoons, and accompanied 
the expedition against Java, and was pre- 
sent at the capture of that is- land in August 
of that year, for which service he received 



a medal. He returned to Europe in 1814, 
and in 1815 lie joined the army of occupa- 
tion in Paris, as surgeon oF the Thirty-thii-d 
Regiment of Foot. In 1818 he retired on 
half-pay, and engaged in private practice 
in Edinburgh. He was appointed by the 
Crown, in 1823, to the then vacant Chair 
of Military Surgery in the University of 
Edinburgh, which he continued to occupy 
untn the period of his death. His formal 
connection with the army ceased in 1831. 
On the accession of William IV. he accom- 
panied a deputation from the Senatus of 
the University of Edinburgh, to present a 
local address to the Kiag, on which occa- 
sion he was elevated to the dignity of 
knighthood. Sir George was surgeon to 
the Queen and Duchess of Kent in Scot- 
land — Consulting Surgeon to the Royal 
Infirmary— a Fellow of the Royal College 
of Surgeons, Edinburgh — a Fellow of the 
Royal Society — an Honorary Member of 
the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland — 
and a Member of the Medical Societies of 
Paris, Vienna, St. Petersburg, and Berlin. 
Throughout his long career. Sir George 
Ballingal enjoyed the confidence and esteem 
of the heads of the different public depart- 
ments with which ne was connected — a 
circumstance due not only to his profes- 
sional knowledge and skill, but also to his 
upright and gentlemanly deportment in 
private life. Of this respect he obtained 
many substantial tokens, having received 
a splendid diamond ring from the late 
Emperor Nicholas of Russia, and also a 
silver dinner service from the medical 
officers of the Army and Navy and of the 
East India Company's service. His nume- 
rous pupils in active duty in aU parts of the 
world, joined with his colleagues and pro- 
fessional brethren in Edinburgh in lament- 
ing the loss of one so able and consistent 
in all his dealings. Besides his Lectures 
on Military Surgery, and an able Mono- 
graph on the Construction of Hospitals, 
Sir George frequently contributed to the 
medical periodicals ; and his surviving con- 
temporaries look back with satisfaction to 
the papers with which he so promptly 
enriched the pages of the Edinburgh 
Medical Journal whenever any question 
in medical surgery called for the exercise 
of his experienced pen. This eminent man 
died at Edinburgh in 1855, in the 75th year 
of his age, and 32nd of his professorship. 

BELL, Rev. David, Minister of Kenno- 
way. This esteemed clergyman was born 
at West-Calder, on the 11th October, in 
the year 1798, and shortly after his birth, 
his father became Parochial Schoolmaster 
of Uphall, and there, under his father's 
tuition, he received t'le rudiments of his 
education, and spent his school-boy days. 
At the age of sixteen he entered the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh; and after passing 
through the requisite classical cuniculum, 
he entered the Divinity HaU in order to 
quaHfy liimself for the Church of Scotland. 

At the end of his divinity course he got a 
situation in the Royal Navy as teacher or 
tutor, and served first in H.M.S. Euryahs, 
Captain Clifford (afterwards Admiral Sir 
Augustus Clifford), on the Mediterranean 
station, for upwards of three years, and was 
present at the bombardment of Algiers; 
and afterwards in H.M.S. Undaunted, 
under the same Captain, that ship having 
been commissioned to carry Lord William 
Bentinck as Governor-General to India. 
In 1826, after his return from sea, he was 
licensed by the Presbytery of Linlithgow ; 
for six months succeeding Martinmas 1830, 
he was Parochial Schoolmaster of Girvan, 
Ayrshii-e ; and in the year 1831, he was 
ordained by the Presbytery of Kirkcaldy 
to the Church and Parish of Kennoway, 
being presented by the Crown, vacant by 
the death of the Rev. Patrick Wright. In 
the performance of his ministerial duties, 
Mr. BeU was obliging and assiduous, faith- 
fully declaring the doctrines and duties of 
the Christian religion in the pulpit, visit- 
ing the sick, comforting the sorrowful and 
bereaved, and attending conscientiously 
both to the temporal and spiritual welfare 
of his flock, and indeed to all within the 
sphere of his ministrations. Shortly after 
his establishment in Kennoway, he origi- 
nated and conducted a savings bank, which 
he successfully managed from 1834 to 1857, 
when faihng health compelled him to give 
it up, when upwards of £760 was paid to 
the depositors. He also acted as clerk to 
the Presbytery of Kirkcaldy from Feljruary 
1844 to May 1857, for which he was highly 
fitted by his abilities and business habits. 
Owing to an attack of disease, he was in 
1857 unfitted for some time for the per- 
f 'rmance of his pulpit duties, when he had 
for his assistant the Rev. James Cvdlen, 
now minister of Wigtown; and afterwai-ds 
his son, the Rev. Aug. Clifford Bell, at 
I)resent minister of St. Andrew's Church, 
Madras. For some years, however, Mr. 
Bell got quite restored in health, and was 
able to perform his clerical duties with his 
accustomed vigour and acceptability, his 
gentlemanly manner, amiable disposition, 
and anxiety to do good to all, rendering 
him respected and beloved by his parishion- 
ers generally. He took a deep mterest in 
ecclesiastical matters, and was steady in 
his attendance on Church Courts ; but it 
was especially in the conscientious dis- 
charge of his pastoral duties that he may 
be said to have been a model minister. 
For a fortnight Mr. Bell was complaining 
of the cold ; but notwithstanding, went 
about as usual in the active discharge of 
his duties. On Friday, the 5th of April, 
1865, he attended the Examination of the 
Schools in the Parish of Wemyss, and on 
his rettim in the evening, when about to 
open the Bible for family worship, he fell 
from his seat and expired. A monument 
was erected by subscription to his memory 
in the vestibule of the Parish Church with 





the following inscription : — " Sacred to the 
memory of the Rev. David Bell, Minister 
of the Parish, who for the space of thirty- 
iovx years, taught publicly, and from house 
to house repentance, towards God, and 
faith towards our Lord Jesus Christ, and 
who ever exemplified his teaching in his 
life and conversation. Bom 11th October, 
1798. Died 7th AprU, 1865." 

BELL, The Eev. Patkick, Carmyllie, 
Inventor of the Reaping- Machine. This 
gentleman was connected with this County, 
by his residence, while an alumnus of the 
University of St. Andrews, and by receiving- 
the degree of LL.D. from his Alma Mater. 
He was born at the farm of Leach, in the 
parish of Auchterhouse, near Newtyle, 
about the year 1801. He was the second 
son of a respectable farmer, the tenant of 
Leach, and was early designed for the Pres- 
byterian ministry, though the natural bias 
of his mind seems rather to have inclined to 
the mechanical arts. In accordance with 
his father's intention, he was sent, while 
still a lad, to study at St. Andrew's Univer- 
sity. But his genius for mechanics was too 
strong for " the humanities." During the 
long College vacations he resided at home, 
and, to use his own words, was liable, espe- 
cially in the harvest season, to be summoned 
from his studies to wield the fork, or some 
other implement of toil. At a very early 
period of his life, the naturally kind heart 
of young Bell was most painfully struck 
■with the very severe toil to which the har- 
vest workers were subjected — a toil made 
doubly oppressive sometimes by the heat of 
the weather, and always by the very awk- 
ward position in which they were obliged 
to stoop when engaged in their work. The 
warm instincts of his heart found a ready 
co-operator in his fertile brain, and he be- 
came imbued with the resolution of endea- 
vouring by some mechanical invention to 
lighten the labours of the harvest field. 
Nothing was farther from his mind than to 
take the bread out of the mouths of the 
agricultural labourers, for he knew enough 
of the principles of political economy even 
then to be aware that " the employment of 
machinery immediately promotes the in- 
crease of the people's bread, and does not 
ultimately tend to diminish the means of 
the people to obtain that bread." For years 
his mind was full of the subject, but for long 
his plans were only laid in order, one after 
another, to be given up as worthless. It 
was by one of those strange coincidences — 
caU them accidents, if you will — which, as 
in the famous case of Newton and his apple, 
occur to men of genius just at the nick of 
time— that Bell was fairly put upon the right 
track of his ultimate Invention. We vrill 
relate the incident in his own words, as 
given at the meeting of the British Associ- 
ation in Dundee, in 1867 : — " One evening, 
after tea, while walking in my father's gar- 
den, my eyes caught a pair of gardener's 
shears sticking in the hedge. I seized them 

by the handles, which protruded, and I 
proceeded to snap at the twigs of the thorns. 
My mind was full of mechanics at the time, 
and many hours were spent in my workshop; 
and, contemplating the shears attentively, 
I insensibly said to myself, Here is a prin- 
ciple, and is there any reason why it should 
not be applied to the cutting down of corn ?'' 
He found there was no reason, and immedi- 
ately proceeded to carry out the principle 
wliich had thus occurred to him. This 
happened in the year 182(i, and before 
twelve months had passed he had managed 
to construct a reaping machine, which was 
first tried on his father's farm, in a field at 
the side of the Balbeuchly incline, on the 
Newtyle Railway. Of course it afterwards 
underwent great modifications, but by 1828 
it had to all intents and purposes assumed 
the form it now bears under the name of 
Bell's Reaping Machine. It had only to 
be known, in order to have its merits recog- 
nised and appreciated, and in haK-a-dozen 
years it had become the pattern of simi- 
lar machines beyond the Atlantic. Such 
is a brief outline of the circumstances 
which made the name of Bell known to 
fame. About the same time that he was 
engaged in working out his grand idea — 
still a student at St. Andrew — his mecha- 
nical genius enabled him to construct an 
instrument for the extraction of sugar 
from beet-root. The sugar was sold in 
Dundee, and the feat of the young stu- 
dent caused no little talk in those days. 
He also contrived an apparatus for lighting 
his father's farm-steading with gas, which 
proved thoroughly practical and efficient. 
After leaving College, Mr. Bell accepted 
the situation of tutor in a family residing in 
Canada, and there he remained for several 
years. His entrance upon the ministerial 
office took place in the year of the Disrup- 
tion, 1843, when he was presented by the 
Crown to the parish of Carmyllie, and 
solemnly ordained thereto by the Presby- 
tery of Arbroath. He continued in that 
charge up to the day of his death. As was 
but natural, the reverend gentleman always 
manifested a very warm interest in matters 
pertaining to agriculture, and farmed his 
own glebe, which was of considerable ex- 
tent. He was also a reg^ar and volumin- 
ous contributor to the principal agricultural 
journals. In 1859 he married a daughter of 
the late Provost Lawson of Dundee, who 
survives him, with three children. About 
a year ago a movement was organised by 
the Highland and Agricultural Society of 
Scotland to present him with a testimonial 
in acknowledgment of his great and inesti- 
mable services in the cause of agricultural 
improvement, and the result was, that at a 
special meeting of that body in Edinburgh, 
the reverend gentleman was presented with 
a purse of a thousand guineas, together with 
a most massive and beautiful piece of silver 
plate. About the same time the University 
of St. Andrews conferred the honorary de- 




gree of LL.D. on lier distinguished alumnus. 
But Dr. Bell was not destined long to enjoy 
the honours thus heaped on his old age. It 
is now about a year since he was first 
attacked by the painful malady, disease of 
the kidneys, which terminated in his death ; 
and since December last he had been con- 
fined to bed, and incapacitated for the dis- 
charge of his pastoral duties. About six 
o'clock on Thursday evening, tlie 22nd of 
April, 1869, he peacefully breathed his last 
in the bosom of his mourning family. As a 
clergyman. Dr. Bell took a deep and'fatherly 
interest in the welfare — both s^piritual and 
temporal— of his parishioners. He was 
exceedingly popular among the latter, hav- 
ing won the hearts of all, from the highest 
to the lowest, by the sweetness and truly 
Christian amiability of his disposition. 
His preaching powers were such that he 
never wanted a full congregation ; but it is 
as the kind homely friend that Dr. Bell will 
be most deeply regretted. It is given to 
but few men to look back, as Dr. 15ell was 
able to do, from a dying bed on a life so well 
spent in the service of his God, and the 
assistance of his fellow-creatures; and, "not 
many mighty, not many strong-." was fol- 
lowed to the grave with mourning so sin- 
cere as the meek and gentle pastor of Car- 
myUie. The funeial of this esteemed and 
venerated minister took place on Tliursdav, 
the 29th, when his remains were followed 
to their last resting-place by a very large 
concourse of his parishioners, as well as many 
from the surrounding districts. Among 
others present were most of the ministers 
of the Presb^-tery of Arbroath. Several, 
however, were unavoidably absent, owing 
to the circumstance of it being the sacra- 
mental fast-day in Panbride and Carnoustie. 
A short time ago the Earl of Dalhousie 
made a gift of a piece of ground adjoining 
the churchyard to form an extension of it. 
This has now been walled in by the heritors, 
and the interment took place in it, this 
being the first interment which has taken 
place there. 

BEVERIDGE, Eeskine, Manufacturer, 
Dunfermline, was born there in the year 
180i. He began life as a draper's assist- 
ant, but by his energy and ability he soon 
came to have a business of his own in 
Dunfermline, which he conducted for a 
number of years very prosperously. About 
the year 1833, he ti;med his attention to 
the niauafacture of damapks ; and finding 
in this a more con.ijeuial and promising 
occupation, he relinquished the drapery 
business, and by force of his thorough 
business qualities, soon established a name 
for himself in the trade. Finding that the 
apphanees at his command did not satis- 
factorily meet the demand for his goods, 
ne set about the erection of a power-loom 
factory, which, though of limited extent 
at the time, formed the nucleus of what 
became, we believe, the largest establish- 
ment of the kind in Scotland. It was the 

habit of Mr. Beveridge to master person- 
ally aU those financial calculations on which 
his profits as a merchant depended, but 
that task during the last three years of his 
hfe had been rather an onerous one, in 
consequence of the fluctuations of the yar-i 
market, caused by the American civil war 
Work, however, was his delight; and so 
long as his powers continued to bend to his 
will, they were tasked to the uttermost. 
About the month of December I8G3, Mr. 
Beveridge besran to complain, and from 
that time onward he continued to droop. 
He was a conscientious dissenter. His 
liberality in this direction was unbounded. 
But a few mouths before his death he pre- 
sented a munificent sum, £500, in aid of 
buildins: a house for his pastor, and another 
sum, £1.50, for the improvement of the 
vestry of his church. His religion con- 
sisted more in doing and acting, than in 
thinking and speculating. He acted out 
his religion, and carried it out with every 
thini? in his daily life. Man cannot live a 
practical life without religion; the two 
must be connected and bound up together, 
and the character can only be made whole 
and made beautiful by the union of the 
earthly and the heavenly. In Mr. Beveridge 
they were so woven and intermingled, the 
one with the other, that the line of eepai- 
ation could scarcely be drawn between 
them. He was a very charitable man, and 
he was once heard to give utterance to 
that noble expression, " that the greatest 
pleasure he felt in life was in giving 
pleasure to others." Mr. Beveridge died at 
Dunfermline, on the 2nd of December, 
1864, at Priory House, Dunfermline, in 
the sixtieth year of his age, sincerely re- 
spected and universally lamented. 

BOYLE, The Right Hon. James, Earl 
of Glasgow. This nobleman was born at 
London on the 10th April, 1792. He was 
the second son of George, the fourth earl, 
by Lady Augusta Hay, third daughter of 
James, fourteenth Earl of Errol. At the 
age of fifteen he entered the royal navy, in 
which he continued eleven years, and re- 
tired with the rank of captain. As the 
pvopiietor of Crawfurd Priory in Fife, his 
Lordship's name found a place in the 
" Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Men 
of Fife" (page 74), wheie his eminent ser- 
vices as a gallant naval oflicer and the 
various steps of his promotion are recorded. 
We don't mean to recapitulate these sei- 
vices here, but proceed to narrate a few of 
the more important events of his subsequent 
career While yet a young man his Lord- 
ship succeeded, through his mother, to the 
estate of Etal, in Northumberland. As 
Lord Kelburne, he represented, for a short 
rime, the county of Ayr, and in 1821 mar- 
ried Georgina, daughter of the late Edward 
Hay Mackenzie, Esq., of Newhall and 
Cromarty. In 1843, on the death of his 
father, he came into possession of the 
family titles and estates. The noble Earl 




was an accomplished horseman, and his 
racing stud, wliich be maintained to the 
last, was one of the finest in the kingdom, 
and will long be remembered for the hon- 
ourable position he held on the turf. In an 
age when so much is written on the degene- 
racy of the turf, it is pleasant to look back 
on the long and honouralile career of a 
spoitsman like Lord Glasgow. As a land- 
lord, and as Lord-Lieutenant of Renfrew- 
shire, he was much respected. At Dairy 
and Kilwinning, wliere he had extensive 
properties, as well as other estates in Ren- 
frewshire and Fife, his acts of generosity 
were numerous and highly appreciated. 
The worthy Earl died at his seat of Hawk- 
head, Renfrewshire, on the 11th of March, 
1869, much regretted, and is succeeded in 
his titles and Scottish estates, by his half- 
brother, the Hon. George Frederick Boyle, 
of the Garrison, Cumbrae, who married in 
1856, the Hon. Montague Abercromby, 
daughter of George Ralph, third Lord 
Abercromby, and has issue, a daughter, the 
Hon. Gertrude Boyle, now about ten years 
of age. The English estate of Etal goes to 
the sister of the late Lord, who married in 
1821, Lord Frederick Fitzclarence, now de- 
ceased, one of the sons of "William IV. 
The Scottish estates to which tlie present 
Lord succeeds, are extensive, and the in- 
come is supposed to be about £50,000 a year. 
BRODIE, Rev. James, A.M., Monimail, 
was of Fife ancestry, although he is a 
native of Aberdeenshire himself, and was 
ordained in 1829. He was minister of the 
Parish Church of Monimail, but left the 
Established and joined the Free Church at 
the Disruption in 1843. Mr. Brodie is a 
good, worthy man ; not loss distinguished 
for his talents and literai-y attainments 
than for his devotion to the faithful dis- 
charge of all the sacred duties of his 
profession. The triumph of principle over 
individual interest, is nowhere more plainly 
exhibited than in the small plain building 
which forms the Free Church of Monimail, 
as distinguished from the large, substant ial 
edifice of the Parish Church, from which 
it is not far distant, with its fine spire, 
situated on a wooded eminence, and 
embosomed in luxuriant foliage. That 
church, and the very desu-able manse be- 
side it, with the excellent living attached 
to them, were once Mr. Brodie' s ; but in 
Aindication of his principles, he laid down 
all — facing the exigencies of dark and un- 
settled times, and trusting, under Pro- 
vidence, to the Hberality of the people. 
We have spoken of Mr. Brodie as a faithful 
and diligent country minister, but his work 
has not been confined to his labours in that 
capacity. He occiipies no mean place in 
our literature. From his pen has emanated 
not a few excellent books, both religious 
and scientific. Of the latter, " The 
Science of Articulate Sounds," and "The 
Antiquity of Man," are Mr. Brodie's. 
This last is a reply to the theories of Sir 

Charles Lyell, regarding what may be calle J 
the fabulous antiquity he assigns to the 
race, from the discoveries which have been 
made in the Valley of the Somme and else- 
where. His magnum opus is undoubtedly 
"The Rational Creation." It partakes of 
a scientific, but more especially of a re- 
ligious nature, and its object is to show 
that the philosophy of the human mind, 
and a sincere belief in the doctrine of 
Revelation, are not at variance, but per- 
fectly compatible, and indeed beautifully 
harmonizing with each other. The com- 
plete system of the work, through all its 
branches — metaphysical, physical, moral 
and theological — is its great beauty. It is 
a valuable treatise for the studiously in- 
clined, and we especially commend it to 
young men entering upon the active duties 
of life. Another work by Mr. Brodie, 
"Annie Macdonald," has been well re- 
ceived by the pub he, and has gone through 
several editions. It consists chiefly of the 
narrative of the religious life and struggles 
of this good old woman, who lived to be 
iipwards of ninety, and who spent the last 
tliirty years of her life in the parish of 
Monimail. By the general reader it is 
perused with interest, from the fact that 
this remarkable woman — this " self-taught 
cottager," as the author styles her— was 
the grandmother of the two clever but un- 
fortunate brothers, Alexander and John 
Bethune, who resided at Abdie Newburgh, 
an excellent biography of whom is ap- 
pended to the book. Only one other book 
remains to be noticed, and that is a little 
work entituled "Our Present Position on 
the Chart of Time," from which it will be 
seen,_ that amid liis variorrs duties, Mr. 
Brodie has found time to be a close and 
somewhat successful student of Prophecy. 
It now only remains for us to state that 
Mr. Brodie is an active member of Presby- 
tery. He is Clerk to the Synod, m whicli 
capacity he discharges his duties with 
fidelity and business-like tact ; and whether 
in Presbytery or Synod, he is greatly re- 
spected and esteemed by all his brethren. 

BROWNE, Jamfs, LL.D., author of 
the " History of the Highlands, and of the 
Highland Clans," was born at Whitefield, 
parish of CargiQ, Perthshire, in 1793. His 
father was a manufacturer at Coupar- 
Angus, having in his employment a num- 
ber of weavers. He unfortunately met 
with some losses in trade, but while in 
more thriving circumstances he had con- 
trived to give his son James a good educa- 
tion. As he was intended for the ministry 
of the Church of Scotland, he was sent to 
the University of St. Andrews, where he 
early distinguished himself by the great 
facility with which he mastered the Classics, 
as well as for the vigour and force of his 
conversational talents. Even at this period 
he wa3_ noted for a strong tendency to 
romancing, which, though circumscribed 
by his intended profession, could not be 




alt(3gether suppressed, and formed by far 
the most remarkable feature o£ hi? charac- 
ter. After passing through the ordinary 
literary and philosophical curriculum at 
the University, he entered ou the study of 
divinity, and in due time wa3 licensed to 
preach the Gospel. His classical attain- 
ments having eminently fitted liim for a 
teacher of youth, he soon found employ- 
ment as a tutor iu several fajnilies of dis- 
tinction, with one of which he visited the 
Continent, On his return to Scotland, he 
became assistant-teacher of Latin, under 
Mr. Dick, in Perth Academy, and at the 
same time officiated as interim-assistant 
to the Rev. Lewis Dui^bar, minister of tlie 
Parish of Kinnoul, in Perthshire. As a 
preacher, Browne was remarkable for the 
vigour of his language and the enthusiasm 
of his manner, but his sermons, as we have 
been informed by a hearer, were but slen- 
derly tinged with doctrinal divinity. It 
was about this time that he published 
anonymously his " History of the Inquisi- 
tion," which at one period was rather a 
popular book. In 1817, on the death of 
Princess Charlotte, he published the ser- 
mon which he preached on that mournful 
occasion. He afterwards resolved on aban- 
doning the ministry, and proceeding to 
Edinburgh, he shaped his studies for the 
bar, while, for a livelihood, he devoted 
himself to literary pursuits. He passed 
advocate in the year 1826, and received 
the degree of LL.D. from the University 
of St. Andrews. His mind, however, was 
too thoroughly imbued with literary tastes 
to fit him for success as a lawyer ; in fact, 
t le entire framework of his intellect had 
nothing in it akin to the duU formulae of 
legal pleadings, and although occupying 
the status of an advocate, he fell back upon 
literature and science, his only available 
source for a livelihood. He was for a con- 
siderable time editor of Constable's Maga- 
zine, as the Scots Magazine was called, and 
wrote largely for the Reviews, Magazines, 
and Periodicals of the day, and was always 
remarkable for his tendency to strong 
statement. In one of the numbers of 
Blackwood's Magazine, an article appeared 
i;^ferring to him, entitled, " Some Passages 
in the Life of Colonel Cloud," which was 
strikingly illustrative of this weakness in 
his character. It was understood to be 
from the pen of H 'gg, the Ettrick Shep- 
herd, In 1827, Dr. Browne was appointed 
editor of the Caled.mian Mercury, one of 
the oldest of the Scottish newspapers, and 
while he was so, he became involved in a 
controversy with Mr. Charles M'Laren, the 
editor of the Scotsman, which terminated 
in a duel between them (of a bloodless 
character, however); as both parties, after 
exchanging shots, left the field unhurt. 1 ii 
1826, Dr. Browne published a 12mo volume, 
entitled, " Critical Examination of Dr. 
M'CuUoch's Work on the Highlands and 
Western Isles." It was mainly owing to 

his articles in the Caledonian Mercury, that 
in 1827 the horrible murders in the West 
Port were brought to light, and the wretch 
Burke tried, condemned, and executed. 
In 1830, owing to some dispute with the 
proprietors, Browne left the Caledonian 
Mercury, ^ and in conjunction with Mr. 
Daniel Lizars, bookseller, started the North 
Briton, a twice a week paper, which though 
vigorously wi-itten, and ably conducted, did 
not long continue. He afterwards, for a 
short time, resumed his old post of editor 
of the Caledonian Mercury, Subsequently 
he became sub-editor of the seventh edi- 
tion of the Encyclopedia Britannica, wheie 
he displayed much industry, and his liter- 
ary resources appeared to great advantage. 
To his exertions and vast fund of informa- 
tion on almost every subject, that import- 
ant work owed much of its excellence and 
its value. He wrote some elaborate and 
able articles for it ; among others those on 
the A_rmy, Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Libra- 
ries, Newspapers, &c., besides a number of 
biographical articles, such as that of 
Bossuet, Fenelon, &c. He likewise wrote 
two articles on Egyptian Hieroglypliics 
for the Edinhurgli Review, which attracted 
considerable attention at the time, a,s they 
embodied all that was then known on the 
subject. His contributions to the " Edin- 
burgh Geographical and Historical Atlas," 
a work compiled by him, with David 
Buchanan and H. Smith, which came out 
in folio in 1835, as also his contributions 
to the North Briton newspaper, were pub- 
lished separately. His " History of the 
Highlands and of the Highland Clans," 
which is in four volumes 8vo, possesses 
much force and vividness in its descrip- 
tions, and is marked by all the peculiar 
chai-acteristics of his style. In politics 
Dr. Browne was, throughout his career, a 
consistent liberal. In the latter years of 
his Hfe, he became a proselyte to Popery, 
principally through the influence of his 
wife, who had been educated in that faith. 
She was a daughter of Mr. Stewart of 
Huntfield, and cousin of General Stewart 
of Garth. Dr. Browne died in 1841, and 
was buried in Duddiugstone churchyard. 
A critical review of Scott's Prose Works, 
written by him, was posthumously pulj- 
lished. Notwitlistanding his being en- 
dowed with a strong bodily constitution, 
he was, while yet, it may be said, in the 
prime of life, worn out by over-mental 
exertion, and fell at last a victim to 
paralysis. It is much to his credit that he 
was the sole support of his parents in their 
old age. His daughter married James 
Grant, at one time an ensign in the (i2ud 
Foot, author of the "Romance of War," 
and other novels. 

BROWN, Rev. Dr. Wiixtam, Professor 
of Divinity and Biblical Criticism in tl;e 
University of St. Andrews, was born at 
Leuchars, in the county r f Fife, in the year 
lb(JU, (jf parents who, though humble in 




station, were distinguished for ^eat worth 
and piety, and with them, at an early a?e, 
he removed to St. Andrews. He studied 
first at the Grammar School, and after- 
wards at the University, in both of which 
he highly distinguished himself, and gained 
the highest honours. In the United Col- 
lege he was a favourite pupil of Dr. James 
Hunter. Having completed his usual 
academical course, he went to the Diviuity 
Hall for some time, and subsequently 
finished his theological education in the 
University of Aberdeen. Soon after, he 
accepted a situation as tutor in a private 
family in Banffshire, which he occupied for 
seven years. The opportunities for study 
Avhich he then enjoyed were sedulously 
improved, and he was thereby rendered 
comparatively independent in the resources 
of mental cultivation which the active life 
which he afterwards pursued in South 
America made it impossible that he could 
there acquire. After being licensed by the 
Presbytery of Banff, Dr. Chalmers, with 
whom he had in his early St. Andrews 
days been on a footing of cordial intimacy, 
and who highly appreciated the energy and 
impulse of his character, proposed to him 
to undertake a mission to Buenos Ayres, 
in South America, with the view of estab- 
lishing there a Presbyterian Church. He 
accepted the proposal, and sailed in 1836 
for Buenos Ayres, where he remained until 
1850, when he paid a visit to Scotland. It 
was his intention to return to Buenos 
Ayres — for which to the end of his life he 
retained an affectionate regard — but having 
previously sent home his family to this 
country, he was reconciled to an abandon- 
ment of his plans ; and in the following 
year he had the satisfaction of seeing his 
services rewarded by his appointment to 
the Chair of Divinity and Biblical Criticism 
iu the University of St. Andrews. Dr. 
Brown died at St. Andrews on the 19th 
August, 1868, and was interred in the 
Cathedral burying-ground. Besides the 
friends of the deceased, the funeral was 
attended by the Provost, Magistrates, and 
Town Council; the Senatus ; Students of 
Divinity ; many ministers from a distance ; 
and a large body of citizens. 

BRUCE, Rev. James, a miscellaneous 
writer, was born about the year 1/64, of 
parents in a respectable station of life. 
In 1780 he was a distinguished scholar at 
the University of St. Andrews. He after- 
wards removed to Cambridge, where he 
became a Fellow in Emmanuel College, 
and took his degree of M.A. He subse- 
quently entered into holy orders in England, 
Wiiere he remained many years, in the 
c nacity of a curate. About the beginning 
of the present century he returned to Soot- 
land, and became a clergymau in tlie 
Scottish Episcopal Church. About 1803 
he began to furnish reviews for the Anti- 
Jac'ibin, Magazine, a review now discon- 
tinued, and to the British Critic, two 

monthly publications, which were then the 
only periodical works which devoted any part 
of their space to the interests of the Church 
of England. These two publications were 
for a long time chiefly conducted and sup- 
ported by Mr. Bruce, and his friend, the 
late Right Rev. Dr. George Gleig, Bishop 
of Brechin and Primus. Notwithstanding 
his talents, and his varied and solid attain- 
ments, Mr. Bruce never rose to any Church 
preferment, but died in the year 1806 or 
1807, in comparative obscurity in London, 
after leading a most laborious Hterary life. 
Mr. Bruce's reviews extend from Vol. XV. 
to Vol. XXII. of the Anti-Jacohin. Of the 
following, among many other works, the 
criticisms were written by him : — Overton's 
True Churchman ; Gleig' s Sermons ; Skin- 
ner's Primitive Truth ; Bishop of Lincoln's 
Charge; Dawbeney's Vindicise; Pinker- 
ton's Geography; Repton's Articles; Bis- 
set' s History ; Grant's Poems ; Hill's 
Synonymes, a very able and learned 
critique ; Martin's Sermons ; Barrow's 
Travels; Hill's Theological Institutes; and 
C-odwin's Fleetwood. 

BURT, John— Bom at the village of 
Burnside, in the parish of Strathmiglo, 
in April, 1819. His father, Henry Burt, 
was a farm servant, and latterly superin- 
tended a district of turnpike roads, al- 
though sprung from a family who were in 
better circumstances at one time. John 
Burt, the grandfather of the subject of 
our sketch, had considerable property in 
Kinross-shire, but was obliged to part with 
it, to sustain a large family during the 
dearth which occurred in 1798-9, and one 
of the same family was proprietor of the 
estate of Bams, in the same county, but 
which has since passed into the hands of 
the Adams of Blairadam, the present pro- 
prietor of which — William Adam, Esq., 
M P.— represents the united counties of 
Kinross and Clackmannan in the Commons 
House of Parliament. The subject of our 
present sketch got but a moderate educa- 
tion at a village school, but early ac- 
quired a very strong taste for reading and 
self-culture, and thus while an apprentice, 
was able in a great degree to make up 
for deficient school training. At this 
early period, an extensive parish library 
was" read through and through by him 
with great avidity, and he was in tlie 
constant habit of contributing to the 
local p:ipers. At this sanguine period of 
life, from reading Grecian and Roman 
history, together with the works of Major 
Cart Wright and William Cobbett, a poUtical 
cast of mind was formed in him, whicli 
has been consistently adhered to through 
life, of a thoroughly liberal tendency. 
Settling down in the city of Glasgow in 
1841, without a single friend or acquaint- 
ance, he has gradually raised himself to 
position, respectability, and honour. He 
was elected to represent one of the wards 
in the Town Council m 1861, by a large 



tiuijurity, after a keen contest, and bas 
biion returned twice since without opposi- 
tion, and is now an active member of that 
local City Parliament. Mr. Burt, although 
much attached to the city of his adoption, 
has an equally strong love for his native 
county — " Fife and a' the lauds about it" — 
and we believe still continues to contribute 
occasional articles to its local press. He 
lias also been for many years connected 
with, and a director of, a charitable society, 
which annually dispenses large sums to 
<listressed or decayed natives of the county. 
Carrying on an extensive business as a 
manufacturer of leather, and connected as 
a director or patron with many of our local 
city institutions, we trust many years of 
activity and usefulness are still before him, 
as he is still in the prime and vigour of 

CARLYLE, Thomas, an essayist and 
historian, is connected with Fife by official 
^e^idence, having become a teacher of 
mathematics at Kirkcaldy, where Edward 
Irving, who had been for some years his 
intimate friend, was settled, Mr. Carlyle 
was born on the 5th December, 1/95, at 
Ecclefechan, in Dumfries-shire ; educated 
at Annan, and at the age of fourteen he 
removed to the University of Edinburgh, 
where he devoted himself chiefly to the 
study of Mathematics and Natural Philo- 
sophy, under Leslie and Playfair. His 
private studies, were, however, at this 
period of more importance in his future 
career, than the tasks and the classes. In 
the college Ubrary, he read works in every 
department of literature, while he assidu- 
ously studied the modern languages of 
Europe, and especially German, which was 
then little cultivated in Scotland. He re- 
mained at the University about seven 
years, with the view of entering the Church; 
but he changed his intention, and in 1820, 
taught a mathematical class at Kii'kcaldy. 
After remaining there some years, he re- 
solved to enter on a new field of activity. 
He held the doctrine that the press was 
the only true priesthood, and governing 
power of the world, that literature was the 
best church, and that writers are the best 
preachers of modern times for all kinds of 
people, and in all places. He steadily ad- 
hered to this principle on removing to 
Edinburgh, where he enthusiastically de- 
voted himself to authorship ; liis first work 
being a translation of " Legendie's Geo- 
metry," to which he prefixed an " Essay on 
Proportion." In 1825, he published a 
translation of Goethe's Wilhelm Meister, 
a work which directed his mind into a 
new current of thought. Once among the 
Germans, he went boldly to work en a 
" Life of Schiller," which was published 
from month to munth in the London jilaija- 
zine. In 1825, Mr. Carlyle man-ied Miss 
Veitch, a lady of cultivated tastes, and 
much literary ability, and he shortly after- 
wa,rds proceeded toCraigeuputtoch, a small 

farm in the moors of Dumfries-shire, where 
he kept up a correspondence with Goethe, 
and prosecuted the study of German liter- 
ature. Here he wrote various articles for tl.e 
Edinburyh Encyclo'jycedia, and the Edin- 
burgh Review, to the former, contributing 
the lives of Montesquieu, Montaigne, Nelson , 
and the two Pitts ; and to the latter his re- 
markable essays on " Jean Paul," "German 
Literature," and " Burns." While living 
at this place he also wrote " Sartor Re- 
sartus," a history of the life and opinions 
of Herr Teufelsdrockh, an imaginary 
German professor, in which he set forth a 
whole philosophy of life and society. The 
mixture of subtle speculation, true poetry, 
and grotesque humour, which characterised 
his work, had their effect, heightened by 
the use of a novel and peculiar phraseology, 
to some extent the imitation of a German 
literary slang, but to a greater extent still, 
the product of Mr. Carlyle's invention. 
It enabled him to compress, within a small 
compass, a great variety of ideas, which 
could not have been expressed within the 
same space, under the ordinary forms of 
pure, precise, and measured English prose ; 
and it seems to have been found so service- 
able and effective in this respect, that it 
has been adliered to by the author in all 
his subsequent writings. In 1834, Mr. 
Carlyle removed to London, and has since 
resided in a house at Chelsea, exercising a 
strong personal influence on the most 
eminent literary men of the metropolis. 
During the first year of his residence in 
London, " Sartor Resartus" was published 
m a separate form. It was not till 1837, 
that he published the " French Revolu- 
tion," which placed him in the first rank 
of living writers. This work produced a 
profound imiire-ssion on the public mind, 
abounding as it did in vividly graphic and 
picturesque description, and intensity of 
feeling. " Chartism" appeared in 1839. 
In 1840, Mr. Carlyle delivered a series of 
lectures on " Heroes and Hero Worship," 
which were published in 1841. " Past and 
Present" appeared in 1843, and in 1850 the 
" Latter Day Pamphlets," in which the 
author declaims vigorously against the re- 
volutionary events of 184S ; his " Life of 
John Stirling" (1851), and the "Letters 
and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell" (1847). 
The latter holds a high place, as shedding 
new light on a character of the highest 
mark in British history. His later work, 
" The Life of Frederick the Great," par- 
takes at once of his feelings and his genius, 
but is still as interesting a.s, and more in- 
structive than, a romance. Few authors 
have been better abused and more admir- 
ed and upheld than Carlyle, but his influence 
over contemporary literature continues 
powerful. A uniform and handsome edition 
of his works, comprising sixteen volumes, 
has lately been published. For many years 
Carlyle led a life of comparative seclusic n 
in Chelsea : a man of solitary and eccentric 




habits, occu[)ied uliiolly with his own 
thoughts, select in hij friendships, yet con- 
stantly displaying the simplicity of his 
natvire, and the goodness of his heart. A 
<:r,)wning honour was reserved for him. In 
186G he was elected Lord Kector of his own 
University of Edinburgh, and delivered his 
lecture " On the Choice of Books," on the 
occasion of his installation in April of that 
year, to a crowded and delighted audience. 
The writings of Carlyle, to use the words 
if one of his countrymen, "have already 
luade a deeper impression on the literature 
of Great Britain tlian tlio works of any 
writer who has lived for a century." They 
have also done miuch to mould some of the 
best thinkers in America. 

CAW, The B,ev. David — a worthy cler- 
jryman, much esteemed in Fife, died at 
Paris, Canada West, on the 4th day of 
October, 18G4. Mr. Caw had reached the 
6Sth year of bis age, and 34th of his 
ministry. He was born at Methven, in 
April 1797; studied at the United Seces- 
sion Hall ; was licensed by the Presbytery 
of Cupar-Fife; ordained at Savoch of 
Deer, in 1830 ; and emigi-ated to Canada 
in 1832. His death will take some of his 
fellow-students, now ministers in this 
country, by surprise. On October 4th, he 
left his home in good health to visit some 
members of his congregation ; and, while 
near to a line of railway, the horse he 
drove took fright and ran off. He was 
thrown from his conveyance, by which he 
received concussion of the brain, and lived 
but a few hours. He has been removed in 
the fulness of health, and in the midst of 
liis usefulness, much regretted by the 
people of his charge, and his brethren in 
the ministry. Mr. Caw was well known in 
l''ifeshire, for while studying with a view 
t > the ministry, he taught a school in the 
village of Balcurvie, where he was highly 
esteemed ; and was a member of the United 
ISecession Congregation of Kennoway, in 
the prosperity of which he took a deep in- 
terest; and many of his old friends in this 
neighbourhood felt deep sorrow on hearing 
of the fatal accident that has ended, while 
discharging ministerial duty, the earthly 
career of one whom they so highly respect- 
ed, though residing in a distant land. 

CHALMERS, Rev. Dk. Peter, Minis- 
ter of the Abbey Church, Dunfermline, 
was born at Glasgow, about the year 1790. 
He was the son of Peter Chalmers, mer- 
chant in Glasgow, and received the rudi- 
ments of his education at a public school 
in that city. He soon began to manifest 
superior powers, and made rapid progress 
in those branches of a liberal education, 
forming a necessary preparation for the 
ministry. About the age of sixteen, he 
entered the University of Glasgow, and 
passed through the prescribed classical cur- 
riculum, taking various prizes all through 
his course. Having completed his theolo- 
gical studies, Mr. Chalmers was duly 

licensed to preach tlie gospel; nor was he 
long without an engagement, for his supe- 
rior powers were soon appreciated. The 
celebrated Dr. Thomas Chalmers, being 
then in Want of a helper, at once selected 
the subject of our «ketch to be his assistant , 
and he very efficiently discharged thw 
duties of this office foT two yeafs and 
upwards. In 1816, the Rev. J. Fernie, 
minister of the second charge of Dunferm- 
line, died, and Mr. Peter Chalmers was 
appointed to till his place. In 1817 he was 
lawfully ordained to that charge, and hav- 
ing entered on his duties, was received with 
great acceptability by the congregation. 
His discourses which were carefully pre- 
pared, were listened to with deep attention 
by his hearers, and every seat was occupied. 
Mr. Chalmers was not long in Dunferm- 
line, when a stin-iug among the dry leaves 
was felt, and which soon became more per- 
ceptible — men of worth and influence were 
added to the kirk session — his minigterial 
duty was exemplary, and his pastoral visi- 
tations were well received — accompanied, 
as they always were, by an expression of 
great willingness to promote the welfare, 
temporal and spiritual, of his congregation. 
Mr. Chalmers always evinced a deep inter- 
est in the passing events of the town and 
district— either to frown upon occurrences 
of a demoralizing character, or to patronize 
those of a moral and religious tendency. 
When Sir Alex. Boswell was shot by Mr. 
Stuart of Hillside, in a duel, Mr. Chalmers 
did not fail to improve the unhappy occa- 
sion to his parishioners, by preaching two 
sermons against duelling. We pass on to 
a more pleasing duty, viz., to notice the 
active part Mr. Chalmers took in the in- 
auguration of the " Mechanics' Institute 
of Dunfermline," which took place some 
time soon after, under the presidency of 
the worthy Earl of Elgin, and vice-presi- 
dency of Mr. Hunt of PittencriefF, and the 
reverend gentleman himself . The Institute 
was succeeded by another Society of a 
kindred nature, namely, " The Scientific 
Association." This Society also received 
great assistance from Mr. Chalmers. Its 
success was promoted both by his counsels 
and his lectures, one of these in particular, 
viz., that "on the Dunfermline Table Linen 
ilauufacture," which was illustrated by 
models and drawings got up at his own 
ex])ense, was attentively listened to, and 
highly appreciaLed. It would be gratifying 
to the writer to give here in minute and 
chronological detail, an account of Mr. 
Chalmers' proceedings during the period 
of his incumbency. To do this, however, 
would require a volume in place of our 
limited space. His acquirements as a theo- 
logian, and his powers as a preacher,_ were 
of no common order. The University of 
Glasgow, his alma mater, voluntarily 
presented him with his degree of D.D., 
and he was translated to the first charge 
of the Abbey Church in 1836. His princi- 




, pies were evangelical, his character was 
pure aud spotless, —his benevoleace un- 
bounded, — his manners gentle and prepos- 
sessing. The follo-sviug are the principal 
works published by him : — 1. History of 
Dunfermline, 2 vols., 8vo. 2. A Treatise 
on Duelling. 3. Essay on Dunfermline 
Coal Fields, which had a premium awarded 
for it. 4 An Article on Dunfermline ; 
and New Statistical Account of Scotland. 
6. Articles read before the Society of Anti- 
quaries of Scotland, besides many other 
productions of an ephemeral character. 

CHAMBERS, Robert, LL.D., residing 
in St. Andrews, is a celebrated publisher 
iind essayist. He was born in Peebles, in 
1802. Like his brother William, the pre- 
sent Lord Provost of Edinburgh, (1869) he 
recedved a good education, attaining con- 
siderable efficiency in the classics. He 
was intended for the Church. His home 
was one in which books of thought and 
taste, philosophical instruments, and dis- 
cussions found a prominent place. It was 
the only one in the town in which a copy 
of the " Encyclopaedia Britannica" existed. 
He thiis acquired an amount of culture still 
uncommon m the rank of life to which he 
belonged. When scarcely sixteen, he com- 
menced a bookselling business in Edin- 
burgh. He early appealed to the world as 
an author. A production of his on the 
Antiquities of Edinburgh, gained for him 
the notice of Sir Walter Scott, who in his 
diary, terms him " a clever young fellow 
who hurts himself by too much haste." 
In 1832, he gave up his business and joined 
his elder brother William in establishing 
the eminent publishing house, since known 
as " WilUam and Robert Chambers." For 
the journal which bears their name, 
Robert Chambers had written nearly four 
hundred essays on social, philosophical, 
and humorous subjects, during the first 
twelve years of its issue. He has also 
found tune to publish a work on geology, 
entitled, "Ancient Sea Margins as illus- 
trative of changes of the relative Level of 
Sea and Land," besides several volumes on 
the romantic portions of Scottish Song 
and Story. One on the "Rising" of 1745 
appeared in CortstabWs Miscellany, up- 
wards of thirty-seven years ago. " The 
Domestic Annals of Scotland" has been 
treated by him in another work with great 
success. Robert, like his brother William, 
is notable for the spirited self-reliance of 
his life. They never incurred a debt; 
were never indebted to any one, related or 
otherwise, for the sUghtest aid ; they never 
put their names to a bill for the whole of 
their united career. A.s publishers, they 
had the sagacity, unusual in Scotland, 
never to court any coterie, party, or sect, 
and studied the interest of the public 
alone, to which in the bi-oadest sense they 
appealed. Few literary men have exceeded 
the amount of work executed by Robert 

COOK, David, of Carphin and Luthrie. 
This gentleman was a native of Fife, and 
in his earUer aud latter days was a resi- 
denter in the county, but he spent the 
flower of his age in successful business as 
an engineer in Glasgow, about the year 
1786, He was born at Lochgelly, in the 
parish of Auchterderrau, where his father 
was a millwright, and he himself with 
several of his relations, were brought up 
to that business. Engineering was then in' 
its infancy, and most of the early engineers 
both civil and mechanical, were drawn from 
the ranks of the millwrights. Mr. Cook 
had too much sagacity and energy to ne- 
glect the opportunity aiForded by the new 
mechanical discoveries, and he early be- 
came an engineer in Glasgow, where he 
joined one of his Lochgelly relatives who 
had begun business in that Hne. He applied 
himself to produce machinery of the ut- 
most excellence, and thus established a 
wide spread connection, especially in the 
colonies, which has maintained its ground 
for more than half a century, and still with- 
stands the competition of modern times. 
More than twenty years ago, he in a great 
measure retired from business, having pur- 
chased the beautiful estate of Carphin, 
where he has resided ever since. Some 
years later, he added to it the adjoining 
estate of Luthrie ; and he took such de- 
light in the beauties of nature, and in rur;il 
affairs, that he left home seldom, and for 
very short periods. He was a liberal em- 
ployer of labour, constantly carrying on 
improvements upon his property, and his 
kindness will be long and gratefully re- 
membered by very many in the district. 
Though nearly eighty years of age, he re- 
tained till withiu a few months ago, almost 
the energy and activity of youth. But 
disease at last laid its hands upon him, and 
he died at Carphic, on the Sthday of June, 
1865. His remains were consigned to the 
ancient buryiug-ground of the parish of 
Creich, on the 14th day of the same 

COOK, Alexander Shank, Advocate, 
Edinburgh, was the second son of the late 
Rev. Dr. George Cook, Professor of Moral 
Philosophy in the United College of St. 
Andrews, and was bom at Laurencekirk, 
in the mouth of December, 1810. His 
father was the leader of the Church of 
Scotland Moderates, in the ante-disruption 
controversy. Mr. A. S. Cook was educated 
at St. Andrews, and in Edinburgh— was 
called to the bar in 1834, and soon from 
his Church connection and influence, ob- 
tained an extensive practice, both in the 
Court of Session and the Church Courts. 
In 1857 he was appointed by the Church 
of Scotland as Procurator with the late 
John Beatson BeU, and in 1858, he was 
appointed Sheriff of Ross and Cromarty.f 
He was alio a member of the Board od 
Supervision. These offices he continucy 
to hold till his death. He has left a f amil 




tu mourn his loss. Mr. Cook was known 
in the Court of Session as a sound lawyer 
find good pleader, and in the General Assem- 
bly he continued to take an active part in 
its business and in its debates. His powers 
as a debater were considerable, and he was 
iiz all times distinguished by great sincerity 
aad uprightness in the maintenance of the 
opinions held by him. A like spirit dis- 
tinguished him in business in the Coui't of 
tiession, and there he was respected as a 
profound lawyer and as a thoroughly con- 
t<cientious man. As a Sheriff his decisions 
were much valued, and he was held in 
much estimation in the county over which 
lie presided. In private life Mr. Cook was 
much beloved, and he has now passed 
away respected and regretted by all who 
knew him, as an able and honourable man, 
and one who in his character ever displayed 
the virtues of a Christian gentleman. Al- 
though his politics were most decidedly 
Conservative, he possessed the esteem and 
friendship of the most eminent members of 
the Church and Bar on both sides, and his 
maintenance of his own opinions never led 
him into bitterness or angry feeling to- 
wards his opponents. Mr. Cook was an 
elder in St. Andrew's Church, Edinburgh. 
He died on Saturday, the 16th January, 
1869, and his minister made pathetic re- 
ference to his premature and unexpected 
removal, in the course of his Sunday ser- 
vices after his death. Mr. Cook was a 
widower ; his wife, a daughter of Captain 
Stirling of St. Andrews, having died about 
four years since. He lost a son in the 
Indian service, at the age of manhood, 
little more than a year ago ; and three sons 
and two daughters survive. 

COOK, The Rev. John, D.D., Emeri- 
tus Professor of Ecclesiastical History in 
the University of St. Andrews, was born 
at St. Andrews, on the 1st September, 180". 
He was the son of Dr. John Cook, Profes- 
sor of Biblical Criticism at St. Andrews, 
and nephew of Dr. George Cook, so long 
the distinguished leader in the General 
Assembly of the Church of Scotland. 
He was educated at the Schools and 
University of his native city, and en- 
tering the Church was ordained minister 
of Laurencekirk, when twenty-two years 
of age. After an incumbency there of 
sixteen years, he was translated to the 
living of St. Leonards, in St. Andrews, 
whei-e he laboured until appointed in 1860 
to the Chair of Ecclesiastical History which 
he held until the month of June, 1868, 
when he resigned on account of failing 
liealth. While a parochial clergyman, the 
subject of our memoir was thoroughly con- 
scientious in the discharge of all his duties, 
and markedly so in his attention to the 
poor. Consistently acting at all times in 
his own convictions, he secured the esteem 
alike of those who agreed with him and 
of those who differed from him, as the 
addresses from his parishioners received 

en le:iving Laurencekirk, and the hand- 
some pninted window pkeed in honour of 
him in the College Church of St. Andrews 
amply tesafy. During the whole of the 
time he was in St. Andrews as a clergyman 
conducting divine service in the College 
Church, and as the professor in the man- 
agement oi an important class, he took the 
deepest interest in his students, not only 
as a public teacher, but a kind and sympa- 
thising friend, who was at all times acces- 
sible and ready with counsel and assistance. 
Having been i'or many years in succession, 
a member of the General Assembly, he 
took a leading part in the general business 
of the Church, especially in the Education 
Committee of which he was for a consider- 
able time the able convener. In 1859 he 
was elected Moderator of the General 
Assembly, and all who attended then must 
remember the dignity and affability with 
which he performed the duties of the office. 
With scholarly acquirements and rettned 
taste, he combined exact and active busi- 
ness habits, while true gentlemanly cour- 
tesy marked all that he said or did. Though 
he was compelled latterly to retire from 
public life, he continued to take an interest 
in local matters, and to discuss the ques- 
tions of the day. With Christian resigna- 
tion he submitted patiently during the last 
three years of his life, to increasing in- 
firmity, and amid the sincere regret of his 
many friends, and surrounded by his de- 
voted family, he quietly passed away. Dr. 
Cook died at St. Andrews, on the 17th 
April, 1869, in the 62d year of his age, and 
40th of his ministry. 

CRAIK, The Eamily of.— Since the 
publication of the Biogrouphical Dictionary 
of the Eminent Men of Fife in July, 1866, 
many deaths have occurred among the Fife 
worthies whose names are therein recorded, 
and among others two belonging to this 
family ha^'e gone the way of all the earth — 
namely, (lecrge Lillie Craik, Queen's Col- 
lege, Belfast, and the Rev. Henry Craik, of 
Bristol -of whom the following additional 
particulars, obtained since their decease, 
will, we think, be perused with interest : — 
Dr. J. L. Craik was the eldest son of the 
Rev. William Craik, of Kennoway, and re- 
ceived tl.e rudiments of his education in the 
Pca-ish School, under the able tuition of his 
father, where he showed himself to be an 
apt scholar, being fouud generally at the 
head of all the classes he attended. Frciu 
Kennoway Parish School he went to the 
University of St. Andrews, where he also 
eminently distinguished himself, studying 
the usual course prescribed for the licenti- 
ates of the Church of Scotland. He, how- 
ever, never was licensed as a minister, and 
relinquished theology for literature, of 
which he was enthusiastically fond. About 
the year 1826 he became editor of the Fife 
Herald, the only newspaper then pubUshed 
in Fife, on the retirement of his friend, 
Dr. Gillespie, of St. Andrews, from the 




editorship, who was the second editor of 
the Herald from its commencement. After 
some time he went to Edinburgh, and be- 
came editor of the Edinburgh 8ta/r; and 
on its being discontinued, he delivered 
lectures on poetry in some of the principal 
towns of Britain, where his prelections 
were very favourably received. On going 
to London he was engaged by the Society 
for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge to 
write some of the volumes of the " Libi-ary 
of Entertaining Knowledge," one of these 
being the " Pursuit of Knowledge under 
Difficulties: Illustrated by Anecdotes,'.' 
published without Dr. Craik's name in 
1830, and which has had an extensive 
circulation, and is truly an admirable book, 
well calculated to excite excelsior aspira- 
tions in the bosoms of the young, and stir 
them up in their endeavours to make pro- 
gress in knowledge, which will have an 
elevating influence on their minds. Dr. 
Craik soon became a voluminous author; 
for besides contributing various and excel- 
lent articles to the "Penny Cyclopa3dia" 
and other periodicals, he edited the " Pic- 
torial History of England," and wrote 
" Sketches of the History of Literature and 
Learning in England from the Norman 
Conquest;" and " The History of British 
Commerce from the Earliest Times to 
1839," in three volumes, which, though 
somewhat dry in detail, contain much 
important information, and show great re- 
search and patient laboxir. He is also well 
known as the author of the following 
works : — " Spencer and his Poetry :" 
" Bacon, his Writings and his Philosophy;" 
" Outlines of the History of the English 
Language ;" " The English of Shake- 
speare ;" and " The Romance of the Peer- 
age" — the latter, it has been said, "being 
one of the most instructive and interesting 
books which have appeared during the pre- 
sent century." By his numerous and valu- 
able writings. Dr. Craik has indelibly 
stamped his name on the annals of British 
literature. It was expected at one time 
that Dr. Craik would be called to fill a 
chair ia one of our Scottish Universities ; 
but he was drafted off to the Green Isle — 
having been appointed, amid numerous 
candidates, Professor of History and 
English Literature in. Queen's College, 
Belfast. This was a situation highly con- 
genial to his tastes, and one for which he 
was weU adapted. He ably filled that chair 
for several years, and was greatly beloved 
by the students, by whom he was familiarly 
known as " Chaucer," from his regard for 
the writings of the " True Father of Eng- 
lish Poetry." Nor have his great literary 
abilities died with him. His daughter has 
in no small measure inherited the talents of 
her father, and is well known for her 
writings. After Dr. Craik left Fife, his 
visits to his native village were " few and 
far between" — his last visit to Kennoway 
being, with his brother, the Rev. Dr. James 

Craik of Glasgow, made on the 1-lth of 
August, 18(jl, when they not only surveyed 
the places in the village associated with 
their early recollections, but went to an old 
farm-house in the neighbourhood, in which 
their maternal grand-parents long resided. 
In the beginning of this year, the Rev. 
Henry Craiii, Bristol, Dr. Craik's youngest 
brother— also a talented and highly-gifted 
man, an eloquent and impressive preacher, 
and an accomplished linguist, the author, 
too, of many publications, one of which, 
" Principia Hebraica," is especially esteem- 
ed by scholars as a valuable work — died 
where he had long laboured, deeply re- 
gretted by thousands. Thus of the three 
brothers who were pupils in Kennoway 
Parish School in the beginning of this 
century, and who all have highly distin- 
guished themselves either in the walks of 
literature or theology, only one remains 
ahve — namely, the Rev. James Craik, D.D., 
Glasgow, who was elected Moderator of the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scot- 
laud in 18G3. These brothers have been an 
honour to the " Kingdom," and have left 
their " footprints on the sands of time." 

DARSIE, The Hon. George, of Pitts- 
burg, Pennsylvania, a member of a family 
whose connection with Anstruther can bo 
traced back to the period of the Reforma- 
tion, was born in Edinburgh, in 1800. He 
was a nephew of the late Provost Darsie of 
Anstruther-Easter. He emigrated with 
his parents to America, in 1812, and ulti- 
mately settled in Pittsburg, where he 
died on the 3d day of March, 1SG5. Mr. 
Darsie's public services commenced in 1837, 
when he was elected to the House of Re- 
presentatives of Pennsylvania. He after- 
wards served in the Senate of that State, 
and was for some time speaker of that 
body. He was also for many years a canal 
commissioner. I'he following particulxrs 
relative to his public career we exirict 
from the Pittsburg Uaily Fost : — " On 
the first meeting of the Senate, after Mr. 
Darsie's demise, Mr. Bigham spoke as fol- 
lows — As those who served with Mr. Darsie 
are aware, he exhibited during the whole 
term of his services for the commonwealth, 
the most remarkable fidelity and attention 
to her interests. He was faithful beyond 
aU others in watching over the interests of 
the State, and particularly in guarding the 
treasui-y of the commonwealth from injury 
and damage. While willing to do all that 
was just and right, he was at the same 
time the firm opponent of all sorts of job- 
bing, extravagance, and wasteful expendi- 
ture. My acquaintance with Mr. Darsie 
began many years ago. He was originally 
a native of Scotland. He was, when I first 
knew him, a member of the firm of 
Macgill & Darsie, cabinet-makers, of the 
city of Pittsburg. In 1837 he was first 
elected to the other branch of the Legis- 
lature, and was subsequently appointed 
to the Senate, by the County which I, 




in part, represent. He continued here 
for twelve years, until 1854. His consti- 
tuents in Allegliany county duly appre- 
ciated his services, and no doubt would 
have continued him therein, during his 
entire lifetime ; but in 1854 he vfas nomi- 
nated for Canal Commissioner. S-oon after, 
by reason of one of those whirlwinds which 
occasionally arise in politics, he was 
defeated — astonishingly, — overwhelmingly 
defeated. That, however, was one of those 
accidents in politics which are not matters 
of unusual occurrence. The American 
question was then in tlie height of its 
popularity, and Mr. Darsie being of foreign 
birth, was compelled to feel the prejudice 
that existed against that class of citizens. 
Since that time, he has not been a member 
of either branch of the Legislature. He 
represented the county of Alleghany twice 
I think, in the Revenue Board. For the 
last four years he was unable to speak; 
having been attacked with pai-alysis, by 
which he was ultimately carried off. There 
are other gentlemen present, who knew 
the deceased almost as well as myself, and 
who may wish to pay a similar tribute of 
respect to his memory, to whom I give 
l>lace." After some remarks by Mr. 
Ghampneys, Mr. Clymer said, — " It is 
very right, sir, that the Senate of Pennsyl- 
vania should thus do reverence to the 
memory of one, who for long twelve years 
did her honour, by liis services, his labours, 
his talents, and his virtues. Had time and 
opportunity been afforded me, I would have 
endeavoured, in fitting terms, to have ex- 
pressed my high estimation of the charac- 
ter and worth of George Darsie ; yet, sir, 
I may not resist the impulse to give utter- 
ance to my feelings, though the garb in 
which I shall clothe them may be rude and 
unpolished. I knew him well. In public 
life we met for the first time in the winter 
of 18G0, as members of the revenue board, 
and it was my good fortune to have seen 
much of him during its session, as we were 
guests at the same lodgings and occupied 
adjoining apartments. Naturally our in- 
tercourse was constant and intimate ; and 
sir, if on general reputation I had previ- 
ously formed a high estimate of his char- 
acter, if I had deemed him to be pure, 
upright, honest, and able, my personal 
observations served but to increase my re- 
spect and deepen my regard. He was, sir, 
a just man, a true man, a man who never 
swerved from what he beheved to be right, 
as a general rule, in order to gain a mere 
temporary advantage — a man of innate and 
accurate perceptions of duty. He was, sir, 
a self-made man, in the highest and best 
acceptation of that much-abused phrase, 
having all the personal and mental worth 
which true manhood is most anxious to 
possess. His intellect was short — quick; 
his knowledge general, yet accurate; his 
opinions decided and matured, and his wil- 
lingness to defend them was equalled by 

his ability to do so. His qualities as a 
legislator were admirable ; his quick per- 
ception, the unerring certainty of his judg- 
ment, the stern integrity of his motives, 
making him useful in the most enlarged 
sense of that term. His long public service 
illustrates the fact that his own people fully 
understood and ajppreciated these high ex- 
cellencies. But, sir, 

This fell serg;eant death, 
Is strict in his arrest, 

and four long and weary years, before the 
final hour, he had laid his hands upon 
George Darsie and marked bim as his own. 
His tongue was bound and his arm fell 
powerless by his side. He walked the 
streets of the city of his home, the mere 
semblance of his former health and vigour. 
For years the replies to inquiries often 
made of his townsmen as to his health, 
mental and bodily, have been so sad, and 
told so mournfully of his -svrecked condition, 
that the announcement of his actual death 
had in it little of grief, and still less of re- 
gret. He passed away to that better land, 
where, under the merciful providence of 
our Divine Author, we may believe that his 
chilled intellect and benumbed faculties 
are restored to the appreciation of the 
joys of an eternal rest. May we, sir, one 
and aU, profit by his bright example ; may 
we imitate liis virtues, public and private ; 
and if, sir, passing away from earth, we 
leave behind us a reputation approaching 
his for integrity, uprightness, and sterling 
honesty, we will not have lived in vain, and 
in death we will be most fortunate." 

DEMPSTER, Cathcart, a gentleman of 
great talent, was the acting chief magis- 
trate of St. Andrews in the early part of 
this century, and has left upon it an 
impress which the " Bell Fund," and 
secondary matters, have enabled it to pro- 
secute. In his time, the Provost of the 
city, was the Right Hon. Thomas, Earl of 
Kellie ; but as his Lordship was not resi- 
dent, the greater part of the active duties 
of the office devolved on Mr. Dempster, in 
his capacity, either of Dean of Guild or of 
Bailie. He brought the first bank agency 
to St. Andrews, its office being that which 
is now occupied by the Bank of Scotland. 
He originated the butter market, the sale 
of the Eden mussels for bait, and the let- 
ting of the seaware for cutting on the 
rocks. This lease of the seaware, led to 
the construction of the approach from the 
harbour, which vv as done by the first lessee 
of the seaware, at his own expense. Mr. 
Dempster also improved the harbour on 
several occasions, and in 1/98 procured for 
it the Steelyard. He was the regenerator 
of the Town Hall ; in 1802 he actually pur- 
chased the property forming the New 
Street, as a site for a new Town Hall and 
street, and erected thereon two houses to 
form the corner of that street, which they 
now do. In 1779 he proposed the lighting 




of the streets, b it tliid was not accom- 
pliabed till 23 years afterwards. His mind 
was most thoroughly practical, scientific, 
charitable, and void of selfishness. The 
state of our fishing population at that time 
was miserable in the extreme. There were 
only four poor boats, the o^vners of which 
only went to sea when dire necessity com- 
pelled tliem. After every means of improv- 
ing or rousing them to-exertion had failed, 
Mr. Dempster brought from Caithness a 
hardy and experienced crew, and settled 
them at St. Andrews. Their example was 
productive of good. No one now needs 
urge on the fishers to go to sea, and their 
boats now are numerous. Mr. Dempster 
also started a work in connection with the 
" Kingsbarns Marble" (a shell limestone), 
of which the mantelpiece in the old Town 
Hall of St. Andrews consisted, but the 
material was found to be inferior in quality. 
Hj also discovered and protected an im- 
provement in the making of canvas, and 
started a factory for its manufacture. 
Neither, however, did this succeed. He 
laid claim to being the discoverer of what 
is now well and \videly known as " Ryan's 
Patent Antiseptic ;" and proved his title 
to the honour, to the satisfaction of the 
St. Andrews Literary and Philosophical 
Society. We conclude this notice, which 
oiight to be much extended, with an illus- 
tration of Mr. Dempster's charitable ten- 
dencies. His period of office embraced that 
known as the " Dear Years." At that 
tiQie he headed and conducted a subscrip- 
tion, by which tlie poor people of St. 
Andrews were supplied with meal at one 
shilling per peck, when the general selling 
price wa s three shillings and sixpence. The 
original document in connection with this 
truly generous measure has recently turned 
up, from which it a.px^ears that the amount 
subscribed was 1,000 guineas. Mr. Demp- 
.ster was a native of St. Andrews, for which 
place he greatly exerted himself, as its 
former inliabitants can well testify. 

DRUMMOND, William, Writer and 
Banker in Cupar, was born in the parish of 
Leuchars, in November, 1792, and received 
his education at the Parochial School there. 
In 180(3, he was apprenticed to Mr. Harry 
Hope, writer, in Falkland, with whom he 
served four years, and afterwards became 
clerk to Mr. Scott, of Brotherton, Writer 
to the Signet in Edinburgh. In 1815, Mr. 
Drummond commenced business as a 
Avriter in Cupar, and had his own energies 
alone to trust to for success, and that suc- 
cess speedily flowed in upon him. Mr. 
Drummond was so well known and so 
universally respected throughout the 
C)unty, where ho carried on business for 
upwards of 50 years, that his removal, even 
at a mature old age, caused deep and 
general sorrow. His career throughout 
ins long and useful life is a remarkable in- 
stance of the success that may be achieved 
by upiight and honourable conduct and 

manly independence. His talents were of 
a very high order ; and, besides this, he 
had a clear head and a well ordered mind 
— qualities which, in the business of life, 
are even of m^re importance than great 
ability. He had, too, the heart and bear- 
ing of a thorough gentleman, equally affable 
and engaging to all, high or low, rich or 
poor, so that scarcely any one, of whatever 
rank, came in contact with him, vnthout 
being captivated by his kind and friendly 
deportment. No one who knew him 
thoroughly could be surprised at his early 
success and its steady progress throughout 
his career. He was comparatively a young 
man when he was appointed a bank agent, 
and, from that time onwards, his profes- 
sional success was a constant upward pro- 
gress, surpassing, we believe, in extent, 
that of any other party in the county. In 
his professional career, Mr. Drummond 
made numberless warm friends among his 
clients and professional brethren. We do 
not say that he made no enemies ; for no 
meanness, professional or personal, found 
any quarter with him ; and his instinctive 
aversion to everything of the kind some- 
times led him to express himself with a 
bitterness which naturally had no place in 
his heart. Among Mr. Drummond's 
numerous and varied business engagements 
was the difficult and, in many respects, un- 
pleasant duty which he undertook, as 
cashier of the Fife Bank, in winding up the 
affairs of that unfortunate and complicated 
concern. The accomplishment of this was 
the work of many years, and of much 
anxious labour ; but the result of his 
labours was duly appreciated by che parties 
interested, and was very handsomely ac- 
knowledged. An incident occurred in Mr. 
Drummond's professional life many years 
ago, quite unimportant in itself, but which 
brought to light the vast amount of good 
which may be done, unknown and unseen, 
by the land and friendly treatment by a 
master of the youths brought under his 
charge. Business offices, especially where 
the master's time is engrossed with the 
affairs of a large number of clients, are not 
always, and indeed can scarcely be, the best 
places for disciplining the minds of youths, 
morally and intellectually. But the inn- 
dent we refer to shows what can be done 
for those under his charge by a benevolent 
and land heart. In October 18-18 Mr. 
Dnimmond was presented with a handsome 
and expensive service of plate by a nume- 
rous body of gentlemen, who had at diffe- 
rent times been employed in his offices, and 
who were then scattered over the world — 
some of them in exalted, and many of them 
in highly honourable, and all of them in 
respeetalDle positions. The testimonial was 
stated to be intended to show the deep 
sense of gratitude which the subscribers 
felt for the fatherly and friendly interest 
which Mr. Drummond had always felt in 
their welfare, not only when they were 




immediately under his charge, but even on- 
wards in after life. This was an honour, 
for which, we know, Mr. Drummond was 
very grateful, and of which any man might 
justly feel proud. The conclusion of Mr. 
Drummond' s answer to the address pre- 
senting the testimonial was very simple, 
but very striking and very instructive. He 
thus counselled his friends and well- 
wishers, and this should be a powerful 
counsellor at the present moment : "Above 
all, I say again, study to be upright in all 
you do, and this will prove a most comfort- 
able solace when your head rests on your 
dying pillow." In private life there was a 
peculiar charm in Mr. Drummond's society. 
He had acquired a vast and varied amount 
of information and anecdote upon almost 
every subject, coupled with a knowledge of 
the various events of interest in the history 
of the families and individuals in the dis- 
trict. No one could be more hospitable 
than he was while his health allowed him 
to be so : and, in his kindliest moods, and 
with his own more intimate friends, a vein 
of rich humour flowed out, which not every 
one knew him to possess. Mr. Drummond 
was a thoroughly domestic man, and was 
very seldom, throughout his whole life, 
absent from home even for a day, unless 
duty required it. Home was made very 
happy to him, amid all their mutual sor- 
rows, by her in whom his chief interest 
and happiness dwelt, and for whom person- 
ally all who ever knew her feel the deepest 
grief in her bereavement. In Mr. Drum- 
mond's address, acknowledging the testi- 
monial to which we have referred, there is 
a passage of very sad and touching inte- 
rest. Mr. Drummond said with reference 
to the articles presented to him, " If any 
of my sons are spared to me, I hope the 
day will come when they vri.ll be in circum- 
stances to show them to their friends at a 
hospitable board, and to tell an after gene- 
ration when I am gone, that never could a 
father receive a higher compHment than 
their father had done when he had the 
honour to receive that proof of affection at 
the hands of a body of gentlemen who 
knew him so well, and who had thus testi- 
fied that the intercourse had given them 
satisfaction." Alas ! this natural thought 
and fond hope of a father was not to be 
fulfilled, for, not long after that hope was 
expressed, all his sons, full of promise, one 
by one, were taken from him. Two much- 
loved daughters died in early youth. It is 
impossible to overrate the amount of good 
which Mr. Drummond did privately in this 
locaUty during his whole life, and con- 
tinued to do up to the time of his death. 
His charities were numerous and large, 
though quiet and unostentatious, and many 
will miss his kindly hand. It was scarcely 
a week after receiving in 1848 the testi- 
monial we have referred to, when Mr. 
Drummond met with a very serious, and 
all but fatal accident. Wlien returning 

from a farm sale, the horse he was driving 
got restive and ran off, and in coming into 
Cupar his conveyance was overturned upon 
a kerl) stone near the East Bridge, when 
Mr. Drummond was thrown out and taken 
up ins^-n-ible, and for weeks afterwards he 
remained in a doubtful state. Although 
he made a most wonderful recovery, nnd 
his mental faculties were not at all impaired 
or affected by the accident, his friends 
thought that it gave a shock to his system 
from which his health never completely 
recovered. For some years before his death, 
the state of Mr. Drummond's health pre- 
vented him giving uiuch personal attention 
to the business, and it was therefore con- 
ducted mainly by his partner, Mr. Nichol- 
son. He died at his residence in Cupar on 
the 29th of March, 1867, in the seventy- 
fifth year of his age. 

DRUMMOND, James, Residenter in 
Markinch, was born at West Auchmuir, 
in 1781, and died at Markinch, on Sunday, 
the 2d day of October, 1864, in the eighty- 
second year of his age. Mr. Drummond 
has long been connected with this place, 
and has been universally esteemed for his 
conduct through life. Mr. Drummond was 
a native of the county of Kinross, and the 
nadiments of his early educat'on were ob- 
tained at Leslie Parish School. The his- 
torical associations relating to the parish 
of Portmoak, and Michael Bruce, the poet, 
and his effusions, gave Mr. Drummond 
much agreeable opportunities for pleasing 
conversation on subjects relating to hter- 
ature. In his youth Mr. Drummond was 
connected with agriculture, and he was an 
ardent admirer of Burns. During the 
time — and by far the greater proportion of 
his lifetime — he spent in Markinch, he was 
a zealous worshipper of the muses, and, 
independent of what of his lucubrations 
that have been privately circulated, not a 
few have appeared in the newspapers of 
the day, and for satire, wit, humour, and 
sentiment, they drew forth no liitle atten- 
tion. For some time back he had been 
almost closely confined to bed, yet all his 
faculties were acute ; and he has left this 
world we hope for a better. Requiescat in 

DUNCAN, George, of Balchrystie, was 
born in the city of Perth, but resided 
during the latter part of his life, on his 
estate of Balchrystie, in the parish of New- 
burn. To that property he succeeded sonic 
years ago on the death of his uncle, 
Laurence Buchau, Esq. Mr. Duncan 
enjoyed the advantage of a most liberal 
course of educational training. He at- 
tended the classes of several of the leading 
Professors both of St. Andrews and Edin- 
burgh, and always retained a keen rehsh 
for the subjects of his early academic 
culture. This he was peculiarly enabled to 
do by means of his wonderfully tenacious 
memory, which caught and kept all that his 
eye saw and his ear heard, lie subse- 




quently studied for tlie English bar, but 
failing health compelled him to relinquish 
that project and to retire into private life. 
His tastes and occupations were artless and 
unobtrusive. In particular he took a de- 
cided interest in the social and agricultural 
improvements of the country at large. As 
a member of the Highland Society, he very 
frequently attended the ploughing compe- 
titions of the district, and as an official re- 
porter of the proceedings, was an earnest 
and intelligent observer. But it was as a 
man of sterling Christian principle, and 
active, substantial, and unwearied benevo- 
lence, that Mr. Duncan excelled. Although 
conscientiously an adherent of the Church 
of Scotland, denominational distinction had 
no weight -n^ith him in the bestowal of 
charity. His estimate of the claims of 
suflFering humanity, whether in a temporal 
or spiritual view, was of the most generous, 
enlightened, and comprehensive character, 
and strikingly manifested the spirit of Him 
who said, ' The held is the world.' With 
great truth might Mr. Duncan be called a 
' living epistle' of good works as to the 
unifoi-mity and warmth of his attention to 
the poor — literally feeding the hungry, 
clothing the naked, visiting the sick, and 
instructing the young and ignorant. Mr. 
Duncan died at Balchrystie on the 5th 
June, 1865. 

ERSKINE, Ralph, the brother of 
Ebenezer Erskine, was born at Branxton, 
Northumberland, on the 18th of March, 
1865. He became minister of Dunfermline 
in 1711, and died there in November, 1762, 
in the sixty-eighth year of his age. Sympa- 
thizing with his brother in his views of 
Christian doctrine and ecclesiastical disci- 
pline, he took a deep interest in those 
movements in the Church of Scotland 
which resulted in the succession ; and 
having formally joined the Seceders in 
1737, he was, along with his brother, de- 
posed by the General Assembly of the 
Church of Scotland in 1740. Ralph, 
though principally known from his connec- 
tion with Ebenezei', was in some respects 
an abler man than his brother. His 
"Gospel Sonnets," with all their rough- 
ness, have many beautiful, ingenious, and 
striking thoughts in them ; and his works, 
" Faith no Fancy," and " Fancy no Faith," 
give evidence of very metaphysical acute- 
ness. The father of these remarkable men 
— Rev. Henry Erskine— was connected with 
the noble family of Mar. He was minister 
at Cornhill, in North Durham, and was 
ejected in 1662 by the Act of Uniformity, 
and lived several years at Dryburgh. In 
16S2 he was seized by a company of soldiers, 
and had the honour of testifying at Edin- 
burgh before the " burdy Mackenzie," and 
a Committee of the Privy Council. He 
was condemned as one who preached at 
'' Conventicles," and sentenced to fine and 
imprisonment ; but through the kindness 
of friends, his penalty was commuted to 

banishment from the kingdom of Scotland. 
In 1682 he was imprisoned at Newcastle 
for conscience sake ; and after King James' 
proclamation of indulgence, he became 
minister in the neighbourhood of Berwick- 
upon-Tweed. After the Revolution he was 
appointed to the parish of Chornside, where 
he laboured tiU his death, which took place 
in 1696. 

ESPLINE, The Rev. A., of Monimail. 
This old and respected gentleman was born 
in the year 1788, and died the 9th October, 
1864. Though be had for a considerable 
time been laid aside from duty, and though 
he has fallen lilce a shock of grain which 
had reached full maturity— and was ready 
to be gathered to his fathers, his work being 
done — his death will be learned with regret 
by a large number of friends. He was 
long parochial schoolmaster of Monimail— 
an occupation which he chose to follow 
in preference to tlie higher profession of 
the ministry, for which he had studied, 
and had taken out his Presbyterian license. 
Though he preferred being the instructor 
of youth rather than the spiritual guide 
of a people, he frequently donned the 
clerical robes, and gave a brother in a 
neighbouring parish "a day," or "half 
a day," as the case might be ; and many 
of our clergymen, we daresay, will be 
ready to testify how frankly and gener- 
ously he rendered them his services. For 
many years he faithfully chronicled what- 
ever was worthy of note in his district. 
The migrations of the swallow greatly in- 
terested him ; and just as some delight in 
telling us, that a cabbage or potato of pro- 
digious dimensions has been grown in their 
locale, so Mr. Espline seemed to consider it 
his duty year after year, faithfully to record 
the arrival and departure of the swallows. 
It is not, however, to be understood that he 
was not a man of parts and learning. 
Cowper had his hares, and Sir Walter Scott 
his dog ; just so did Mr. Esphne have his 
swallows. Because he thus devoted his 
attention to apparently little objects, it does 
not follow that he was not of considerable 
attainments, natural and acquired. On the 
contrary, he was a very clever scholar, and 
a very able man. He had his eccentricities, 
it is true ; but he had many excellent and 
redeeming qualities. For rich store of 
anecdote, for ready wit, caustic humour, 
and quick pungent repartee, he had few 
equals. Many a time has he " set the table 
in a roar," when all around have been like 
to " split their sides." To quarrel with him 
was a hazardous, if not an impossible task. 
Many incidents might be related where in 
such circumstances he fairly uon-plussed 
his opponent or admonisher. He was never 
at a loss. Whether with rhyme or reason, 
he was ever ready to meet any vi-ho chose 
to enter into combat with him. Up to with- 
in the two years of his death, Mr. Espline 
taught Monimail Parish School, wlien he 
resigned on a retiring allowance under the 
Lord Advocate's Education Bill, and came 




to live in Angus Place, where he died at 
the advanced age of seventy-eight. Mr. 
Espline was never married. 

FERGUS, John, of Prinlaws, was born 
at Kirkcaldy about the beginning of the 
present century, and for several years be- 
fore his death, he fell into a very delicate 
state of health, and resided first in Italy, 
and afterwards in the south of England. 
Mr. Fergus immediately preceded the late 
Mr. Wemyss in the repiesentation of the 
County of Fife. At his death the county 
lost a most enterprising merchant, and the 
liberal party a staunch adherent. Mr. 
Fergus though a keen commercial man, 
was an equally ardent politician, and for 
many years devoted his time impartially 
between private interests and public duties. 
On the death of his father, Mr. Walter 
Fergus, he succeeded to a prosperous busi- 
ness, which owed its origin to an experi- 
ment tried by his grandfather, Mi. James 
Fergus, during the period of commercial 
depression which afHicted Scotland towards 
the latter half of the past century In Fife 
the trade sufl'ered so much that, according 
to Mr. Warden, " some manufacturers 
thought of turning their capital into an- 
other channel. Before doing this, an at- 
tempt was made by Mr. James Fergus to 
produce ticking for the English market." 
The attempt succeeded admirably, and 
raised the fortunes of the Fergus family to 
a high point. Under the auspices of Mr. 
John Fergus, the operations of the firm 
were extended until it became necessary to 
erect the large works at Prinslaws, which 
give employment to a very large number of 
hands. Mr. Fergus, who was a native of 
Kirkcaldy, took an active part in the afl'airs 
of the burghs, of which he was Provost for 
many years. In 1835, Mr. Fergus was 
elected member for the Kirkcaldy district 
of burghs, which seat he held until 1837. 
Ten years afterwards he successfully con- 
tested the county, and continued its repre- 
sentative until 1859, when he resigned, and 
was succeeded by the late Mr. Wemyss. 
Mr. Fergus was highly popular throughout 
the county, and his death which took place 
at Plymouth, on the 27th February, 1865, 
was much regretted. 

FERGUSSON, Sir Wm., Bart., F.R.S., 
of Spittlehaugh, Peeblesshire, Sergeant- 
Surgeon to Her Majesty Queen Victoria, 
was born in the year 1808. His father, 
the representative of a family resident in 
Lochmaben, Dumfriesshire, for many gen- 
erations, held an appointment in'.the Excise, 
and his mother was a Fifeshire lady from 
Anstruther, named Hodge, by whom he is 
connected with that county. He was born 
at Prestonpans, in East-Lothian, and was 
educated partly at the Grammar School, 
Lochmaben; subsequently at the High 
School and University of Edinburgh. At 
an early age it was proposed that he should 
follow the law, and he actually set himself 
to study for that profession, but after a 
short trial, he found it by no moans con- 

genial to his tastes, and at the age of 17, 
began to prepare himself for the study of 
surgery. Dr. Knox then an eminent teacher 
of anatomy, had the honour of initiating 
the since celebrated surgeon into the mys- 
teries of anatomical science ; and it was 
while attending this teacher's class, that 
he made his first decided step to fame. 
One day he called upon his teacher for the 
purpose of obtaining his signature to some 
necessary certificate, and, either with the 
motive of more surely winning favour, or of 
proving his own gratitude and respect, our 
versatile friend presented to him a fishing- 
rod, which lie had himself constructed in a 
manner that would have done credit to a 
hand trained to the craft. He also showed 
him a handsome piece of cabinet work 
made with his own hands. Knox, ever 
ready to appreciate mechanical ingenuity, 
was particularly struck with his pupil's 
skill, and soon after attached young Fer- 
gusson more closely to him, as an assistant 
in his dissecting-rooms. The pupil subse- 
quently became a colleague in the school. 
At this time, Mr. Fergusson worked exces- 
sively hard at anatomy, and made himself 
a thorough master of that science. He 
almost lived in the dissecting-room, even 
taking his meals there, and allowing no- 
thing to seduce him from his duties. Dur- 
ing his pupilage, he necessarily became 
acquainted with young men of his own age 
who had more money, and less sense, and 
was frequently tempted to indulge in those 
amusements which would have carried him 
away from the path of duty, but he resisted 
such aUuremeuts, and was wont to say, 
that he had no time for anything but work, 
as he had to make his own way in the 
world, and could rely on no friend save his 
own industry. At the age of twenty, he 
became a Licentiate of the College of Sur- 
geons, and at twenty-one obtained their 
Fellowship ; the fees for which were about 
300 guineas. To his connection with 
Knox, therefore, it may be said, that Mr. 
Fergusson owed a great portion of his sub- 
sequent success. He very early became a 
lecturer on surgery, and obtained a large 
class of pupils ; and when only twenty-seven 
years of age, he was elected one of the sur- 
geons to the Royal Infirmary at Edinburgh; 
a, sure stepping-stone to practice and repu- 
tation. He was now ardently practising 
surgery, chiefly devoting himself to the 
operative department, in which he then 
shone with brilliancy. At the age of twenty- 
three, he performed successfully that great 
operation of surgery, the ligation of the 
sub-clavian artery, which had only been 
performed twice in Scotland — once by Mr. 
Wishart, and once by Mr. Liston. He 
also had numerous opportunities of show- 
ing his skill in lithotomy and in operations 
about the jaws. Liston, the great leviathan 
of surgery in the northern metropolis, had 
left for London, just at the time when Mr. 
Fergusson was making some way for hiiu- 

%Z-^v^- y^^^tv-^^/ 




self in the estimation of tlie pviblic, and 
therefore, the only great competitor he had, 
was Mr. Syme, who being more than ten 
years his senior, had got the start of him 
in practice. But they never became rivals ; 
for an opening in the shape of a Profes- 
sorship at King's College, London, allured 
Mr. Fergusson to the great metropolis. 
Fergusson was not ambitious to remain 
within the confined limits of " Auld 
Reekie," and at once determined to malte 
a stand for the Chair of Surgery in this 
southern school. He succeeded against 
many competitors, and was elected in 
1840. He then packed up his household 
goods and commenced a new and hazardous 
career in London, where there was a liotst 
of able surgeons already fully occupied, 
and competing for the lead of the town. 
Prior to this time, Mr. Fergusson married 
Miss Ranken, the heiress of Spittlehaugh, 
a lady no less distinguished by her personal 
attractions, than for her mental and intel- 
lectual attainments, by whom he had several 
children. It would be difficult to appre- 
ciate the feehngs which Mr. Fergusson 
must have experienced at this time, having 
just entered a new sphere, with the respou- 
sibUities of a wife and a young family upon 
him, and not knowing whether or not he 
would be able to make a stand ; but he was 
hopeful, and he felt convinced he should 
do well. Nevertheless, this was the most 
trying period of his life, and in proof of 
this, we need only tell our readers, that 
during the lirst year of his residence in 
London, he only made by professional 
fees, somewhere about eight]/ guineas. 
Albeit, he persevered, and not having 
much practice, he set to work and brought 
out his excellent manual of " Practical 
Surgery/' which on being published, at 
once established his fame. This book 
very much advanced his reputation; but 
what pre-eminently brought him into 
notice, was his surprising tact in operating, 
displayed in the theatre of King's CoUege 
Hospital, where numerous practitioners 
flocked to see his performances. His fame 
soon became established, and he was re- 
cognised us one of the most brilliant opera- 
tors of the day : even Listen who was in 
the zenith of his glory, began to tremble 
for his laurels. It is true there were two 
or three years of anxious care, but he gra- 
dually began to get practice, and felt him- 
self secure. About this time, a train of 
circumstances fortunate for him took place. 
Poor Listen was suddenly cut off in mid- 
career, in 1848. Aston Key was not long 
afterwards gathered to his fathers, and 
thus the two great lights of operative sur- 
gery being extinguished, Fergusson' s genius 
shone with brighter lustre. The held was 
his own, and he had no competitor. 

After having given this brief sketch of 
the onward progi-ess of Mr. Fergusson, and 
having seen him firmly seated in the car 
of fortune and reputation, it will be useful 

and interesting to consider him in the 
character of a surgeon and man. It is 
most undoubtedly in the operative depart- 
ment of his science that Fergusson is most 
distinguished ; he has all the quaUfications 
of the brilliant operator. He possesses 
great mechanical ingenuity, strength cjf 
hand and body, great nicety in wielding 
instruments, firmness of mind, a calm tem- 
per, and a cool judgment. These, together 
with an unerring knowledge of anatomy, 
learned in his almost constant abode in the 
dissecting-rooms, at an early period of life, 
have combined to render him an operator 
unrivalled. No one can have an idea of his 
powers unless he has witnessed them ; and 
those who have seen the skilful surgeon 
perform any of the great operations of 
surgery for the first time, go away aston- 
ished with his facility and boldness of 
action. The feature which is most striking 
on such occasions, is the perfect calmness 
with which he sets about the most serious 
proceedings ; there is no bustle nor hurry, 
but everything is done orderly and quietly, 
though with remarkable rapidity. Fergus- 
son holds with the late illustrious Duke of 
WeUington, that if a man wishes a thing 
to be well done, he must do it himself ; he 
accordingly omits nothing concerned in 
an operation. He takes care to see that 
his instruments are all in order and posi- 
tion, prior to the commencement of his 
work, not leaving this duty to his assistants 
alone, as is the custom of some great sur- 
geons. After the operation is completed, 
he takes up the vessels with his own hand, 
and even appUes the necessary bandages to 
secure the wound. Mr. Fergusson has 
already done much for surgery; he it was 
who revived the operation of excision of 
the knee, and of the head of the femur in 
certain incurable cases of hip disease. The 
latter was performed in 1845 with signal 
success. He has also done much in advanc- 
ing " Conservative Surgery," (being him- 
self the originator of that term in sur- 
gery,) by recommending and performing 
excisions of joints and diseased bone in- 
stead of amputating the extremity. Mr. 
Fergusson is well known to the profession 
as a writer, by his work on " Practical 
Surgery," the first edition of which ap- 
peared upwards of twenty-five years ago. 
A second edition came out in 1846, a 
third was pubhshed in 1852, and a fourth 
in 1858, making in all 10,000 copies. It 
has also passed through several editions in 
America, wliere it has been much appre- 
ciated. This work is so well known, that 
we need only thus refer to it ; suffice 
it to say, that it is in the hands of 
almost every practical surgeon, and that 
it is clearly, concisely, and modestly writ- 
ten. Besides this, Mr. Fergusson has 
published an excellent monograph on the 
" Cleft Palate," in which his researches 
on that subject are described, and the 
results of several cases, in his own 




practices are detailed at length. Many 
valuable Clinical lectures delivered by him 
at King's College Hospital, have from time 
to time been inserted in the Medical jour- 
nals. His latest work, so far as we know, 
is, hia " Lectures on the Progress of 
Anatomy and Surgery during the present 
century," delivered at the Royal College 
of Surgeons of England, when he was 
Professor of Human Anatomy and of 
Surgery, in that Institution. 

As regards personal appearance, Fergus- 
son may be considered altogether a hand- 
some man. He is just six feet in height, well 
made, was slender in youth,but hepossesses 
uncommon strength and activity, qualities 
which are most observable when he is per- 
forming some of those serious and pro- 
longed operations for cutting away dis- 
eased bone. There is a pleasing and good 
tempered expression about his face ; an 
indication that all is right below the sur- 
face ; and the best of him is, that he is 
always the same. His manner towards his 
patients, both rich and poor, is kind and 
conciliating, the consequence is, that he is 
regarded with confidence and respect by 
the former, and beloved by the latter. 
Like other men, he can be angry when 
there is a necessity for it, but he is not 
rufiled, or put out of temper, by the most 
unlooked for emergencies which arise dur- 
ing a difficult operation. When he is at 
work, however, he Ukes nothing but work ; 
and he can, and does, severely rebuke those 
around him who are inattentive to their 
duty. Mr. Fergusson is not a man who, 
after his day's work is over, shuts hinaself 
up in his closet; he is fond of society, 
courteous, and hospitable, and is an agree- 
able and entertaining companion at the 
social board. He works hard ten or eleven 
months out of the twelve, and always allows 
himself a month or two every year of 
perfect relaxation from the cares of busi- 
ness, and for this purpcse retires with 
his family to his estate in the county of 
Peebles. Mr. Fergusson was elected a 
Fellow of the Royal Society many years 
ago. On the death of Mr. Aston Key in 
1849, he was appointed Surgeon in Ordin- 
ary to his late Royal Highness the Prince 
Consort, and is now Sergeant-Surgeon to 
her Majesty the Queen, having been pre- 
viously created a Baronet in 1806. 

We have now attempted to sketch the 
history of Sir WiUiam Fergusson' s career, 
from his boyhood, to that point, when in 
the fuU maturity of his years, he stands 
prominently forth as one of the most ac- 
complished surgeons of the day, whose 
reputation still increasing, promises to rival 
that of the most brilliant authorities that 
have ever shed lustre on surgical science. 
At a time when intellectual culture has 
reached its highest point — when the old 
ways of science and operative procedure 
are so weU trodden and explored — it de- 
mands talent of the highest order to achieve 

for itself a x^re-eminent distinction, and to 
challenge respect and admiration for the 
fruitful ideas— the improvements and in- 
ventions which form a new era in the his- 
tory of science. AU this Sir William 
Fergusson has done, and it requires no 
gift of prophecy to predict, that he will 
one day occupy one of the most conspicu- 
ous niches in the temple of surgical science. 
His professional career has indeed been 
one of remarkable success — the well-earned 
result of talents of no common order, ap- 
plied with indefatigable industry, and 
guided by undeviating integrity. 

FORBES, James David, D.C.L., late 
Principal of the United College of St. 
Salvator and St. Leonard, St. Andrews, 
was born on the 20th of April 1809, and was 
the son of Sir William Forbes of Pitsligo, 
and Williamina, only child of Sir John 
Stewart of Fettercairn. His mother, who 
at the time of his birtli was suffering from an 
advanced state of consumption, was removed 
along with her son in the autumn of the 
same year to the south of England, wliere 
she died the year after. The nature of her 
illness gave Sir William mucli anxiety for 
the health of his infant son. The boy was 
brought back to Scotland, and as he grew 
out of infancy his delicate frame and the 
quick intelligence which he early began to 
show seemed to combine to justify his father 
in the resolution not to urge forward his 
education. At CoUnton, about three miles 
to the south-west of Edinburgh, and the 
usual residence of the family, young Forbes 
acquired the rudiments of knowledge from 
a governess and the village schoolma.ster. 
He was restricted to such subjects as were 
indispensable. Mathematics and everything 
that might appear likely unduly to stimulate 
his mind were positively forbidden. But 
eventually this extreme paternal solicitude 
overreached itself. Sir \v ilham Forbes had 
been accustomed in his youth to amuse 
himself with chemical experiments. Failing 
health now led him to revive these occupa- 
tions of his younger years, and he furbished 
up anew the chemical and philosophical 
apparatus which had been lying disused for 
many years. In these pursuits he frequently 
had as a companion his young son, whoso 
mind gradually acquired in this way the 
tastes which determined his future career. 
It was indeed impossible to repress the 
yearning after physical research, so early 
characteristic of Forbes' nature. While 
dutifully refraining from seeking tliat 
instruction in mathematics which had been 
forbidden to him, he yet laboured quietly at 
the subject without the aid of a teacher, so 
as to fit himself for college. Every year 
continued to form more definitely his bent 
towards natural philosophy ; yet such was 
his deference to his father's wishes that his 
studies in that department were carried on 
at odd moments ; and even so late as the 
year 1826 when already seventeen years of 
age, his first scientific papers appeared, I 




feelieve, in Brewster's Journal, but witliout 
liis name. He attended the classes of the 
PJdinburgh University. On leaving college, 
Lis favourite pursuits, as he tells us, were 
geology, meteorology, and general and 
terrestrial physics, fie made excursions in 
his own country, and extended his summer 
rambles into the Continent, and particularly 
to Switzerland, where he formed friendships 
with some of the foremost scientific men of 
that country, and where the idea of inves- 
tigating the natural history of glaciers early 
began to form itself in his mind. In the 
year 1833, when only twenty-four years of 
age, he was appointed to the chair of natural 
history in his own university, an office which 
he held with distinction up to 1859. No 
one who had the good fortune to hear his 
prelections will be likely to forget the 
singular clearness, patience, and thorough- 
ness of his expositions. With his students 
lie was a favourite professor. In his earlier 
days they found him a young and ardent 
investigator who was rapidly rising to 
eminence in the path of original discovery ; 
in his later years they listened with 
reverence to the voice of a man who Lad 
now achieved a world-wide reputation, and 
whose ardour in the pursuit of science had 
even broken down his health. In addition 
to his labour in the University, he was 
indefatigable in attention to the welfare of 
the Eoyal Society of Edinburgh, of which 
he continued to be for many years the active 
general secretary. He communicated papers 
which shed a new lustre upon the transac- 
tions of that body, eliciting for their author 
the highest honours which the society had 
to bestow, and giving him a name honoured 
and familiar throughout Europe. When the 
duties of the winter were over, he loved to 
escape to Switzerland, there to renew his 
researches among the snow^elds and 
glaciers. He had early in life proposed to 
himself to examine that country, not as a 
mere amu8ement,but as a serious occupation, 
and with the great De Saussure as his model. 
Writing in 1843, he says of himself — " I had 
the advantage of receiving my first impres- 
sions of Switzerland in early youth, and I 
have carefully refreshed and strengthened 
them by successive visits to almost every 
district of the Alps between Provence and 
Austria. I have crossed the principal chain 
of Alps twenty-seven times, generally on 
foot, by twenty-three different passes, and 
have, of course, intersected the lateral chains 
in very many directions. I have likewise 
undertaken similar journeys in other moun- 
tainous countries with a view to compare 
the results. I have spant a part of ten 
summers on tlie Continent, and six of these 
in the Alps and adjacent country." From 
these varied wanderings,but more especially 
from the careful, detailed measurements 
made during a prolonged sojourn among the 
Swiss mountains in the summer of 1842, he 
was enabled to write his great work on 
the Alps — a treatise which at once es- 
tablished his name as an observant and 

eloquent traveller, and as the mostsuccessl'ul 
of all the philosophers who had up to that 
time grappled with the problem of glacier- 
motion. The publication of his volume, 
however, by no means completed his labours'. 
Year after year he continued to revisit the 
Alps, and to send at intervals a narrative of 
his arduous journeys to the Edinburgh 
Philosophical Journal. There is reason, 
indeed, to believe that the excessive fatigue 
of many of these mountain expeditions 
began to tell upon his constitution. In 1843, 
after the publication of his "Travels," he 
had an attack of inflammation in the lungs, 
and from that time forward he never pos- 
sessed tlie same vigour as before. 

In the year 1851 he went to Norway, to 
make observations partly upon the physical 
geography of that country, and partly upon 
the eclipse of the sun on the 28th of July in 
that year. Owing to the badness of the 
weather, the latter part of the design was 
frustrated ; but he crossed the Norwegian 
table-land and coasted the sea-margin among 
fjords and islands from Bergen to Hammer- 
test. Although only a few weeks in the 
country, so admirable were his powers of 
observation, and so caretuUy had 1 e trained 
them, that on his return he published a 
volume which may be taken as the model of 
a journal of a scientific tour. " The habit 
of observation," as he himself remarks in 
one of his earlier writings, " is of slow 
growth ; to use opportunities we must pre- 
pare to seize them." So well had he ac- 
customed himself to follow this advice, that 
whether on a carriole, crossing the great 
tjelds, or rapidly skirting the coast in a 
steamer, his eye seems ever to have been 
able to pick out the leading characteristics 
of the geology or physical geography of the 
scene, and his pencil to transfer their out- 
lines with wonderful rapidity and truth to 
his sketch-book. His volume gives by far 
the most luminous accountof the Scandina- 
vian table-land and its glaciers which has 
yet appeared in our language. This expe- 
dition was to its author a most interesting 
one, but it told more severely on his frame 
than any he had yet undertaken. The zeal 
with which he laboured to make the most of 
the limited time at his disposal, added to 
the privations he had occasionally to endure, 
allowed him to return in but an enfeebled 
state of health. In the December of that 
year he first spat blood to an alarming de- 
gree. Recovery proved slow, and in Janu- 
ary 1852 he removed to Clifton, where he 
gradually regained some degree of health 
and vigour, and was able to prepare for the 
press the narrative of his Norwegian expe- 
rience. But there remained in his lungs an 
amount of disease which was never eradi- 
cated, and which made him an invalid ior 
the rest of his life. Every winter after this 
he suffered much from cough and weakness. 
In December, 1859, on the removal of Sir 
David Brewster to Edinburgli, Profespor 
Forbes was chosen Principal oi' the United 
College of St. Andrews. His iiealth had 




now become so impaired that his friends 
rejoiced in the prospect of his being relieved 
from the labours of a class-room. Yet it was 
not without many regrets that he broke up 
his household in Edinburgh which had been 
his home for such a long course of years. 
A friend visiting him about this time at his 
Highland cottage, and being much im- 
pressed by the mingled feeling of sadness 
and relief which seemed to fill his mind on 
the prospect of removing to St. Andrews, 
" Dear Edinburgh !" he remarked, and then 
remained a while silent, as if to allow his 
memory to look back over all that the ex- 
pression suggested. Alpine excursions 
were no longer possible, but he enjoyed 
greatly the rest and recreation which h« 
found in summer at his charming little 
cottage at Pitlochrj\ Every summer for 
fourteen years brought him back to that 
retreat. He loved to be mu'^h in the open 
air. On almost every fine day the Principal 
■was to be seen with his white pony, often 
far from the wonted pathways, and scram- 
bling to the hill tops among bracken and 
Leather to catch the fresh breeze and the 
distant view. He watched with much 
interest the construction of the Highland 
Railway, often visiting the cuttings to exa- 
mine the ice worn rocks and overlying 
drifts. It was on one of these occasions 
that, struggling through a deep section on 
a hot day, he brought on one of those 
alarming attacks of spitting of blood which 
were never more than a year or two absent 
from him since he first began to lose his 
health. His approach was always welcomed 
by the labourers on the line ; when sick or 
hurt they were relieved with supplies from 
his cottage. He was so perfectly truthful 
himself that he seldom failed to give ready 
credence to each tale of hardship that was 
told to him. At St. Andrews his life wore 
pleasantly on. The duties of his oifice were 
performed by him with the most scrapulous 
industry. Every year save the last he 
opened the winter session with an introduc- 
tory address. During his tenure of office, 
also, he gave three courses of lectures, 
selecting such subjects as climate and 
glaciers, which had been his life-long study. 
He likewise found leisure to continue the 
researches on heat, on which his celebrity 
as a physicist mainly rested. The half- 
monastic quiet of the quaint old town in 
which he now lived greatly delighted him. 
When seen there by a friend for the last 
time in the spring of 18G7, he showed him 
an antique folio in manuscript relating to 
the history of the University, which he said 
he was reading with the greatest interest. 
He gathered from these records a mass of 
valuable information, and among his last 
labours was to dictate much of what he had 
thus learned for the guidance of those wlio 
might in future be entrusted with the 
protection and i)romotion of the interests of 
the college. When the British Association 
consented to hold its meeting in 1867 at 
Dundee, Principal Forbes exerted himself 

greatly to furtherthe success of that meeting. 
In particular, he suggested and partly 
organised the association's excursion to St. 
Andrews, and hoped to be able personally 
to welcome the visitors in name of the 
University. But the hope was destined 
never to be fulfilled. The disease in his 
lungs had gained ground in the spring. As 
the summer wore on, the state of his health 
gave continued anxiety to hia family and 
friends. He had retired for the summer to 
Pitlochry, but the reinvigorating influence 
of Highland air had lost its power over him. 
He was unable to be present either 
at Dundee or at Si. Andrews. The as- 
sociation missed his calm, thoughtful 
face, and many were the regrets ex- 
pressed at the cause of his enforced absence. 
Early in the winter of the same year he 
removed to Cannes, in France, where the 
climate appeared for a time to arrest the 
progress of the malady. But in January 
following, the bleeding from the lungs re- 
turned, and only ceased in May, when lie 
entered upon his final homeward journey. 
He reached Clifton much enfeebled, and 
lingered through the rest of the year, slowly 
declining from irremediable disease of the 
right lung. Yet the vigour of his mind re- 
mained unimpaired. The few scientific 
friends who were latterly able to see him, 
were surprised to find him still conversing- 
with his old interest and power upon differ- 
ent subjects which were then engaging the 
attention of scientific circles in this country. 
But his course was now nearly run, and at 
length, on the last day of the year 1868, he 
quietly passed away. 

Of the nature and extent of Principal 
Forbes' contributions to science at large, it 
is not necessary here to speak. The honours 
so abundantly bestowed upon him by the 
scientific societies in this country and abrotid 
sufficiently show the place which he had in 
the estimation of those best qualified tw 
judge. The gathering up of the sum of his 
labours in physics will doubtless be under- 
taken by one well qualified for the task. 
Principal Forbes was bom in Edinburgh, 
just twelve years after the death of Mutton , 
only seven years after the publication of the 
" Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory ;" 
and he was already a boy of ten when Play- 
fair died. Many of his friends had been 
personally acquainted with these pliiloso- 
phers, and the memory of the fierce Pluto- 
nian and Neptunian war was still fresh in 
their minds when he began to give himself 
to scientific pursuits. These early influences 
are traceable all through his life. He was 
profoundly impressed with the originality 
and truth of the views propounded by 
Hutton, and illustrated by Playfair. He 
speaks with enthusiasm of the " precious 
lessons" which one of his friends had drawn 
from the lips of Playfair and of Hall. 1 
shall never cea=e to remember with grati- 
tude, he says, that it was he who introduced 
me when a boy to the writings of these 
masters. He used to speak of Playfuir's 




*■ Illustrations of the Huttouiau Theory," 
as one of the best books ever written upon 
the first principles of geological science. 
Principal Forbes studied geology under 
Jameson, from whom he acquired a love for 
the mineralogical side of the science, and 
retained it to the last. Moreover, his own 
predominant tendency towai-ds physics, 
tinged even his geological studies. Hence 
we find him rising on the one hand, from a 
contemplation of the phenomena of glaciers 
to a philosophical investigation of the laws 
under which these phenomena occur : on 
the other, from the mere observation and 
collection of rocks and minerals to the natu- 
ral philosophy of the operations by which 
they were produced. The earliest of his 
geological writings, it is believed, is in the 
form of a short letter to Professor Jameson, 
on the occurrence of a large greenstone 
boulder in the Pentland Hills. It is dated 
from Colinton House, 3rd August, 1821), 
when its writer was a little over twenty 
years of age. It gives an account of the 
position of the boulder, its composition, 
dimensions, and specific gravity. But the 
chief interest it possesses, lies in the broad 
generalization which the young observer 
drew from the facts he had so carefully 
noted. The boulder lay upon the side of a 
email, steep ravine, and its position there 
was such as to lead him to regard the in- 
duction as undeniable, "that the excava- 
tion of the valley must have taken place 
subsequently to the deposition of this 
boulder." He remarks further, that this 
inference as to the lateness of the erosion 
of valleys is forced upon us by many other 
instances, which intimate the gradual de- 
gradation of the soil. Those who have 
watched the progress of geological dis- 
cussion in recent years, will see at how 
early a period the departed had acquired 
clear views upon this subject, and had 
based them upon the results of actual 
observation. This early paper is further 
interesting, inasmuch as it serves to indicate 
the special field of geology into which Mr. 
Forbes' natural instincts turned him, and 
in which he was destined in later years to 
reap so abundant a harvest. He had often 
read, and treasured in liis memory the 
eloquent passages in which Playfair, follow- 
ing in the path of Hutton, had expounded 
the erosion of valleys and the uiuversal 
decay and waste of tlie continents. He 
saw that the happy suggestions and saga- 
cious inferences of these philosophers ought 
to be regarded in the light rather of an 
outline of what remained to be discovered 
than as the epitome of a completed philo- 
sophy. Whatever related to the forces 
whicli work upon the surface of the earth 
and effect geological changes had a special 
charm for him. It was this tendency which 
led him to wander with more than a tovirist's 
curiosity among the glaciers of Switzerland, 
which first suggested to him the idea of 
working out by accurate observation the 
real cause of glacier-motion, still, in his 

opinion, undiscovered, and which brough 
him back year after year to these great 
mountains, where he toiled with a devotion 
that told at last upon his physical frame. 
He was the first to detevmiiic by careful 
measurements the amount and variations of 
glacier-motion. Comparing that motion to 
the flow of a river, he propounded the theory 
that " a glacier is an imperfect fluid or a 
viscous body, which is urged down slopes of 
acertain inclination by the mutual pressure of 
its parts." The observations and journeys 
which led him to this deduction are detailed 
in his " Travels in the Alps," a work in 
which, as in tlie " Voyages dans ]es Alpes," 
of De Saussure, which he took as his model, 
descriptive narrative of scenery and adven- 
ture are happily blended with scientific 
observation and reasoning. The vexed 
question of the mechanical cause of the 
motion of glaciers is hardly a geological 
problem. The abundant materials collected 
by Mr. Forbes in this work for the elucida- 
tion of the geological functions of glaciers 
should rather be referred to. The existing 
operations of the ice in scoring and polish- 
ing rocks, in transporting huge blocks of 
stone, and in depositing vast mounds of 
rubbish, are illustrated by him from many 
an Alpine valley. Recalling the original 
observations of Playfair, he points out how 
clear is the evidence for the former wide 
extension of the glaciers of Switzerland. 
In short, his eye seems ever to have been 
upon the watch for every phenomenon bear- 
ing upon the mutations of the existing sur- 
face of the land. The lessons which he had 
thus laboriously learned among the living 
ice-rivers of the Alps bore fruit when he 
came again to wander among the more 
mountainous regions of his own country. 
In the year 1840 Agassiz had made the 
startling announcement that the British 
islands had once been deeply buried under 
a vast mantle of snow and ice, and that the 
traces of its seaward motion were yet fresh 
and clear upon the sides of many valleys 
among the uplands. Following up the 
observations of the Swiss naturalist. Buck- 
land and others had pointed out the former 
existence of glaciers in the Highlands and 
other parts of tlie countrj*. When, how- 
ever, we look back upon the carlj' discussion 
of this subject we are forced to admit that 
conclusions were often based upon very 
hasty and imperfect observation. In par- 
ticular, glacier morraincs were often recog- 
nised in places where no geologist would 
now be able to find them. Much as Mi . 
Forbes knew of the geological effects of ice, 
his natural caution kept him from taking part 
in this discussion for a time, until he was 
able to produce more accurately determined 
data than had, in many cases at least, been 
available. In the year 1845, he visited the 
Isle of Skye, and his eye, already trained to 
recognise the traces of vanished glaciers in 
Switzerland, was at once struck by the 
identity of the forms assumed by the rocks 
at Loch Scavaig with the roclics rnontonnces 





cxf the Alps. Further investigation led him 
to obtain complete demonstration of the for- 
mer presence of a group of glaciers descend- 
ing from the rugged scarps of the Cuchullin 
Hills. He walked over mountain and glen, 
tilling in a rough sketch-map of the glacier 
valleys as he went along, and in December 
of the same year, he read a narrative of his 
observations to the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh. This was the most detailed and 
satisfactory account which had yet been 
given of the proofs that the highlands of 
Britain once nourished groups of glaciers. 
In the year 1851, as already remarked, Pro- 
fessor Forbes undertook a journey to Nor- 
way, partly to make observations of the 
great solar eclipse, and partly drawn by his 
love of physical geography, and notably of 
glaciers. We have already referred to the 
volume in which he has given a narrative 
of liis tour. It was his design to compare 
the phenomena of glaciers in Northern 
Europe with those already so familiar in 
Switzerland. This he has done in a masterly 
waj'. His pages contain, in a clear and 
succinct form, the sum of all that was known 
at the time regarding the snow line and the 
existing glaciers of Norway. Those who 
have gone over the ground he has described, 
can bear witness to the accuracy of his 
sketches, alike of pencil and of pen. His 
two chapters on the physical geography of 
Norway, are a masterpiece of careful, yet 
rapid observation, broad generalisation, 
and clear description. But though the 
tendency of his researches in geology was 
mainly towards the investigation of the 
phenomena connected with changes in 
the outUne of the surface, he did not 
neglect the study of minerals and rocks, in 
which he had been trained under Jame- 
son. Previous to 1836, with the view of 
learning more of the history of ancient 
geological upheavals, he had examined " the 
trap rocks of our own island, the ophites of 
the Pyrennees, and the serpentines of 
Anglesia and the Lizard — the porphyries of 
Northern Italy — the granite veins of Mounts 
Bay and Glen Tilt— the ancient volcanoes 
of Auvergne, the Eifel, the Siebengebirge 
and of Rome — and the modern volcano of 
Vesuvius." In December 1835 he gave to 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh a narrative 
of his researches in central France, dwelling 
more especially on the analogies between 
the volcanic rocks of that district, and the 
trappean masses of his own country. 
Throughout his narratives of foreign travel, 
also, everywhere indications are met with 
that, though busied with what had become 
his own more special branch of the science, 
he remained no indifferent observer of the 
rocks among which his journeys led him. 
He retained his fondness for mineralogy up 
to the end. In concluding this sketch of 
the late Principal's geological labours, it 
must not be forgotten that some of his 
researches, though in themselves dealing 
with more or less distinctively physical 
questions, had often important geological 

bearings. Such were some of his meteoro- 
logical investigations, and his carefully 
conducted experiments upon the temperature 
of the earth at different depths and in 
different soils near Edinburgh. These 
experiments were the first made in this 
country, with any degree of precision, to 
determine the rate at which the temperature 
of the surface is conducted downwards, and 
the variations due to differences in the 
nature of the material through which the 
heat is transmitted. But it is not from the 
nature or the number of Principal Forbes' 
contributions to geology that his interest in 
the science is to be measured, or that we 
can learn how much he really did for its 
promotion in this country. As secretary to 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh — an office 
which he held for many years, as professor 
here, and finally as Principal at St. Andrews, 
he had numerous opportunities, which he 
was ever anxious to use, of encouraging by 
akind word or deed those who were devoting 
themselves to geological pursuits. He hnd 
watched, with a sadness which he used often 
to express to his friends, how the halo which 
shone round Scottish geology in his youth 
had slowly faded. The last time that he 
addressed the Royal Society of Edinburgh 
this feeling found vent in these expressive 
words — " Of all the changes which have 
befallen Scottish science during the last 
half century, that which I most deeply 
deplore and at the same time wonder at is 
the progressive decay of our once illustrious 
geological school." It now only remains for 
us to say a few words of Principal Forbes 
as a man, and on that point we have no 
hesitation in stating that he was exemplary 
in all the private relations of life ; under a 
calm and unimpassioned exterior he wore 
ever a kindly heart; that the thorough 
conscientiousness of his scientific work was 
but part of the moral integrity of his natuie ; 
that in all his intercourse, whether with 
friends or opponents, there was a uniform 
gentleness and courtesy which nothing 
seemed ever to ruflle ; and that his modesty, 
either in speaking of his own work or in 
receiving information on subjects he had 
deeply studied, was as gi'eat as it is rare. 
He was a true philosopher and an honoura- 
ble, kind-hearted man. Into the discussion 
so much agitated in recent years, as to the 
antagonism between revelation and science, 
he did not enter. While earning a Euro- 
pean reputation, he remained a sincere 
Christian, and the hopes which had 
strengthened him through life remained to 
cheer and sustain him at the end. 

FORBES, De. Duncan, a name of no 
small mark in connection with British India 
has lately disappeared from thelist of living 
worthies. He passed away in a quiet sleep, 
after seventy years of a useful and blameless 
life. Dr. 'Forbes was a distinguished 
ahmmus of St. Andrews University, and in 
1846 received from her thedegreeof LL.D., 
an honour bestowed but three times before, 
it appears, during the' present century. 




Boruin 1798 of poor but respectable Scottish 
parentage, young Duncan began earning 
part of his own livelihood at the ripe age of 
twelve from tending cattle. He proceeded 
a few years later to act as schoolmaster over 
boys, some of whom were older than liimself. 
During the long summer holidays he 
divided his time between labour in the fields 
and hard study as pupil in a neighbouring 
school. Teaching one-half the year and 
learning the other half, he at length, in 
18IS, left the Highlands to enter the Perth 
Grammar School. There, also, the young 
scholar paid his way by teaching private 
pupils after school hours. In 1820 he gained 
an exhibition at St. Andrews, where he 
lived frugally, and studied hard, for about 
three years, qualifying himself for the M.A. 
degree. At length the offer of one hundred 
rupees a month, besides board and lodgings, 
tempted the young man out to India to help 
in conducting the Calcutta Academy. Two 
years of India, however, proved too much 
for his health, and in 1820 he sailed home 
to seek a livelihood in London itself. The 
next seven years Mr. Forbes spent mainly 
in teaching the pupils^first of Dr. Gilchrist, 
afterwards of Mr. Aruot. The knowledge 
he had gained of Eastern languages in India 
enabled him to make his way as a teacher 
in the same line. In 1837, three years after 
Mr. Arnot's death, he became Professor of 
Oriental Languages in King's College. 
From that time his life flowed on in com- 
parative smoothness. He was fond of work, 
could always command a certain number of 
private pupils, and a fair amount ofpiofit 
on the books he published for the good of 
students, in Persian, Hindustani, and other 
Eastern tongues. What young cadet or 
civilian has never heard of his Hindustani 
grammar and dictionary, and by how few 
travellers to India has his Hindiistaui 
manual been left unbought? Dr. Forbes 
had the great merit of imparting his own 
knowledge to others in clear, simjjle, straight- 
forward tenns, making no pretence to depth 
or originality, but aiming only, as he often 
declared, to benefit those who sought 
instruction at his hands. He wrote and 
taught for the many, not the few; and 
many who lacked time or taste for deeper 
scholarship, found in him an easy, safe, and 
serviceable guide on a road which former 
learners had to make their way over as they 
best could with the help of Gilchrist and 
Shakspeare. True to his principle of 
wearing out rather than rusting out, he died 
in harness after a few months of gradual 
decay on the 17th of December 1868. 
Barring an occasional visit to his kindred, 
and a trij) or two on the Continent, his life 
in England had been spent in steady work 
and lonely relaxation. For politics and 
tlie pleasures of the world he never, in his 
own words, cared a straw. His Scotch 
thriftiness, fostered, no doubt, by years of 
necessary self-denial, marked his manner 
of living to the last. He who had labori- 
ously earned the price of his own schooling, 

who saved money in India to pay for liis 
outfit, who alterwards in London lived ou 
half-a-crown a week, begrudged himself all 
but the merest necessities in his latter years. 
His dealings with his publishers seem to 
have been marked by a rare reciprocity of 
good-will. That an author should be 
satisfied with his share of the bargain is not 
an everyday event, but how many authors 
have ever remembered their publishers in 
their will ? Yet it is not the less true that 
Dr. Forbes has made his publisher one of 
his executors, and has left a legacy to each 
member of the firm. 

FORDYCE, Alexander, Banker in 
London. If one hundred years ago, some- 
body had inquired at the Exchange, or the 
Bank of England, who was the most 
successful man of the day, the unfailing 
answer would have been, " Alexander 
Fordyce." His success in life, indeed, 
bordered on the marvellous ; it was a sort 
of poetry of success — up to a certain time — 
for the prose followed after. There is much 
prose, unfortunately, at the bottom of all 
poetry in life as well as in banking. Alex- 
ander Fordyce was bred a hosier, at 
Abeideen, but finding this place too narrow 
for his abilities, he came to London, and 
after a short while succeeded in obtain- 
ing employment as an outdoor clerk in the 
banking-house of Boldero & Co. A hand- 
some, dashing man, possessed of con.siderable 
energy of character, with a great flow of 
natural eloquence, and much suavity of 
manner, he soon attracted the attention not 
only of his masters, but of other gentlemen, 
and before long obtained an introduction to 
the family circle of Messrs Rofi"ey & Neale, 
formerly brewers, and subsequently heads 
of the banking firm of Rotfey, Neal. & 
James. At the private residence of tliese 
gentlemen the young Aberdeen draper 
captivated all hearts, particularly the sup- 
posed soft ones of the fair sex ; and the 
upshot of these conquests was that Mr. 
Fordyce was off'ered a partnership in the 
banking-house of Rofl"ey, Neale, & Co., in 
Threadneedle Street, which offer, it is 
needless to say, was accepted. Alexander 
— we might call him Alexander the Great— 
had no sooner been thus comfortably es- 
tablished than he began to speculate in the 
public funds, hazarding large sums ujjon 
conjectural gains. Fortune, which is said 
to favour the bold— the proverb, like most 
proverbs, is of doubtful truth — smiled upon 
Alexander, showering the golden guineas 
into his lap by thousands and tens of 
thousands. His courage rose with his good 
luck, and his stakes doubled day after day. 
At last, in 1766, he made a tremendous haul 
in a speculation in East India stock. He 
calculated ujwn a slight rise, and had no 
sooner invested his — that is his partners' — 
fortune when there took place an extraor- 
dinary upward movement, leaving him in 
the possession of profits amounting to near 
a hundred thousand pounds. Mr. Alexander 
Fordyce now started fairly in the great race 




of life. He purcliased a large estate, with 
splendid mansion, at Koeliampton, and 
entered upon a series oi fetes, banquets, and 
entertainments, which threw those of roy- 
alty in the shade. To show his zeal for 
religion, he built a church adjoining liis 
mansion, supporting it entirely himself, and 
" worshipping God" on a sort of A'elvet 
throne, surrounded by a glittering posse of 
tall footmen and bedizened lackeys. Alex- 
ander Fordyce next started as candidate 
for a seat in Parliament, which attempt, 
though he was not returned, cost him four- 
teen thousand pounds. To secure his future 
election, he erected an liospital, and estab- 
lished other charities at the borough of his 
choice, leaving no means untried to become 
a senator, and openly avowing his hope to 
die a peer. As a beginning of this great 
end he married a peeress, the Lady Margaret 
Lindsay, a daugliter of the Earl of Balcarres, 
and sister of that Lady Anne Barnard 
whose name is so well known as writer of 
" Auld Robin Gray," and it is as the hus- 
band of this distinguished Fife lady, that 
his name finds a place in this work. This 
was the highest stroke of good fortune that 
befel the handsome draper of Aberdeen. 
Contemporary writers can scarcely find 
words to praise the beauty and grace of 
Lady Margaret : " Always sweet, always 
entertaining, always instructive," wrote 
Sheridan ; while another added, " Her 
eloquence was remarkable, and her singing 
frequently left tlie whole room in tears." 
No wonder that, to please such a wife, as 
far above him by birth as by accomplish- 
ments, Alexander Fordyce redoubled speed 
in liis wild career of extravagance. He 
purchased estates in Scotland at a fancy 
value, opened his mansion to the elite, of 
rank and wealth, whom he entertained at 
sumptuous festivals, and grew insolent 
almost in the possession of his newly- 
acquired wealth. But the fatal period now 
approached when there came a turn in the 
tide of his success. Several speculations 
turned out badly, and his first losses brought 
a whole host of visible and invisible enemies 
against him. " The stocks have got wind 
of this secret," said Horace Wali^ole, " and 
their heart is fallen into their breeches — 
where the heart of the stocks is apt to lie." 
Then came the affair of Falkland Island, 
which drove the funds down rapidly, leaving 
Mr. Fordyce, who had speculated on a rise, 
a loser to the extent of about a hundred 
thousand pounds. To supply his deficien- 
cies he now had recourse to his partners' 
private funds. Discovery followed in the 
wake of this step, and the alarmed banker- 
brewers, as suddenly trembling as they had 
previously been elated, threatened exposure 
and punishment. Messrs Rofifey, Neale, & 
Co. had freely partaken of Mr. Fordyce's 
extreme good luck, and had rejoiced in the 
far ken which had attained them the services 
of so clever a person ; but when they saw 
that the chances were going against him. 
they remonstrated with all the energy of 

men whose fortunes lay on the success of 
their remonstrances. Probably they felt, 
like Carlyle's heroes of the French Revolu- 
tion, that tlie " Millennium was struggling' 
on the threshold, and yet not so much as 
groceries could be had — owing to traitors." 
With what impetus will not hungry men 
strike traitors in such a case ? Alexander 
Fordyce showed himself a great genius 
even in adversity. He treated the remon- 
strance of his partners with the most 
mortifying ccmtempt, telling them that he 
was quite willing to leave a concern which 
they themselves were utterly incompetent 
to manage. At the same time he showed 
them a thick pile of bank notes which he 
had borro\^ed for the purpose ; and the 
rustle of the bank notes, coupled with the 
magic of their partner's eloquence, at once 
brought Messrs Roflfej' & Neale down upon 
their knees. But, although secure of the 
goodwill of his associates, the career of the 
young banker was fast drawing to a close. 
Getting desperate, he lost himself more and 
more in wild speculations, to cover which 
all his own and his friends' resources were 
wholly insufficient. He next went about 
raising money by loans, but witli very 
indiiferent success. The Bank of England 
refused assistance, and most of the private 
bankers declined likewise. Among those 
Avhom Alexander visited on his borrowing 
errand was a shre%vd quaker. " Friend 
Fordyce," was the reply of the latter,"! 
have known many men ruined by two dice, 
but I will not be ruined by Four-dice." 
The Quaker was right, for a few days after 
the storm, no longer to be prevented, burst 
forth over the city. Mr. Fordyce absented 
himself from the banking-house in Thread- 
needle street, his terrified partners for the 
first time investigated their accounts, and 
found they were hopelessly bankrupt. The 
news created a panic ; and the panic in- 
creased when it became known that the 
name of Alexander Fordyce was attached 
to bills in circulation to the amount of four 
millions sterling ! Such a Monday as this 
8th day of June 1772 had not been known 
in the mercantile world of England within 
the memory of men, and people universally 
called it " Black Monday." This '• Black 
Monday" was a great calamity in England, 
but it proved almost fatal to the banking 
interest in Scotland. The news of the failure 
of Fordyce was brought to Edinburgh — • 
according to the Scots Maguzineof June, 1772 
— " by a gentleman who posted from London 
in forty-three hours ;" and it had the 
immediate effect of breaking nearly all the 
banks in the northern kingdom. The houses 
of Douglas, Heron and Co., Arbuthnot and 
Guthrie, Andrew Sinclair & Co., Malcolm & 
Co., Johnston & Smith, William Alexander 
and Sons, Gibson and Balfour, Anthony 
Ferguson, and many others, stopped pay- 
ment one after another, and the panic at 
Edinburgh and Glasgow was such as to 
threaten a revolution. Besides the Bank of 
Scotland, Royal Bank, and British Linen 




Company, which were established by pub- 
lic authority, the only private banks that 
remained solvent were Coutts and Co., and 
the houses of the two old drapers, Mansfield 
and Cuming. Coutt's firm was partly saved 
by the opportune arrival of a partner with 
a small sum in cash — only between £2000 
and £3000— which common report, as usual, 
magnified into a couple of millions. In con- 
sequence, the people clamoured for their 
money at other banks, where it would have 
been perfectly safe, to carry it to the second 
floor of the old house in Parliament Close 
with the imaginary million. The most im- 
portant effect of " Black Monday " in Scot- 
land was, that it destroyed the first joint- 
etock bank, and thus prevented the growth 
of joint-stock enterprise for a very consider- 
able time — killing the flower in the bud. 
A banking firm, trading under the style of 
Douglas, Heron, and Co., having its head- 
quarters at Ayr, had been set up in the 
year 1769, with a capital of £96,000 sub- 
scribed by about one hundred and forty 
shareholders. The bank was managed for 
a time with considerable skill ; but the 
directors committed at the outset the serious 
blunder of issuing a larger amount of notes 
than was warranted by their subscribed 
capital, on the supposition that the number 
of partners — all liable, not " limited," but 
with their whole fortune would form the 
best guarantee of their commercial transac- 
tions. But this expectation was doomed to 
disappointment. ■' Black Monday " occa- 
sioned a run upon Douglas, Heron and Co., 
as well as all the other banks ; the excited 
multitude claiming cash in exchange for 
their notes, regardless of the well-known 
fact that one hundred and forty gentlemen, 
some of them among the wealthiest land- 
owners in Scotland, were responsible for 
every note issued by the bank. There 
existed, however, a human stampede, not to 
be arrested by any amount of sound sense 
and reasoning, and the consequence was, 
that the new joint-stock bank had to declare 
itself insolvent. It was in vain that lead- 
ing shareholders of the highest rank, such 
as the Duke of Buccleuch and the Duke of 
Queensberry, went ta the Bank of England 
to seek assistance : they were told that the 
bank held already Douglas, Heron and Co. 's 
notes to the extent of £150,000, and was in- 
disposed to trust them, any further. Tlie 
simple fact that the Bank of England, like 
the Rothschilds, has always been jealous of 
joint-stock enterprise, was well-known in 
Scotland, and caused a loud burst of indig- 
nation from tlie sliareholders of the unfortu- 
nate bank, but did not prevent its fall. The 
firm of Douglas, Heron and Co. closed 
business at the end of the third year, leaving, 
in the words of a Scottish writer, " an 
amount of destruction in its wake such as 
Scotland had not experienced since the 
wreck of the Darien expedition." It is said 
that a large proportion of the land of the 
county of Ayr changed hands in conse- 
quence. For the remainder of their lives 

the unfortunate shareholders in the A.^ r 
bank had never done with paying, and lu 
some instances the descendants of shaie- 
holders did not get their accounts closed till 
some time after the passing of the Reform 
Act, at the distance of upwards of sixty 
years from " Black Monday." 

GOODSIR, JoHX, Largo. The London 
Athenmmi gives the follo\ving account of 
this worthy gentleman: — "AFifeshire 
Doctor of the Last Century. — In the 
later decades of the last century, and first 
twenty years of the present, few men were 
better known in the kingdom of Fife than 
John Goodsir, of Largo, who, not satisfied 
with such practice as he could get in a 
little town and its immediate neighbour- 
hood, used to gather modest fees at dis- 
tances far from his own door. A tall, gaunt, 
wiry giant, this medicine-man of a period 
and region that knew nothing of brougham- 
equipped or gig-driving doctors, rode his 
rounds on a horse chiefly remarkable frr 
its stoical endurance of the spur, with a 
pack of drugs and instruments attached to 
his saddle, and a lamp at his knee. ' To 
obviate the dangers of travelling by night, 
he carried a lantern, fastened by a strap 
above his knee. The bull's-eye of the 
doctor's lantern was often signalled, in 
moonless nights, heralding the comforting 
assurance of an obstetric deliverance. His 
regularity in his rounds vied with the 
carrier of His Majesty's mails; and the 
saddle-bags of the one and surgical in- 
struments of the other were similarly 
horsed, so that the Laird of Largo, scan- 
ning the roads, used to say, "It's either 
the doctor or the post that's coming." ' A 
doctor in large practice, this worthy man 
representing divinity as well as physic, was 
also a popular preacher in high repute 
with the many pious mortals who main- 
tained that his potions and prayers helped 
one another when administered simultane- 
ously. ' His piety in time became as noted 
and demonstrative as his physic ; for, after 
leaving ' the Established Church,' and 
having had experience of the ' Independ- 
ents,' he joined the 'Baptists' at Largo, 
and occupied their pulpit for twenty years ; 
the Christian community looked upon him 
as ' a physician by profession, and a pastor 
by principle.' His successin both directions 
led Fife folk to say that Dr. Goodsir' 3' 
physic always did good, as it was mixed 
with prayer." On his death, in 1821, the 
Edinburgli Baptists wrote to ' the church 
at Largo,' bearing grateful testimony to 
the ' savoury and impressive and edifying 
manner' of the medical pastor's pulpit 
eloquence. Of this practitioner's eleven 
children three became surgeons, and one 
of these three sons, John Goodsir the 
second, spent his life in professional 
duty at Anstruther Easter, or Anster, a 
small shipping port on the south-east coast 
of Fife, where in due course his son, John 
Goodsir the third, who afterwards occupied 




a professor's chair in Edinburgh University, 
passed his earlier years, and for a brief 
time acted as his father's professional 

GRAY, The Family of.— Mr. Charles 
Gray, Senior, of Anstruther Wester, was 
sometime an officer in a revenue cutter, 
and was married to a Miss Burn, a relative 
of the celebrated Major General Andrew 
iJurn of the Royal Marines, author of " The 
Cliristian Officer's Panoply" and otber 
religious works. Mr. Gray had five sons, 
viz : George, Cbarles, William, Andrew, 
and Maiden. Tbe two former and tbe latter 
were distinguished officers in the Marino 
Service. William and Andrew died in 
early life on the Mediterranean. George, 
the eldest son, greatly distinguished him- 
self, and rose to the rank of Major of 
Marines. He died at St. Andrews, to 
which city he had retired for the education 
of his family. Charles became Captain in 
the Marine Corps, and saw a good deal of 
active service afloat. He was a gifted 
poet. In 1811 he pubhshed an octavo 
volume of •' Poems and Songs," and in 1840 
a second volume of verses, entitled " Lays 
and Lyrics." He was also a frequent 
contributor to the periodicals of the day. 
Captain Gray, after a period of active ser- 
vice extending over 36 years, retired on full 
pay in 1841, and took up his residence in 
Edinburgh, where he died in 1851. Tlie 
Captain left a son named Tliumas, a kiud- 
hearted cheerful young man, who rose to 
the rank of Captain in the Marine Corps, 
and died in active service in Captain Peel's 
brigade in India, in 1858. The youngest 
of the family. Lieutenant Maiden Gray, 
who, amid arduous professional duties, found 
time and opportunity to establish and 
superintend a Sabbath School at Chatham, 
had a handsome mcmument erected by the 
officers and men of the station as a tribute 
of aftection and respect for his memory. 
He lelt a widow and four children, two of 
whom, a son and daughter, still survive, 
and are now resident in London with their 
mother. Major George Gray, the elder 
brother, first above mentioned, married Miss 
Ann Rodger, daughter of Mr. James Rodger, 
merchant in Anstruther, and had issue a 
son and three daughters. The eldest daugh- 
ter became the wjfe of Mr. Smith, writer 
and banker in Anstruther, and died with- 
out issue. The youngest married John 
Ware, Esq., of Yalla Yalla Poora, in Aus- 
tralia, and the second is still unmarried. 
The Major's son, Charles, was born at 
Anstruther in 1816, and was educated partly 
at the burgh school of Anstruther, and 
partly at an Academy in Edinburgh. He 
became a clerk to Messrs. ConoUy & Smith, 
writers and bankers in Anstruther, and 
afterwards proceeded to Australia. With 
the patrimony lelt him by his father, which 
Was considerable, he entered on the em- 
ployment of slieep farming in the new 
country, and having obtained an extensive 

and fertile rK/», and being very siiccessfi,! 
in business, he is now one of the most 
extensive sheep farmers and landed pro- 
prietors in the colony. In March, 1857, 
Mr. Gray maniedalady of Irish extraction 
by whom he has three dunghters. Mrs. 
Gray is highly accomplished, and possessed 
of literarj- and artistic attainments of no 
common order. We have little space left 
to speak of Mr. Gray, but we cannot close 
without saj-ing a few Avords: — Mr. Charles 
Gray is a gentleman gifted with consider- 
able powers of mind. Indeed, his intellec- 
tual powers, combined with suavity of 
manners and a cheerful disposition hiivu 
endeared him to many triends. He is also 
distinguished by his kind remembrance of 
many poor old people of Anstruther who 
have been from time to time the recipienis 
of his bounty. For several years likewiso 
lie has presented valuable prizes to be shot 
for at an animal competition of the Anstru- 
ther Rifle Corps, and on the occasion of a 
melancholy boat accident at Cellardyke, 
not many years since, he remitted thirty 
pounds to be divitled among the six poor 
widows and their orphan children. 

HAY, David BALrouii, Esq., of Leys 
and Randerston, was born in the year 17«0 . 
In early Hfe he entered the Army, and 
served under the late Duke of York. Ho 
was wounded in an engagement in HoUaml, 
and only saved by being carried off the held 
of battle by his servant, who came homo 
with him, and continued in his service. 
On Thursday, the 27th August, 1868, his 
remains were laid in the family vault under 
Newburgh Church, beside those of his only 
brother. Captain Peter Hay, who also en- 
tered tbe Army, and servedin the 18th Light 
Dragoons, in the Peninsular War, and went 
through the hardships and perils of the 
retreat from Coruuna, under Sir John 
Moore, and had the reputation of being a 
briUiaut and active officer. The deceased 
David Balfour Hay was the last male re- 
presentative of an illustrious race. His 
unbroken descent through the male lino 
for twenty-one generations, possessors of 
the original ancestral property, is almost 
without a parallel in family history. He 
died on 2 1st August, 1868. 

HENDERSONS, Ship-Ownees, Glas- 
gow. There are four brothers of this 
family, viz., David, Thomas, John, and 
William, all born in Pittenwecm, sons of 
John Henderson and Janet Shanks. John 
Henderson, the father of tbe suljects of 
this memoir, was master successively of 
the Mediterranean fruiters, " Sisters," 
" Zephyr," and " Corsair," (the building 
of which he superintended himself,) all 
belonging to the firm of Messrs. William 
and Francis Reid, merchants, Glasgow. 
He died in the prime of life, at Naples, in 
1835, and was succeeded in the command 
of the "Corsair," by David, then a pn;- 
mising young man, who haxi been some 
time chief mate with his father.' Th.pmae, 




John, and Willinrn, all successively went 
to sea, and were, in course of time, each 
fortunate in obtaining the command of 
first-class sailing ships, trading to all parts 
of the world, and ultimately of steamers 
trading to America and to the Levant. 
Some twenty years ago, Thomas left the 
sea, and entered into partnership with the 
firm of N. & R. Handyside, then eminent 
shipbrokers in Glasgow, and carrying on a 
large mercantile business with Russia, 
when the style of the firm was changed to 
Handyside & Henderson. The elder Mr. 
Handyside retired from the firm about 
eight years ago ; and latterly Mr. Robert 
Handyside having acquired a competent 
fortune, also retired into private life. 
David and William having also given up a 
seafaring life, commenced business toge- 
ther in Glasgow as shipbrokers and marine 
architects, and have continued in partner- 
ship up to this time ; and now carry on 
successfully in addition, a large engineer- 
ing establishment at Finnieston, Glasgow. 
John was assumed a partner of the firm of 
Handyside & Henderson in 18.58. The 
shipping business of the firm of Handyside 
& Henderson, has gradually increased up 
to the present time, and several steamers 
are despatched weekly by them to New 
York, Halifax, and St. John, the Peninsu- 
lar and Mediterranean ports, and to the 
Levant, carrying goods and passengers, 
and are well known as the "Anchor Line." 
In connection with the Atlantic steamers, 
they have a North Sea Service, consisting 
of fast steamers, employed conveying pas- 
sengers via Leith to Glasgow, to be em- 
barked at the latter port for the United 
States, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and 
the Cauadas. The fleet of the " Anchor 
Line" number now over thirty steamers, 
and several more we understand, are now 
building. These four brothers have always 
worked harmoniously together, and are all 
connected as co-owners of the above 
steamers,'.together with a few friends, and 
being practical men, and highly esteemed 
for tlieir untiring energy, perseverance, 
and probity, the "Anchor Line" of steam- 
ers may be expected to go on increasing 
as the necessities of the various trades in 
which the steamers are now engaged are 
opened up, find other new channels for 
steam communication demanded by the 
fast increasing requirements of commerce. 

HETHERiNGTON, Dk., some time 
minister of the Free Church of St. 
Andrews, was born about the beginning 
of the present century. In the early part 
of his career, he spent some years in Eng- 
land, prosecuting his studies with all the 
dnigence and energy that distinguished 
him ever after. Here he published the 
first, and, in some respects, the ablest of 
his works — "The Fulness of Time;" a work 
that received the favourable notice of the 
eminent poet-laureate of the day. Dr. 
. |5outhey, in his well-known work, "The 

Doctor," and that indicated, at this early 
period, the tendency of the author's mind 
towards historical research, and the gene- 
ralisations of Christian philosophy. In 
the year 1836, he was presented to the 
parish of Torphichen, in the Presby- 
tery of Linlithgow. His feelings weie 
very warmly with the party that was 
f^truggling for the independence of tbe 
Church, and the liberties of the people ; 
.and while the conflict was at its thickest 
he found an opportunity of rendering a 
piece of very useful service, for 'which his 
historical faculty, his unwearied diligence, 
and his ready pen eminently qualified htm. 
Amid the endless references of the day to 
the history of the Church, and to the public 
documents which bore upon her constitu- 
tion, the want of a "handy book," or 
manual of the history of the Scottish 
Church, that should present a bird's-eye 
view of all the salient points of her career, 
was deeply and mdely felt. Mr. Hether- 
ington undertook to supply this desidera- 
tum, and set to work with such intense 
activity, that, ivithin a year, we believe, of 
his beginning to compose it, a massive oc- 
tavo volume of 800 pages was given to tlie 
public in 1841. Written with such rapidity, 
and in the whirl of a conflict that caused 
such intense excitement, the " History of 
the Church of Scotland" could not but in 
some respects seem more like the pleading 
of an advocate than the deliberate and un- 
biassed c inclusions of a judge ; but such 
was its popularity, that six or seven editions 
passed very rapidly through the press, in- 
cluding a cheap edition for the people, and 
a handsome library edition in two volumes . 
His pen was not allowed to remain long 
idle. The bicentenary of the Westminster 
Divines fell on the year of the Disruption. 
The name was famihar to those whose eye 
had been so often turned backwards to the 
ecclesiastical contendings of the seven- 
teenth century during the vehement con- 
flicts of the nineteenth ; but comparatively 
few were familiar with the history of the 
Assembly. Mr. HethL-rington, on the very 
month of the Disruption, brought out a 
volume entitled, "History of the West- 
minster Assembly of Divines." His services 
in the literary field presently recommendtd 
him to the notice of the Free Church con- 
gregation of St. Andrews, where it was felt 
to be eminently desirable that a minister 
should be settled, not only suited to a 
university town, but capable also of taking 
some charge of any Free Church students 
there who might be pursuing their studies 
with a view to the ministry. At St. An- 
drews, Mr. Hetherington added to his other 
duties that of editor of the Free Church 
Magazine, which he continued to superin- 
tend for four years, and in which he wrote 
many reviews and articles, not only during 
the time of his own editorship, but also in 
subsequent years. The period was one of 
considerable excitement, and Dr. Hether- 




iiigton (who h;id now received a diploma 
from America) was not one that cared to 
conceal the earnestness of his feelings or 
the strength of his convictions. If we say 
that in later years he would probably have 
written with somewhat less of vehemence, 
we only indicate that his nature was sus- 
ceptible of impressions from the calming 
influence of time, and of wider reflection 
and observation. On the removal of the 
Rev. Robert Elder to Rothesay, Dr. Hether- 
ington was called to the charge of Free St. 
Paul's, in Edinburgh. Among the proofs 
of his diligence in this sphere, the unusually 
large and handsome schools erected through 
his exertions in connection with that charge 
will remain an enduring monument. Among 
the labours of love in which he engaged 
during his Edinburgh ministry must be 
reckoned a course of lectures to young 
men on the Popish controversy, which he 
delivered in connection with the Protestant 
Institute — then commencing its operations 
in the city. A year after the Free Church 
College was begunin Glasgow, Dr. Hether- 
ington was appointed by the General Assem- 
bly to one of the chairs. To the preparation 
of his lectures for his class he devoted 
himself with all his woni-ed energy and 
zeal. At his time of life, the effort proved 
too much. It is probable that his consti- 
tution was then so far weakened as not to 
be able to rally from an accident which he 
received soon after, or to throw off the 
effects of a stroke of paralysis, which, about 
the year 1862, disabled him for any active 
exertion. The Assembly having resolved 
to appoint a colleague and successor to 
him, the memorable contest ensiie.i which 
terminated in the appointment of the pre- 
sent incumbent of the chair — Dr. Islay 
Burns. Dr. Hetherington was of a frank, 
manly, outspoken nature, more concerned 
to speak as he felt, than to avoid all the 
consequences of his outspokenness. He 
was particularly fond of students, and his 
pleasant method of pouring out to them 
the stores of information which lay in bis 
mind made them as fond of him as he was 
of them. As a speaker, and as a preacher, 
he was clear, forcible, and emphatic, al- 
though not attaining the first rank in either 
capacity. He was most deeply attached to 
evangelical truth, and devoutly sought to 
make all his stores subservient to the cause 
of Christ. If a touch of egotism sometimes 
showed itself in his conversation, it never 
was of an offensive kind, owing to the 
honesty and transparency of his character. 
It can hardly be doubted that, had he not 
worked so hard, he would have continued 
for several years longer to serve the Church, 
and especially to promote the cause of theo- 
logical education. He died on the 23d May, 

HONEY, John, Student of Divinity, at 
St. Andrews, afterwards minister of the 
parish of Bendochy, in Perthsliire, distin- 
guished himself at St. Andrews, about the 

commencement of the year 1800, by great 
humanity and intrepidity. The following 
is the account of the occurreace, as pub- 
lished in the Edinburgh Evening Cou/rant, 
a few days after the event : — "One of the 
fatal accidents that happen on the sand- 
banks and rocky shore near St, Andrews, 
gave rise to a striking instance of courage 
and presence of mind, prompted by the 
finer and more exalted emotions of the 
soul, of which few more deserving of record 
occur in any age or country. On Friday, 
the 5th January, 1800, the sloop Janet, of 
Macduff, was driven on the sands near St. 
Andrews. Every attempt of the townsmen 
to save the vessel proving ineffectual, she 
went to pieces. The crew, worn out by 
fatigue, were unable to struggle with the 
waves any longer, and several fruitless 
attempts to save the sufferers but height- 
ened their despair. John Honey, a student 
in the University of St. Andrews, fearless 
of all danger, plunged in amid the fury of 
the waves, seized the benumbed seamen, 
one by one, and laid them in safety on the 
beach. The reward tendered to this humane 
and intrepid youth was more honourable 
than lucrative. Soon after this event, the 
magistrates invited him to an elegant en- 
tertainment, and presented him with the 
freedom of the city, accompanied with an 
address suited to the occasion, of which 
the subjoined is a copy : — ' This hereditaiy 
ticket, I have the honour of presenting to 
you, in the absence of the Right Hon. the 
Earl of KeUie, Lord Provost of this City. 
It is the only gift that this Corporation 
can bestow upon you, for your wonderful 
and unexampled exertions in rescuing from 
the jaws of death the master and four sea- 
men of the sloop the Janet, of Macduff, 
wrecked on the east sands of St. Andrews, 
and who, but for your humane and unparal- 
leled efforts, at the imminent hazard of your 
own life, must have inevitably perished. — 
Cathcart Dempster, Dean of Guild.'" 

INGLIS, Robert, Esq., of Kirkmay, a 
descendant of the Baronets of Cramond, 
was born at Crail, County of Fife, in the 
year 1773, and received his education at the 
Grammar School of that burgh, then taught 
by Mr. James M'Min. After he left school, 
he became clerk to Mr. Bowsie, merchant 
in Crail, who carried on a pretty extensive 
business there. When the volunteer corps 
was raised, abuut the beginning of the 
centm-y, in conse luence of the threatened 
invasion by the French, Mr. luglis joined it, 
but the drill, with the heavy oid-fashioned 
musket, Brown Bess, was too much for 
him, and brought on a spitting of blood, 
which obliged him to relinquish the service. 
About the year 1803, Mr. Inglis left Crail 
for India, and became, first a clerk, and 
afterwards a partner of the great commer- 
cial house of Ferlie & Co., of Calcutta. 
The important island of Java belonged to 
the Dutch, but when Bonaparte annexed 
Holland to the French Empire, in 1811, 




the British took possession of the island, 
and retained it till 1816, wlien they restored 
it to the Dutch, after the fall of Bonaparte. ! 
Java is extremely well adapted for an ex- 
tensive commerce. Its soil is rich and 
fertile, and its productions numerous. 
Hither Mr. Inglis repaired, on behalf of 
Ferhe & Co., when the island came into 
our possession. The Javanese are good 
agriculturists : along with wheat, rice, and 
miUet, they cultivate cucumbers, capsicums, 
cocoa-nuts, araca, palm betel, tobacco, cof- 
fee, sugar, pepper, cardamom, ginger, cot- 
ton, and great varieties of tropical fruits. 
The northern coasts of Java are accessible 
to vessels all the year round, and lie oppo- 
site the richest countries of Asia, and the 
transmission of native produce to other 
countries, and the importation of foreign 
commodities, are both very large. The 
produce of the Dutch possessions in Java, 
in one year, are known to have been as 
foUows :— Coffee, 144,861,372 lbs. : sugar, 
112,000 tons ; indigo, 1,151,308 lbs ; cochi- 
neal, 146,000 lbs ; tea, 988,529 lbs. ; pepper, 
461,680 lbs. ; cinnamon, 250,550 lbs. ; and 
tobacco, 1,500,000 lbs. ; and the quantity 
of sugar imported from Java to Great Bri- 
tain alone, amountedjin one year, to 75,000 
tons. During his stay in Java, Mr. Inglis 
got intimately acquainted with the inhabi- 
tants, and entered into extensive commercial 
transactions with them. The natives belong 
to the widely spread race of the Malays. 
The religion is Mohammedanism, modified 
by Buddhism. They have a native litera- 
ture, which, however, is not rich. They 
have also translations from the Sanscrit 
and Arabic. In civilization, the Javanese 
are much superior to all other nations who 
inhabit the Indian Archipelago. They 
show skill in manufactures of cotton, silk, 
and also in shipping. The population is 
between 4,500,000 and 6,000,000. The 
greater part of the island is in the posses- 
sion of the Dutch, but a portion is owned 
by two native princes. Mr. Inglis negoci- 
atedwith the J avanese for various produc- 
tions of their island, but bis chief purchase 
was of coffee. Indeed it is believed lie 
bought the whole coffee for sale in Java, 
and a most fortunate speculation it turned 
out to be for Ferlie & Co., for a great rise 
in price took place shortly thereafter, and 
it was reported, at the time Mr. IngHs re- 
turned to his native country, that his share 
of the profits on this transaction was about 
£100,000. Mr. Inglis married in India, and 
brought home with him his wife and several 
children, in 1815. He shortly thereafter 
purchased the estates of Kirkmay and 
Sypsies, in the parish of Ciail, besides 
acqmring a number of hoiises, gardens, 
and crofts, and several acres of valuable 
land lying near the burgh, upon which he 
erected, in 1817, a handsome and spacious 
villa, at a little distance back from the 
principal street of tlie burgh, which is the 
Unest modern building in the parish, and 

is named Kirkmay House. The avocations 
of commercial life in Calcutta, the metro- 
polis of our Indian Empire, had an obvious 
tendency to give expansion to the mind, 
and to call into exercise the generous feel- 
ings of the heart. These advantages were 
realised by Mr. Inglis, from a very early 
period of his Ufe. Under the auspices of 
the respected house of Ferlie & Co., he was 
initiated into habits of commercial activity, 
and shortly after his attaining the age of 
manhood, there was devolved upon him the 
principal superintendence of an extensive 
mercantile concern. The same immutable 
principles of integrity and honour, with 
which he entered on his career, he main- 
tained inviolate to its close. Of his engag- 
ing and attractive manners in private life, 
it would be difficult to convey a proper 
idea to those who had not the pleasure of 
his acquaintance. His eye beamed with 
benignity ; in his conversation there was 
perfect ease and affabihty. If there was 
one feature of his character more promi- 
nent than another, it was his benevolence. 
Happy in himself, and enjoying a great 
degree of serenity of mind, it was his de- 
sire to difFase happiness around him. To 
every benevolent object he was disposed 
to contribute. It was to this feeling we 
must attribute his desire to give employ- 
ment to the working population of Crail, 
that he laid out a considerable sum in the 
purchase of flax and yarn, to be made into 
cloth ; and at another time, his having the 
lands of Kirkmay surveyed and bored for 
coal. Fire and common clays were also 
dug up in great abundance on the estate of 
Kirkmay, where a brick and tile work was 
carried on for .some years. In these, and 
other experiments, Mr. IngHs' sole object 
was to promote the benefit of the working 
people of Crail. He was a decided and 
conscientious adherent of the Established 
Church himself, yet it was his delight to 
enjoy the friendship of many of other re- 
hgious persuasions, and to co-operate with 
all, in every effort of Christian benevolence. 
About the year 1818, Mr. Balfour, of Whit- 
tingham and Balganie, (a friend of Mr. 
Inglis, in India,) offered himself as a can- 
didate for the representation in Parliament 
of the Eastern District of Fife Burghs, and 
after a severe contest, carried the election ; 
but he might thank Mr. Inglis for his suc- 
cess, for it was chiefly o-wing to his influ- 
ence and great exertK ns in his favour, that 
he became the successful candidate. Mr. 
Inglis' long residence in the relaxing cli- 
mate of India weakened his constitution, 
and although he greatly recovered strength 
after his return to Scotland, yet the seeds 
of disease were not thoroughly eradicated, 
for he often complained of stomach com- 
plaints and sick headaches, and was not 
able for much exertion. He took great 
delight in laying out and superintending 
his gardens and pleasure grounds, which 
engaged his attention, and served as an 

JO Ft 



einploymeut for him in his retirement from 
the active duties of commercial life. Mr. 
luglis died at Crail, in 1834, universally 
regretted, and was buried near the north- 
east corner of the Churchyard, where a 
handsome monument was erected to his 
memory, bearing the following inscription: 

In memory of 

Robert Incjlis, Esq., of Kirkmay ; 

an affectionate husband, 

an indulgent parent, 

a sincere, steady, and disinterested friend, 


beneficent and charitable, 

without ostentation ; 

who died 6th January, 1834, 

aged 61. 

Mr.Inglis is represented by his son, Captain 

William luglis of Sypsies, and of the Fife 

Militia Artillery, and one of his daughters 

is married to Thomas Nelson, Esq., the 

celebrated Edinburgh publisher. 

JOHNSTON, William, Esq., of Lath- 
risk, was a man of high character and 
position, being one of the oldest and most 
extensive proprietors in the County of 
Fife. He was born in October 1777, at 
Gottenburg, where his father acquired a 
considerable fortune as a merchant, which, 
on his return to this country towards the 
end of last century, he invested in the 
purchase of the estates of Lathrisk and 
Weddersbie in Fife, and Bavelaw in Mid- 
Lothian. The late Mr. Johnston entered 
the ai-my early in life, and as Captain in 
the 9th Regiment of Foot served with 
distinction in the Peninsular war, having 
fought under Wellington against Junot, at 
the battle of Vimiera in Portugal in 1808, 
for which he held a medal and clasp. On 
the death of his elder brother, he succeeded 
his father in 1809, and has therefore been 
in sole possession of the family estates for 
nearly sixty years, during the whole of 
which time he has resided at Lathrisk : and 
although latterly retired from public bu- 
siness, and withdrawn from the ordinary 
intei-course of society, he never failed to 
display in the management of his own 
affairs unremitting personal activity, and 
no ordinary mental acuteness and energy, 
which continued unimpaired to the close 
of the last week of his long life. He was 
never involved in any of the hazardous 
speculations of his times, and successively 
devoted the greater portion of his largo 
accumulations to the purchase first of 
Rossie and Urquhart, aiid other lands 
adjoining the paternal property, and more 
recently of the beautiful and valuable 
estates of Monzie in Perthshire, and Largo 
in Fifeshire. His father effected a great 
agricultural improvement in the district 
by straightening and deepening the river 
Eden, and by co-operating with the late 
Mr. Cheape in draining Rossie Loch, a 
sheet of water which formerly covered an 
extensive area in the parish of CoUessie. 

He himself has enhanced the value of his 
estates by judicious and extensive plantii - 
tions on the hill of Weddersbie and 
elsewhere, and by the erection of substan- 
tial and commodious farm-steadings, as at 
Caldwells and Drumtenant, &c. Amongst 
instances of public and private liberality 
we ought not to omit recording his cordial 
support of the Conservative cause — his 
spontaneous reduction hy twenty per cent. 
of the rent of all his tenants in the year 
18G5 — his subscriptions for the relief of the 
Lancashire distress and to the Crimean 
fund — his contributions to the schemes of 
the Church of Scotland for church exten- 
sion and endowment — as well as numerous 
unostentatious kind-hearted donations to 
distressed families and individuals both of 
his own neighbourhood and at a distance. 
His only son, Mr. George Johnston, who 
for many years has been travelling through 
the principal countries of Europe, as well 
as in Algeria, Egypt, and Syria, succeeds 
to the whole of his father's fortune and 
estates, the only entailed portion of tlio 
property being Lathrisk. Mr. William 
Johnston died at Lathrisk on the 25th of 
August, 1868, in the 91st year of his age. 

JOHNSTONE, William, Head Master 
of the Free Abbey Academy, Dunfermline, 
is the author of several works of higli 
literary merit, which have gained tiio 
commendation of men eminent in the 
Republic of Letters. Mr. Johnstone, 
thouErh long resident in Fife, is a native 
of Annandale, where his ancestors resided 
from a remote period, on lands conferred 
on them by King Robert Bruce, in thj 
neighbourhood of liis ancient Casfle of 
Lochmaben. They held these lands in 
possession, till fraudulently dispossessed 
of them during the persecuting times of 
Charles 11. and his brotlier James. At 
that time, the only repreijentatives of the 
family were two little orphan boys, living 
under the care of a maiden aunt, so that 
their property became an easy prey to the 
cupidity of the spoiler. They subsequently 
resided in the district of Corrie, where they 
and their descendants held farms for more 
than a hundred years, and whei-e Mr. John- 
stone was born, in 1803. After receiving 
a good preliminary education, he joined 
the Edinburgh University classes, in 1825, 
under Prof essurs Dunbar and Pillans ; but 
being anxious to hear the prelections of 
that eminent scholar and Professor, Dr. 
John Hunter, he spent a session at St. 
Andrews. He however returned to Edin- 
burgh University, where he finished his 
curriculum, and is now a member of the 
General Council of that University. That 
Mr. Johnstone was a vigorous and success- 
ful student, and held a distinguished place 
among his compeers,may be gathered from 
the fact that, besides receiving honourable 
prizes in Mathematics and in the Logic 
and Rhetoric classes, he was awarded, by 
Professor Pillans, a prize for the best Latin 




poem on a given subject. The eminent 
philanthropist and conrt physician, Sir 
Andrew Halliday, who was an old and 
intimate friend of his father's, urged Mr. 
Johnstone to turn his attention to the study 
of medicine. This he did for some time, in 
accordance with Sir Andrew's suggestion ; 
but considering the medical profession not 
altogether to his taste, he fell back upon 
teaching, and, in this laborious though 
useful profession, he has spent more than 
forty years. The Free Abbey Academy 
has been very prosperous, under Mr. John- 
stone's superintendence, and numbers of 
the pupils have highly distinguished them- 
selves, by taking scholarships, bursaries, 
and other university honours. Notwith- 
standing the incessant and exhausting 
labours of the class-room, Mr. Johnstone 
has occasionally found time to engage in 
Hterary pursuits. He was one of the pro- 
jectors of the Border Magazine, and con- 
tributed a number of able and interesting 
papers to that periodical, but having been 
offered the editorship of the Dumfries Stan- 
dard, which he accepted, his connection 
with that magazine was discontinued. He 
conducted the Dumfries Standard, of which 
he was the first editor, for about three 
years, and it is not too much to say that 
his able and vigorous writing contributed 
very much to estabUsh that paper on a firm 
and solid basis. He however, resigned his 
editorship, on accepting an engagement in 
Italy, where he resided two years. On 
returning home, he was appointed to the 
situation he still holds. Mr. Johnstone's 
first publication, which appeared in 1841, 
entitled " French Pulpit Eloquence," is a 
volume of elegant extracts, translated from 
the most celebrated French divines, with 
biographical sketches of the authors. The 
book was very favourably received, and 
gained for Mr. Johnstone a high compli- 
ment from Mons. Coquerel, the eminent 
French Protestant divine, who, in referring 
to the volume, said, " the translator is a 
thorough master of our difficult and capri- 
cious language. My own sermon is a mas- 
ter-piece." Mr. Johnstone has contraued, 
during his leisure hours, to contribute 
occasional papers to the public journals or 
periodicals. In 1855, he published a small 
treatige on the Education question, which 
was pronounced by an eminent member of 
the Government to be " a well written and 
liberal contribution to the cause of educa- 
tional reform." Several hundred copies of 
the treatise were sent for, and distributed 
among the members of Parliament. In 
1867 was published Mr. Johnstone's work 
entitled " The Bard and the Belted Knight, 
or Stray Leaves of Border Biography, with 
Rural Gleanings and Legendary Tales," 
which has been generally well received by 
the public, and favourably reviewed by 
some of our leading journals north of the 
Tweed. To quote from one of its critics, 
*' The book is the production of a scholar, 

and merits a high placein our miscellaneous 
literature." The volume consists princi- 
pally of biographies of eminent men be- 
longing to Dumfries-shire, legendary tales, 
and a number of poetical pieces of no mean 

MACPARLANE, James, writer in Dun- 
fermline. This eminent and successful 
lawyer was born at Dunfermline in April, 
1802. He was the eldest son of the highly 
respected Rev. James Macfarlane, junior 
minister of Queen Ann Street Church in 
that city, the first charge of which was long 
held by his grandfather, the Rev. Dr. 
Husband. At the termination of his 
scholastic course at the Grammar School 
there, Mr. James Macfarlane removed to 
Edinburgh for a season to study Law, &c. 
at its renowned Universitj'. In 1825 he 
commenced business in Dunfermline as a 
procurator, and after a successful career of 
forty-two years, died universally regretted 
on 16th June, 1867, aged 65 years. Mr. 
Macfarlane was, for the long period of 
thirty-five years the political agent of the 
Liberal party in Fife, for the duties of 
which arduous office he was peculiarly 
qualified. In every political contest which 
has taken place in Fife since the passing 
of the Reform Bill, he held a foremost 
position, and no man in Fife had more 
political influence than he, and none ever 
exercised it more fairly or energetically. 
It may be here mentioned that Mr. Mac- 
farlane was long associated with "the 
West of Fife Agricultural Society" as . 
their Secretary and Legal Adviser, and 
so highly was he and his services esteemed 
and appreciated by this body that they, 
in 1863, invit'jd him to a public dinner, 
in his native city, and presented hita 
with a piece of plate on the occasion, 
as a mark of the esteem in which he was 
held by them. He has been worthily 
succeeded in said secretaryship by his 
son James Macfarlane, Esq., Procurator 
Fiscal of Dunfermline. 

M'FARLANB, The Rev. John, LL.D., 
of the United Presbyterian Church, Clap- 
ham, London, was born at Dunfermline, in 
1809. His father, the Rev. James M'Far- 
lane, was long minister of the church in 
Dunfermline originally gathered by the Rev. 
Ralph Erskine, one of the founders of the 
Secession in Scotland, and was held in very 
high esteem for his piety, amiability, and 
his popular gifts as a preacher. The subject 
of this brief notice, after prosecuting his 
education for eight years at the University 
of Edinburgh and the Secession Divinity 
Hal], was licensed to preach the Gospel in 
1830, and ordained minister of the United 
Secession Church, Kincardine-on-ForHi, 
on 29th March, 1831. Not long after his 
settlement he was united in marriage to 
Miss Janet Jameson Kidston, daughter of 
the Rev. Dr. Kidston of Glasgow, and a 
few days ago the writer of this received an 
intimation that she had died at Teigu- 




mouth, Devonshire, on tlie 13th February, 
1869, and was thus apprized that a union 
which, he had every reason to believe, had 
been a singularly happy one was dissolved. 
The congregation at Kincardrne prospered 
under his ministry, and it may not be im- 
proper to mention a circumstance which, 
though not in itself of great importance, 
may tend in connection with another of 
still more recent occurrence, to settle a 
point which has sometimes occasioned 
strife between the ministers of the Estab- 
lished Church and their dissenting 
brethren. Mr. M'Farlane's church having 
resolved to and a spire and a bell to their 
place of worship, the Parish minister 
interdicted tlieir proceeding to do so, but, 
after various appearances before the 
Sheriff, he was constrained to withdraw 
his suit and to pay all the expense of the 
litigation. Last year a similar case be- 
tween the Parish minister of Ecclefechan 
and a dissenting congregation there was 
tried, and with the same result, so that it 
may be regarded as determined that there 
is no legal hindrance to the erection of 
spires or the use of bells in connection 
with their places of worship by dissenting 
congregations. In 1840 Mr. M'Farlane 
accepted a call from Nicholson street con- 
gregation, Glasgow, and was indicted to 
that charge on 27th September, of that 
year. In 1842 the University of Glasgow 
conferred upon him the honorary degree 
of LL.D. ; and in the same year he and 
his congregation took possession of a new 
and elegant place of worship which they 
had erected for themselves, and which 
they very appropriately named in honour 
of the founders of their denomination, 
" Erskine Church." A large congregation 
was speedily gathered around him, to 
which he ministered for twenty years with 
great acceptance, and it is to be hoped, 
with not a Httle spiritual benefit. The 
United Presbyterian Church— the denom- 
ination to which he belonged, having 
resolved to make an effort to extend their 
principles more widely in England, and 
especially in London, it was thought 
expedient that ministers of tried ability 
and experience should be requested to fill 
the new places which were to be opened. 
Among others. Dr. M'Farlane was pre- 
vailed upon to go to London, and Clapham 
having been assigned to him as his sphere 
of labour, a large and handsome building 
was speedily erected, and the small neuclus 
to which he was indicted as minister on 
April 15th, 1862, has grown under his care 
to a very large and flourishing congrega- 
tion. Dr. M'Farlane has attained to 
distinction as an author as well as a 
preacher. He is the author of four 
biographical works. The first is the life 
of the Rev. Dr. Henry Belfrage of Falkirk, 
which he executed in conjunction with his 
friend, the late Rev. Dr. M'Kerron of 
Bridge-of-Teith, and which was very well 

received by the public. The second, which 
he entitled " The Night Lamp," consists 
of an extremely interesting narrative of 
the means by which spiritual darkness was 
dispelled from the death-bed of his only 
sister, who was struck down when just 
about to blossom into womanhood. The 
last edition we h ive seen bears that it is 
the ninth thousand ; nor is its popularity 
to be wondered at for the record which it 
contains of the victory gained by a young 
and lively girl over the "last enemy" can 
never fail to excite warm sympathy. In 
1862 appeared what may be called his 
Opus magnum — " The Life and Times of 
George Lawson, D. D., Selkirk, with 
glimpses of Scottish character from 1720 
to 1820." Dr. Lawson was for thirty-two 
years Professor of Theology to the associate 
synod, and during that period 390 students 
enjoyed the benefits of his tuition, and aa 
the great majority of these became minis- 
ters in the denomination, it would 
not be easy to calculate the influence 
which he must have exerted upon the 
church to which he belonged. How 
pleasing that his great influence was 
for good, and for good only. It is no 
doubt a disadvantage to this work that Dr. 
M'Farlane could enjoy little or no personal 
intercourse with Dr. Lawson ; for although 
Dr. Lawson corresponded vsdth his father 
and grandfather, the Rev. Dr. Husband, 
and frequently assisted them on communion 
occasions, yet he must have been too young 
to be able to say more than " I have seen 
him." He was, however, furnished with 
very ample materials by Dr. Lawson's 
grandson and others, and out of these he 
has constructed a narrative of great and 
enduring interest. In it. Dr. Lawson, 
saintly, learned, simple, beloved and rever- 
enced as few men in any age have ever 
been, forms the central figure, and around 
him are grouped many ministers, his con- 
temporaries, and many of these trained 
under him. The picture is one which can 
never cease to attract attention and admir- 
ation. In 1868 he published a Memoir of 
the Rev. Thomas Archer, D.D., which has 
been cordially welcomed as a skilful and 
warm-hearted tribute to the memory of 
his friend, and an able feUow-labourer in 
London. Besides these biographical works. 
Dr. M'Farlane has published several vols, 
of sermons, and quite a host of separate 
discourses and pamphlets. Of these, our 
space will not permit us to do more than 
give the titles : — The Mountains of the 
Bible; The Hiding Place; Wliy weepest 
thou ; Pulpit Echoes. The following are 
some of his separate discourses : — An aged 
Christian ; The Martyrs of our Manse ; 
Apostolic Preaching ; Altar Gold ; Altar 
Zeal ; Altar Light, &c. It may well excite 
astonishment that a minister whose time 
must ever have been much occupied in 
discharging to large congregations tlie 
duties of the pastoral oflice, and whos6 




health has not been very robust, should yet 
have been able to produce so many works 
truly interesting and valuable. Dr. M'Far- 
lane possesses a warm heart, a lively fancy, 
and the pen of a ready writer, but to these 
qualities must also be added great industry 
and zeal, else he could not have attained 
the high place which he so worthily occu- 
pies in the esteem of the church to which 
he belongs, and of the Christian pubhc at 

MILLER, Henry, a successful merchant, 
aware of the advantages to be derived from 
the diffusion of knowledge, left a portion 
of his wealth for its advancement. He 
established a fund now yielding seventy 
pounds a year, to be expended in prizes for 
the encouragement of learning in the 
United College. There a'e altogether 12 
prizes, viz., one for each of the three best 
students in each of the four years curricu- 
lum of the college. This fund is very im- 
portant, and a great encouragement to 
young men to pursue their studies with 
attention and perseverance. A portrait of 
Mr. Miller hangs next to that of Principal 
Hunter in the College Hall. 

MONYPENNY, The Rev. James Isaac, 
a descendant of the Pitmilly family, was 
bom at Boonshill, in the parish of Iden, 
near Rye, Sussex, on the 18th of January, 
1799. His father was Thomas Monypenny, 
Esq., of Boonshill, who was the third son 
of James Monypenny, Esq. of Maytham 
Hall, in the parish of Rolvendeu, Kent. 
This last-named gentleman, was the eldest 
son of James Monypenny, of Rolvenden, 
who died there on the 23rd October, 1721. 
A monument was erected to his memory in 
the parish church there, bearing an inscrip- 
tion to the effect, that this gentleman was 
descended from an ancient family at " Pit- 
millie," in the shire of Fife, Scotland. The 
connection of the Pitmilly family with the 
subject of this sketch, is thus clearly estab- 
lished ; and Mr. Monypenny's recent suc- 
cession to the inheritance of his ancestors, 
is just one of those somewhat remarkable, 
though not altogether rare vicissitudes in 
human conditions, with which biographical 
literature occasionally makes us acquarated. 
The Rev. J. I. Monypenny, the subject of 
our notice, received the rudiments of his 
education, at the King's School, Roches- 
ter, and entered a Fellow at Wadham Col- 
lege, Oxford, where he obtained his degrees 
of B.A. and M.A. On the 4th February, 
1822, he was ordained Deacon by the Lord 
Bishop of Gloucester, at the request of the 
Lord Bishop of London ; and on the 5th of 
May 1823, he was ordained Priest by the 
Lord Bishop of London, himself. On the 
5th April, 1828, he was appointed Curate 
of Hadlow, in the county of Kent, by his 
uncle, the Rev. Phillips Monypenny, M.A., 
and on the death of that gentleman, the 
12th February, 1841, he was instituted 
Vicar in his room and place. For many 
ytars Mr. Monypenny acted as a county 

magistrate, but has lately ceased to do so. 
He married Mary Blackwell, daughter of 
Robert Monypenny, Esq., uf Merrington 
Place, Rolvenden, Kent, by whom he has 
a pretty large family, viz., two sons and 
seven daughters. His eldest son and heir, is 
James Robert Blackwell Monypenny, M.A., 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, Captain in 
the East Kent Mihtia ; and lus second son, 
Phillips Howard Monypenny, B.A., of 
Trinity College, DubHn, is incumbent of 
St. John's Church, Pittenweem. On the 
10th of January, 1869, the Rev. J. I. Mony- 
penny succeeded to the estate of Pitmilly, 
in the parish of Kingsbarns, on the death 
of his relative, William Tankerville Mony- 
penny, Esq., under the trust disposition 
and settlement of the late Lord Pitmilly. 
We are not qualified, nor shall we attempt 
to draw a formal character of the subject 
of our notice, and indeed, it would be im- 
possible to do so, in a paragraph or two, in 
our limited space ; but this we may be per- 
mitted to say, that, in private intercourse, 
the reverend gentleman's manners seem 
gentle and amiable ; and from what we 
have observed in the pulpit, his doctrine 
appeared to be, that of salvation by free 
grace, aad the necessity of practical godli- 
ness, as the result of a true and lively faith. 
Although himself, firmly attached to the 
Estabhshed Church of England, yet he 
seemed to entertain a generous and cor- 
dial liberality towards those of other per- 

MO YES, Dr. Henry, the first blind 
lecturer on Experimental Chemistry, was 
born at Kirkcaldy, in 1750. He lost his 
sight, by the smaU-pox, before he was three 
years old. The only thing which he re- 
membered seeing was a water mill in mo- 
tion, and it was a puzzle to him, in his 
childhood, how the water flowed in one 
direction, while the wheel turned round in 
the opposite. His talent for mechanics 
was early shown. Though blind, he was 
very fond of using edge tools, and he 
amused himself by making little windmills, 
and even constructed a loom with his own 
hands. He enjoyed the advantage of a good 
education, and commenced his public career 
by lecturing on music, at Edinburgh, but, 
not succeeding as he expected, he gave his 
whole attention to Natural and Experi- 
mental Philosophy. For many years he 
supported himself, by lecturing on Chemis- 
try, Astronomy, Optics, and other branches 
of the Newtonian Philosophy. He was 
pecuharly happy in his chemical lectures, 
and astonished his hearers by performing 
aU his experiments himself. He left Scot- 
land in 1779, and travelled through the 
principal towns in England, where he was 
well received as a lecturer ; he then visited 
America. The following paragraph respect- 
ing him appeared in one of the American 
newspapers of the day : — " The celebrated 
Dr. Moyes, though blind, delivered a lec- 
ture upon Optics, delineated the properties 




of light and sbade, and gave an astonisliiug 
illustraidon of the power of touch. A highly 
polished plane of steel was presented to 
him, with a stroke of an etching tool so 
minutely engraved on it that it was invis- 
ible to the naked eye, and only discoverable 
with a powerful magnifying glass. With 
his fingers he discovered the extent, and 
measured the length of the line. This 
gentleman informed us that, being over- 
turned in a stage coach, one dark, rainy 
night, in England, and the carriage and 
four horses thrown into a ditch, the pas- 
sengers and driver, with two eyes a-piece, 
were obliged to apply to him, who had no 
eyes,for assistancein extricatingthehorses. 
' As for me,' said he, ' after I had recovered 
from the astonishment of the fall, and had 
discovered that I had escaped unhurt, 1 
was quite at home in the dai-k ditch. The 
inversion of the order of things was amus- 
ing. I, that was obliged to be led about 
like a child in the glaring sun, was now 
directing eight persons to pull here, and 
haul there, with all the dexterity and ac- 
tivity of a man-of-war's boatswain.' " On 
his return from America, ho took a house 
in Edinburgh, where he resided for some 
time, beloved and admired by all who had 
the happiness of knowing him. But ho 
had not yet finished his travels. In 1790, 
he gave lectures in the principal towns in 
Ii-eland, and finally settled in Manchester. 
He was a member of the Manchester Pliilo- 
sophical Society, and enriched its collection 
by several valuable papers on Chemistry, 
and on other branches of Physical Science. 
Dr. Bew, the friend of Moyes, says, " that 
when he was introduced into company he 
was some time silent. The sound directed 
him to judge of the dimensions of the room, 
and the different voices of the number of 
persons that were present. His distinctions 
in these respects were very accurate, and 
his memory so retentive that he was sel- 
dom mistaken. I have known him instantly 
to recognise a person on hearing him speak, 
though more than two years had elapsed 
since the time of their last meeting. He 
determined pretty nearly the stature of 
those he was speaking with, by the direc- 
tion of their voices. One day, on being 
accosted in the street by a young friend, 
whom he had not met with for a good many 
years, his instant remark, on hearing his 
voice, was, how much taller you have grown 
since we last met." He contrived for him- 
self a system of palpable arithmetic, on a 
different principle from that of Sanderson, 
and possessing an advantage over it in point 
of neatness and simplicity. Dr. Moyes was 
entirely unacquainted with the use of ar- 
dent spirits, or fermented liquors. He had 
a natural dislike to animal food of every 
description : his meals were plain and simple. 
He was very partial to a seaweed known by 
the name of dulse ; this he would boil, and 
dress up with a little butter, which, with a 
crust of bi-ead, and a draught of sprinij 

water, was the only luxury in which ho 
indulged. He was remarkable for cheer- 
fulness of temper, for brilliancy of conver- 
sation, and for the power with which he 
infused his own enthusiasm into his stu- 
dents. He taught in an academy in New- 
castle- on-Tyne, aud many men, who after- 
wards attained eminence, and among others 
the Rev. Grey, of Edinburgh, enjoyed the 
instructions of the celebrated Dr. Moyes, 
who was altogether a most remarkable man. 
He visited Pittenweem about the years 
1805-G, and walked about there, leaning on 
the arm of Mr. Nicol, a young gentleman 
who was his reader. Dr. Moyes was pro- 
prietor of the estate of Lumbanny, near 
Falkland, and died at Manchester, in 1807. 
He never was married, and was succeeded 
in his estate by Charles Moyes, Esq., resi- 
denter in Pittenweem. 

PATTON, Colonel, of Kinaldy, in the 
Parish of Dunino, was born at Anstruther 
in the year 1742, and was educated in his 
early years at the Burgh School, and aftei - 
wards at the University of St. Andrews. 
He entered the service of the Honble. tho 
East India Company, at an early age, and 
proceeded to India. The Colonel was a 
literary man. He wrote an Historical 
Review of Rome, which was appended to 
a work of his brother's. Captain Charles 
Patton, R.A., on " The effects of property 
on Society and Government." Also, a 
work on " The Principles of Asiatic Mon- 
archies," and minor works, published 
without his name, on the subjects of the 
day. He possessed a refined and accom- 
plished mind, and wrote several poetical 
works, and also translations of the Classic 
Roman poets which were found in manu- 
script after his death. He was Military 
Secretary to the celebrated Warren 
Hastings when he was Governor-General 
of India ; and for whom he had the greatest 
admiration and esteem, and with every 
lover of justice, was most indignant at his 
prosecution and protracted trial during 
nine years. He marned (date unknown) 
Miss Constantia Adriana Mapletoft, and 
left India with her in 177S, in consequence 
of bad health. He had a family of 17 
children, and lived at Kinaldy between the 
year 1774 and the end of the century. 
About 1797 he had a house in Castle Street, 
Edinburgh, which he occupied for some 
years before his appointment as Governor- 
General of St. Helena, which took place in 
1801. He held that responsible post about 
seven years, and returned to England ia 
1808. He was the grandfather of Lady 
Anstruther of Balcaskie, the widow of the 
late Sir Ralph, and died at Wallington, 
near Farehow Hants, on the 14th of 
January, 1812, in the 70th year of his age. 

PATON, Joseph Noel, (now Sir Joseph) 
of whom we gave a brief sketch in the 
Fifeshire Biography, nearly three years 
since, claims an additional notice in our 
pncros on account of his progressive di.'S- 



tinction as an historical painter, and as 
one who worthily merits not only the plau- 
dits of Fife, but a national reputation. 
Sir Joseph was bom at Dunfermline, on 
the 13th December, 1821. Although his 
art education was, so to speak, of the most 
desultory kind, the circumstances of his 
childhood and early youth tended in no 
ordinary way to the development of his 
artistic perceptions. His father, a FeUow 
of the Scottish Society of Antiquaries, and 
well known in connection with the damask 
manufactures of Dunfermline, and as a 
collector of Scottish antiquities, surrounded 
his children from their earliest years, with 
old books, old prints, old pictures, casts 
from the antique, and whatever objects 
could stimulate the imagination and expand 
the mind. The locality in which the family 
resided, Wooers' Alley, a small but secluded 
and singularly picturesque spot, one of the 
bends of the glen wherein stand the vener^ 
able ruins of the Abbey and Royal Palace 
of Dunfermline, with its burn, rocks, trees, 
and laurel thickets, was calculated to en- 
courage romantic habits of thought, and to 
foster a passion for the minutest beauties 
of inanimate nature, which, it is evident, 
has to a considerable extent tinged all his 
productions. Another circumstance may 
be alluded to as aiding in the developing a 
constitutional tendency to the more roman- 
tic phases of art. Through his mother, a 
lady of great nobOity and unselfishness of 
character, who, like most Highlanders of 
her time, whether male or female, was 
deeply versed in traditional lore, Sir Noel 
could claim close kinship with the Chiefs 
of one of the most ancient and chivalrous 
Clans of the North, whose deeds of daring 
in the Jacobite ranks supplied the earl, est 
subjects for his childish pencil, and a know- 
ledge of whose position as the representa' 
tives of the ancient Celtic Earls of Atholl, 
and through them, of the family which 
occupied the throne of Scotland from the 
eleventh to the fourteenth century, and 
from whom, through Robert the Bruce, the 
Stuart race was descended, could scq,rcely 
fail to exercise an influence on the charac- 
ter, habits of thought, and feeling of a 
youth so constituted, and surrounded by 
everything calculated to foster such ten- 
dencies. We have in these preliminary 
remarks somewhat of a key to the after 
career of this painter. In 184.^ Sir Noel 
Paton came to London, and studied for a 
short time in the schools of the Royal 
Academy, receiving from Mr, George Jones, 
R,A., then keeper, much kindness and 
courtesy. His artistic teachings began 
and terminated with the iustruction given 
by Jones. Before the period just alluded 
to, he had, however, exhibited some proofs 
of early talent in illustrations, supplied 
gratuitously for the Rejifrewshire Anmud 
for the years 1841-2. On his return to 
Scotland, he painted, and sent to the Royal 
Scottish Aciidemy, 'Ruth Gleaning,' his 

first exhibited painting ; this was in 1844 ; 
when he also produced a series of designs, 
in outline, illustrating respectively, Shelley's 
' Prometheus Bound,' and, ' The Tempest;' 
these were etched and published through 
the liberality of Mr. Lewis Pocock, F.S.A., 
and received due notice at the time in the 
vai-ious newspapers. In the following 
year he contributed to the Scottish Aca- 
demy ' Rachel weeping for her Children,' 
and ' The Holy Family,' and he also exe- 
cuted a series of etchings, iUustrating the 
late James Wilson's poem, ' Silent Love,' 
This year, 1845, was marked by the cartoon 
exhibition in Westminster Hall. Young as 
the artist of whom we are writing then was, 
he boldly entered into competition with 
many of the most eminent painters of the 
day, and not without justification, for the 
Royal Commissioners awarded to him one 
of the three prizes of two hundred pounds 
for his cartoon of ' The Spirit of Religion,' 
a work which showed a mind richly en^ 
dowed with poetic imagination, and at the 
same time, evinced an amount of technical 
attainment which called forth the favour- 
able notice of some of the most disun^ 
guished artists of the time. It was about 
this time he made several admirable draw- 
ings for Mr. S, C. HaU's '* Book of British 
Ballads." Passing over two charming illusr 
trations of fairyland, — a world with which 
Sir N. Paton has frequently made us 
acquainted, — ' The Quarrel of Oberon and 
Titania,' exhibited at the Scottish Academy 
in 1846, and ' Puck and Fairy," in the same 
gallery the following year, we again arrive 
at ^Vestmulster Hall, where, also in 1847, 
another competitive display was opened to 
the public, that of oil paintings. To thia 
he contributed two works, ' The ReconciUa- 
tion of Oberon and Titania,' and ' Christ 
bearing the Cross.' For these joint pro^ 
ductions, so dissimilar in character, yet 
each with merits pecuhar to itseLf, he 
received one of the three prizes of three 
hundred poimds. The former of the two 
pictures was purchased in the most hberal 
spirit by the Royal Scottish Academy, and 
is now in their gallery. In this year he 
was elected Associate of that institution. 
To its annual exhibitions he sent, in 1848, 
' The meeting of Zephyr and Aurora,' and 
' SUenus surprised by ^gle ;' in 184^, 
' Theodore and Honoria,' and ' Puck's 
Soiree Musicale ;' in 1850, the year in 
which he was enrolled "Member of the 
Scottish Academy, ' The Quarrel of Oberon 
and Titania;' in 1851, ' Thomas the Rhymer 
and the Queen of Fairie ' (engraved), ' The 
Father Confessor,' ' Death of Paolo and 
Francesca da Rimini,' and 'Nimrod the 
Mighty Hunter;' in 1852, ' Dante meditat- 
ing the Episode of Francesca da Rimini,' 
'The Eve of St. Agues; flight of the 
Lovers,' and a beautiful specimen of sculp- 
ture, a basso-rehevo representing ' Christ 
blessing little Children.' The ' Oberon 
and Titania' picture just mentioned is a 




difierent work from that of 1846, and was 
bought for the Scottish National Gallery 
by the Royal Association for the Pro- 
motion of the Pine Arts in Scotland. The 
year 1853 was a blank, but in the next 
he contributed to the Scottish Academy, 
'The Dead Lady' (engraved), 'Bacchus 
and Nereides,' ' Pan Piping,' ' Faust and 
Margaret Reading' (engraved), and ' Dante 
and Beatrice in the Lunar Sphere.' In 
1853 he contributed the grand composition 
of ' The Pursuit of Pleasure,' now well- 
known from the large engraving of it. 
Critics — who are not always reliable judges 
— are sometimes found to express very 
contrary opinions of the same work ; and 
this picture was not exempt from such 
fiery ordeal. But, estimated by results, it 
found special favour with the public ; for 
Mr. Hill, the eminent print-publisher of 
Edinburgh, bought it for one thousand 
pounds, had it engraved, and cleared a very 
considerable sum by the prints, which were \ 
largely subscribed for ; having previously 
disposed of it for two thousand guineas to 
Mr. Graham Briggs, of Barbadoes. 
Hitherto, with the exception of the works 
sent to Westminster Hall, Sir Noel Baton 
had not exhibited in London : but in 1856 
he commenced contributing to our Royal 
Academy, thus affording the English public 
the opportunity of becoming acquainted 
with the productions of an artist whom 
they knew little, save by reputation. The 
first of these, 'Home,' was designed by 
Mr. Ruskin " a most pathetic and precious 
picture." 'TheBluidy Tryste,' and 'In 
Memoriam,' exhibited in 1858, found less 
favour with this fastidious critic, but 
mainly on the ground of the gloominess of 
the subjects; and it may be noticed that 
unless the artist invades fairy-land, the 
themes of his pictures are more frequently 
sad than cheerful : even his ' Hesperus' 
(1860), two lovers seated at eventide on a 
mossy bank, and ' Dawn — Luther at Erfurt,' 
have each a tinge of melancholy too obvi- 
ous to be overlooked; while his 'Mors 
Janua Vitce' (1866), though designed to 
convey the most cheering docti-ines of the 
Christian faith, is not altogether free from 
this tinge of sadness. We are reluctantly 
compelled to pass over many works we 
should gladly speak of, in order to say a 
few words on those that form the subjects 
of illustration in the Art Journal. Tenny- 
son's noble poem suppHed the subject 
of the first picture, 'Morte de Arthur.' 
It is a grand theme, treated by the painter 
with a feeling akin to that of the poet's 
conception, and with gi-eat artistic power. 
The second of these, ' I wonder who lived 
in there !' will be remembered by many as 
being very popular in the Royal Academy 
exhibition of 1866. The composition is 
not an ideal one, but, as we have heard, is 
the representation of a fact. The scene is 
the artist's studio, in which, on entering 
one day, he saw his young son, chin on 

hand, " glowering" into an old helmet, with 
eyes full of the stories of chivalry he had 
been taught or had read. " I wonder who 
lived in there!" was the boy's remark to 
his father. The incident could scarcely 
fail to attract the special notice of a mind 
so constituted as that of the latter, who 
saw at once how w-ell adapted it was for a 
picture both original and pleasing ; the 
result is before us. The third illustration, 
' The Dowie Dens o' Yai-row,' is from one 
of a series of six pictures, painted for the 
Royal Association for Promoting the Fine 
Arts in Scotland, for the purpose of en- 
graving. The popular old Scottish ballad 
known by the above title contains no such 
actual scene as is represented here, but it 
may be accepted as a fit sequel to the story, 
and it shows the lifeless bodies of the 
knight who fell in mortal combat and his 
lady who died beside him when she found 
him stricken down, carried by retainers to 
their castle home. The three compositions 
serve to exhibit the mediajval and chivalric 
" groove" in which the painter's mind is 
found so constantly to run. His pictures, 
whatever the subject, are always poetical, 
yet are realistic in treatment ; and he may 
fairly lay claim to the royal and academic 
honours respectively which have been 
awarded him. In 1866 the Queen appoint 
ed him her " Limner for Scotland," and 
the year following conferred upon him, at 
Windsor, the honour of knighthood. But 
it is not only na an artist that Sii- Noel 
Baton has won reputation ; his two pub- 
lished books, " Poems by a painter," which 
appeared in 1862, and "Spendrift," in 
1866, were both most favourably noticed 
by the press thi-oughout England and Scot- 

RODGER, David, Shipowner, in Glas- 
gow, was born at CeUardyke,in the Parish 
of Kdrenny, in the year 1804. He was 
educated at the Parish School, and passed 
the first nineteen years of his life in his 
native village. He was one of the most 
active young fishermen of his time, and 
during his leisure, he studied and acquired 
such a practical knowledge of navigation 
as few young men of his years and oppor- 
tunities could boast. When about nineteen, 
he entered as a sailor on board a collier, 
one of the roughest and most unromantic 
situations afloat ; but he manfully stuck to 
his adopted profession, and rose in it, with- 
out patronage or influence of any kind, but 
was solely indebted to his ovra dUigence 
and good conduct for his advancement in 
his seafaring life. In little more than a 
year, after joining his first vessel, he was 
appointed her second mate, and two years 
afterwards, while only in his twenty-second 
year, he was promoted to the command of 
a brig, in which he made many successful 
voyages to the Mediterranean. Subse- 
quently, he traded to all parts of the world, 
and Captain Rodger has the honour of being 
the commander of the first ship of any size 




or tonnage that sailed from Glasgow for an 
Australian port. There are many romantic 
incidents in Captain Rodger's life, but there 
is one which occurred at this time that so 
well illustrates his character, that we are 
tempted to give it here. He was making a 
voyage, in his own ship, the Helen, through 
the Indian seas, when one day, as they were 
sailing, or rather drifting, along, with little 
or no \vind, but with a heavy swell on the 
water, the ship struck upon a sunken reef, 
where, according to the charts, there was 
a clear and open sea. The violence of the 
shock made the ship quiver from stem to 
stem, and a large piece of her false keel 
was knocked away, and floated alongside, 
but no sooner did the vessel swing clear of 
the reef, and it was ascertained that the 
pumps could keep the water from gaining 
in the hold, than Captain Rodger lowered 
a boat and made the most careful sound- 
ings over the reef, and the bearings of the 
same having been no less faithfully taken, 
he, on his return home, reported the result 
to the Admiralty, and " Rodger's Rock" 
was placed on the chart. Thus, by his skill 
and humanity, the mariner for all time is 
warned of one of the most hidden, and 
therefore most deadly, perils of those seas. 
After long years of hard service. Captain 
Rodger was compelled by failing health to 
quit the sea. This was about the time 
when the country was wild with excitement 
over the first news of the Australian gold- 
fields, and so congenial, or rather essential, 
was activity to his energetic tempei-ament, 
that he planned an expedition to the co- 
lony, of young fishermen from Cellardyke, 
which he conducted in person with singular 
success. He himself, however, soon re- 
turned home, but it was only to enter with 
unslackened ardour into another specula- 
tion, which in recent years has become the 
most famous in the world. He had long 
been convbiced of the great advantage of 
employing fast clipper ships between this 
country and the east, especially in the 
China tea trade, and when he returned to 
Glasgow about seventeen years ago, he 
earnestly set to the enterprise, and how 
well he has succeeded, can be read in the 
fact that he is now the owner of some of 
the most celebrated cHppers afloat, his fleet 
being at present the Kate Kearney, the Min, 
the Taeping, the Lah-loo, and the Kai-sou 
ships, the names of which are as household 
words in the country, 

SMITH, Thoiias, CeUardyke, was bom 
in the year 1755, and was educated at the 
Parish School, Kilrenny. He was the 
oldest fisherman in the town. It is not 
often that the snows of eighty-four winters 
fall upon the same venerable head ; but far 
more remarkable than the years were the 
trials and vicissitudes of this worthy old 
man, who at length, like the corn in late 
autumn, has been gathered to his fathers. 
Let us glance, then, at his eventful history. 
When a lad of fifteen, Thomas Smith was 

the witness of a terrible calamity. The 
fishing boat in which his father sailed was 
one stormy day making for the harbour of 
CeUardyke, when, just as the pier had been 
so nearly reached that a father or a hus^ 
band's face could be seen from the shore, 
the boat was driven by a heavy sea upon a 
beetling rock that crossed the fairway. 
The frail planks were crushed like frost- 
work, and next instant the ill-fated crew 
were in the last struggle for life with the 
resistless sea. There was no time to plan 
or dare the rescue, and so, with their agoU' 
ised friends looking on the last feeble out- 
stretching of their hands, and in full hearing 
of their last despairing cry, the poor fishers 
sank into a watery grave. Six years later 
Thomas Smith was himself a mariner on 
board a Leith smack, which one bleak 
winter night was wrecked on the storm 
beaten coast of Stonehaven, No one saw 
the doomed sloop go to pieces on that 
wild lee shore, and no one was left to tell 
the dismal story but the young CeUardyke 
castaway, who was lying well nigh as cold 
and lifeless as the bleached corpse beside 
him, when in the grey of the morning a 
young woman chanced to pass the place, 
as if Heaven had sent her on a special 
errand of deliverance. Eight years after 
this melancholy incident, the subject of 
our notice was one of the crew of a boat 
belonging to his native place of CeUardyke, 
that, with Mr. David Rodger as skipper,, 
was fishing for herring at Burntisland, 
when, on the 31st of December, 1814, the 
boat was upset by a sudden gust of wind. 
The fishermen were thrown into the water, 
and then began the desperate struggle for 
Ufe ; but long before assistance came, one 
after another had gone down with the 
boat, until Thomas Smith was again the 
only survivor, when so many of his com- 
panions had perished by his side. But his 
experience of life was one of no ordinary 
bitterness, for yet a third time he was left 
alone with death. In the two cases we 
have described, the circumstances with 
which he was surrounded left the mind no 
time to ponder and pause on whatever was 
going on around him. The wild conflict 
with the storm, and the last look of agony 
of a drowning friend, were too bewUdering 
for that, but the associations of the third 
were pecuharly solemn and affecting. He 
was now an old man, within two years of 
threescore and ten, when one night he and 
his aged partner laid their heads as usual 
on the same peaceful piUow, But a terrible 
mon-ow was before him, for, on waking, 
what must have been his feeUngs to find 
that he had been sleeping beside a cold 
and stiffening corpse. These were no 
ordinary trials, but they were borne with 
singular fortitude and patience, by, per- 
haps, as brave and true a heart as ever 
beat in human bosom. Thomas was twice 
married, and was the father of a numerous 
family, and he has, therefore, had hia own 




share of care and responsibility, but his 
has also been the orratification— than which 
there can be no higlier to a parent's heart 
—of seeing his children prospering and 
respected around him. Through the long 
years he has been privileged to see he has 
uniformly sustained the character of a 
quiet and unassuming man, that faithfully 
and well, according to his opportunities, 
fultilled the important duties of life. Mr. 
Smith died at Cellardyke, on the 19th 
March, 1869, in the 85th year of his age. 

TAYLOR, The Rev. James W., Minister 
of the Free Church at Flisk and Criech, 
was born at Perth, in 1814. He was the 
son of the Rev. William Taylor, minister 
in the Original Secession Church, Perth, 
and one of the Professors of Divinity m 
that city. He received the rudiments of 
his education at his native city, and after- 
wards studied at St. Andrews. He suc- 
ceeded in obtaining in two successive ses- 
sions, what was then the highest university 
prize— the Gray Prize. In 1839 Mr. Taylor 
was ordained first minister of Grangemouth. 
In April 1843 he was inducted as minister 
of the Parish of Flisk. In May 1843 he 
left the EstabUshed, and united himself 
with those who formed the Free Church. 
Since then he has ministered to the Free 
Church Congregation of Flisk and Criech. 
The reverend gentleman is the author of 
' Biographical Notice of the Rev. WiUiam 
Taylor ' above-mentioned ; of ' Memoirs of 
David Maitland Macgill Crichton of Ran- 
keillour,' of ' Historical Antiquities, chiefly 
Ecclesiastical, of the North, East, and 
centre of Fife,' of ' Historical Notices, 
chiefly Ecclesiastical, of the South of Fife,' 
which are going on at present (Feb. 1869\ 
and of a large number of pamphlets, bro- 
chures, and articles for periodicals. The 
subject of our brief notice is an able and 
scholarly man, possessed of a great fund of 
humour, a chaste and elegant writer, a 
vigorous thinker, a decided and devoted 
Christian, and a very impressive and ear- 
nest preacher. 

THOMSON, William, LL.D., an indus- 
trious miscellaneous writer, was born in 
1746, and bred in St. Andrews. His father, 
Matthew Thomson, was a carpenter and 
builder, and rented a small farm from the 
Earl of Kiunoul, and his mother was the 
daughter of a neighbouring schoolmaster, 
named Millar. He received his elementary 
education at the parish school of Forteviot, 
Perthshire. He was afterwards sent to the 
Grammar School of Perth, where he had 
for a schoolfellow, WilHam Murray, first 
Earl of Mansfield, and from thence he was 
removed in his fifteenth year to the Uni- 
■f«rsity of St. Andrews, where he soon 
attained great eminence, both as a classical 
scholar and a metaphysician. In 1763 he 
was introduced by the Professors to the 
notice of Lord Kinnoul, then Chancellor of 
the University, who appointed him his 
librarian at Dupplin Castle. Being destined 

for the Church, he obtained, through the 
influence of his patron, one of the King's 
bursaries at St. Andrews, and after study- 
ing six years there, and attending two Ses- 
sions at the University of Edinburgh, he 
was admitted a licensed preacher, and soon 
after was appointed assistant minister and 
successor at Monivaird, to which he wa.n 
ordained in 1776. His social disposition 
and convivial habits, however, rendered liin 
conduct on too many occasions certainly 
not altogether becoming a minister of the 
gospel ; and, in the course of a few years, 
he deemed it expedient to resign his charge, 
and repair to London to try his fortune, 
his patron the Earl of Kinnoul allowing 
him for two or three years £ JO a-year out 
of his private purse. He now devoted him- 
self to Uterature as a profession, and the 
first important work he was engaged upon 
was the continuation of Dr. Watson's ' His- 
tory of Phihp III.,' which he completed 
about 1786, about which time he obtained 
from the University of St. Andrews the 
degree of LL.D. It would be impossible 
to enumerate aU the pubUcations on which 
he was engaged, as he literally wrote on 
all possible subjects connected with the 
politics, the history, or the passing occur- 
rences of the times in which he lived. He 
was at all times ready to undertake any 
sort of employment for the booksellers, and 
is described as having been the most active, 
laborious, and indefatigable man of letters 
that appeared in the long reign of George 
III., and one who could ' boast that he had 
written on a greater variety of subjects 
than any of his contemporaries.' Among 
his original works, compilations, continua- 
tions, and translations, may be mentioned, 
' Travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa,' 1782; 
' History of Great Britain, from the Latin 
Manuscript of Alexander Cunningham,' 2 
vols., 1787; 'The Man in the Hoon,' a 
satire, after the manner of Swift, 1782 ; 
' Memoirs of the War in Asia, from 1780 to 
1784,' 2 vols., 1788 ; ' Appeal to the People 
of England on behalf of Warren Hastings,' 
1788 ; ' Mammuth, or Human Nature dis- 
played on a Grand Scale, in a Tour with 
the Tinkers into the Central Parts of Africa,' 
2 vols., 1789 ; ' Travels into Norway, Den- 
mark, and Sweden,' 1792 ; ' Continuation 
of Goldsmith's History of Greece, from 
Alexander the Great to the Sacking of 
Constantinople ;' ' Buchanan's Travels in 
the Hebrides,' 1793 ; ' Introduction to the 
Trial of Mr. Hastings,' 1796; 'Military 
Memoirs,' second edition, London, 1805 ; 
' Travels to the North Cape,' translated 
from the Italian of Acerbi ; ' Caledonia, or 
the Clans of Yore,' a tragedy in five acts, 
1818, &c. Many of Dr. Thomson's pubUca- 
tions appeared under assumed names. He 
was the compiler of a Commentary on the 
Bible, pubUshed under the name of Harri- 
son ; and of ' The Narrative of an Expedi- 
tion against the Revolted Negroes of Suri- 
nam,' supposed to be written by Lieut - 




Colonel Stedman, who, however, was a 
chief actor in the scenes described. He 
ako compiled the historical part of Dods- 
ley's Ajinual Register for ten years ; and 
wrote for ' The European Magazine,' ' The 
English Review,' of which he was, in the 
latter part of its career, sole proprietor ; 
' The FoHtical Herald,' ' The Oracle,' and 
'The Whitehall Evening Post.' Besides 
the works mentioned, he is likewise said to 
be the author of Newte's and HaU's Travels 
in Scotland. He died at his house at Ken- 
sington, March 16, 1817, in the 71st year of 
his age. He was twice married, first to 
Diana Miltone, a countrywoman of his 
own ; and, secondly, to the authoress of 
' The Labyrinth of Life,' and other novels, 
and had children by both his wives. 

TORRENS, Major-Gen., Sir Henry, 
K.C.B. This gentleman was doubly 
connected with Fife. Firstly, by his 
marriage with the daughter of a Fife 
Proprietor, Colonel Paton, of Kinaldy, 
and secondly by his own daughter being 
married to Sir Ralph A. Anstruther of 
Balcaskie, Baronet. Sir Henry was a 
native of Ireland, and was born in the city 
of Londonderry, in the year 1779. His 
father, the Rev. Thomas Torrens, and his 
mother having died while he was yet an 
infant, he and his three brothers were left 
to the care of his grandfather, the Rev. 
Dr. Torrens ; and at his death Henry was 
placed under the guardianship of his uncle, 
the Rev. Dr. Thomas Forbes, a fellow of 
the University of Dublin, and a gentleman 
of high literary attainments. In Novem- 
ber, 1793, being then only fourteen years of 
age. he left the Military Academy of 
Dublin, where he had been educated, and 
where, from the hilarity of his disposition, 
he was universally designated " Happy 
Harry," and commenced his military career 
as an ensign in the 52nd regiment. In 
June, 1794, he was promoted to a 
Lieutenancy in the 92nd regiment : and in 
December, 1795, was removed to the 63rd 
regiment. With this corps he jomed the 
expedition under Sir Ralph Abercromby 
for the reduction of the enemy's colonies in 
the West Indies. During this arduous 
service our young soldier was happy in hav- 
ing frequent opportunities of distinguish- 
ing himself. He acted with the grenadier 
battahon at the taking of St. Lucie, and 
was wounded by a musket ball in the upper 
part of the right thigh, in an action which 
took place on the first of May, 1796, during 
the siege of Mome Fortunee. This wound 
compelled him to remain behind while the 
army under Sir Ralph Abercrombie pro- 
ceeded to the attack of St. Vincent's. At 
such a period, however, the pain and 
danger of a premature removal appeared 
preferable to inactive security, and before 
he had recovered from his wound, he 
rejoined his regiment just as the army was 
advancing to the attack and storming of a 
strong line of redoubts, by the possession 

of which the enemy held the island in 
subjection. After assisting in driving the 
French from these important positions, and 
in finally expelhng them from St. Vincent's, 
Sir Henry Torrens was for six months 
employed in constant skirmishing with the 
natives of the Carib country, who, having 
joined the French interest, took refuge in 
the mountains and fastnesses. At this 
time, though only holding the rank of a 
lieutenant, he was entrusted with the com- 
mand of a fort. The extensive operations, 
and the splendid achievements by which, 
in the latter years of the struggle against 
France, the British troops decided the fate 
of Europe, have in a manner obhterated 
from the public mind the colonial conquests 
with which the revolutionary war com- 
menced. Yet never did the British soldier 
display more courage or sustain more 
hardship than during the attack upon the 
French West India Islands under Sir 
Ralph Abercrombie. Even the ofiicers 
were unable to obtain any better fare than 
the salt rations issued from the stores, nor 
in that burning climate could they even 
venture to refresh themselves by sleeping 
without their clothes. In what manner 
Sir Henry Torrens bore himself during the 
difiiculties and hardships of this his first 
campaign, we have already attempted to 
state, and shall merely add two facts as 
marking the opinion entertained of his 
conduct by those who witnessed it. On 
the return of the troops to Jamaica, the 
General rewarded his services by a company 
in one of the West India Corps then 
forming ; and on one occasion, when quit- 
ting the regiment with which he had been 
acting, the non-commissioned ofiicers and 
soldiers under his command insisted upon 
bearing him in triumph upon their should- 
ers, as a rude but touching mark of their 
attachment and admiration. In 1798, Sir 
Henry Torrens returned to England, and 
at the close of that year embarked for 
Portugal as Aid-de-Camp to General 
Cuyler, who commanded the British aux- 
iliary army sent to protect that country 
from the threatened invasion of the 
Spaniards under French influence. While 
holding this situation, he was removed 
from the West India Corps to the 20th 
regiment of foot; and hearing that his 
regiment was to form a part of the force 
destined for Holland under the Duke of 
York, he immediately relinquished the 
advantages of his staff situation for the 
post of honourable danger. He served in 
all the difi"erent actions of this sanguinary 
campaign, during which the British army 
sustained its high character, though the 
object of the expedition failed. The 
inundation of the country, and defeat of 
the Austrian army upon the Rhine, which 
enabled the French to assemble a force four 
times more numerous than ours, compelled 
our troops, after many a desperate struggle, 
to evacuate Holland. In the last of these 




contests, wliich was fought between Eng- 
land and Harlaand, Sir Henry Torreus 
was again desperately wounded. A musket 
ball passed quite througk bis rigbt thigh 
and lodged in the left, from which it was 
found quite impossible to extract it. The 
following anecdote is relatedwith reference 
to the last mentioned occurrence :— On the 
2nd of October, 1709, a severe action was 
fought near Alkmaar, in Holland, and some 
of our officers, amongst whom was Sir 
Henry Torrens, imagining that they had 
purchased security for a few days, rode 
into that to^vn, for the puri^osc of viewing 
the place and enjoying the rarity of a good 
dinner. WTiile this dinner was in prepara- 
tion, Sir Henry ToiTens sat downi in the 
coffee-room to make some notes in his 
journal, but seeing Major Kemp, then Aid- 
de-Camp to Sir Ralph Abercrombie, ride 
hastily into the town, he started frorn his 
imfinished task to ask the news. From 
Major Kemp he learned that the French 
had made an unexpected advance upon the 
English troops, and that the division to 
which he was attached was under orders 
for immediate action. Without waiting to 
return for his papers and his pocket-book, 
containing betwen £40 and £50, which he 
had left on the table, he mounted his horse, 
and in a moment was at fuU speed. He 
arrived in time to place himself at the head 
of his company, just before the commence- 
ment of that action in which, we have 
already stated, that he was dreadfully 
wounded. A considerable time afterwards 
he revisited Alkmaar, and calling at the 
inn he had so abruptly left, received his 
papers and his purse, which had been vnth 
scrupulous honesty preserved. On his 
return from Holland, Sir Henry Torrens 
was promoted to a majority in one of the 
fencible regiments then raising. The for- 
mation of the corps devolved upon him as 
being the only officer possessing permanent 
rank, and he subseqiieutly embarked with 
it for North America. Here he remained 
until the avitumn of 1801, when having 
effected an exchange to the 86th, then in 
Egypt, he joined and took the command of 
the coi-ps in that coimtry. When the 
expedition to Egypt had effected its object, 
Sir Henry Torrens marched his regiment 
across the desert, and embarked at a port 
of the Red Sea for Bombay. Here he was 
taken extremely ill in consequence of a 
coup de soleil, and was obliged to take his 
passage to England, in order to save his 
life. The ship in which he embarked for 
Europe touched at St. Helena; the climate 
and the society of that island restored him 
to health, and gave a new impulse to his 
feelings, and he prosecuted the voyage no 
further. In the society of the Government 
House, Sir Henry Torrens was exposed to 
other wounds than those of war. He 
became enamoured of Miss Sarah Paton, 
the daughter of the Governor, and married 
at the early age of twenty-four. In this 

instance, however, reflection and reason 
have sanctioned the instinctive impulse of 
the heart ; and the most fortunate events 
in Sir Henry Torrens' meritorious and 
prosperous career were his touching at the 
island of St. Helena and forming a con- 
genial and happy union, 
' Where mind preserved the conquest beauty won. ' 

In 1803 Sir Henry Torrens rejoined his 
regiment in India, and remained in the 
field until he was again driven from the 
country by extreme and dangerous illness. 
In 1805 he returned to England, obtained 
the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, and was 
employed in the staff as Assistant Adjutant- 
General for the Kent district ; and in 1807 
he joined the expedition against South 
America, as Military Secretary to the 
Commander of the forces. At the attack 
of Buenos Ayres he received a contusion 
from a musket-ball, which shattered a 
small writing apparatus which was slung 
to his side. When this unfortvmate expe- 
dition returned from South America, Sir 
Henry was examined as a witness on the 
trial of General ^Vhitelock. His situation 
now became painful and delicate in the 
highest degree, being compelled by his oath 
to make known the trtith, and bound by 
honour not to divulge the confidential 
communications of his chief. His evidence 
is published with General Whitelock's 
trial ; and it is only necessary to say in this 
place, that he obtained the highest credit 
by the manner in which it was given. Sir 
Hem-y Torrens had now established a 
character not only for gallantry in the fields, 
but for talent, discretion, and integrity in 
the conduct of affairs. The Duke of 
Wellington, then Sir Arthur WeUesley, 
saw his rising talents, and appointed him 
his Military Secretary. In this capacity 
he embarked with the expedition to Portu- 
gal in 1808, and was present at the battle 
of Rolleia and Vimiera. When the Dulce of 
Wellington was superseded in his com- 
mand, he returned with him to England, 
and was again to have attended him in the 
same capacity when that consummate 
general re-commenced his glorious career. 
But the situation of Military- Secretary to 
the Commander-in-Chief being, without 
soUcitation, offered to him just at this 
moment, prudence weighed with the father 
of a rising family against the ardour of the 
soldier, and domestic considerationsinduced 
him to forego the more active operations 
of the field, and to accept the office. How 
he discharged the difficult and arduous 
duties which now devolved upon him, it is 
almost unnecessary to state. His talents 
and his laborious attention to the multifa- 
rious duties of his office, have been umver- 
sally acknowledged; while his conciliatory 
manners and kind attentions procured him 
the love of his friends and the respect of 
the whole army. From the duties of his 
office during four years of the most active 




period of the war, he was not a single day, 
scarcely even a Sunday, absent ; and never 
failed, either in winter or summer, to rise 
at five o'clock in the morning. These 
exertions were rewarded by his appoint- 
ment in 1811, to a company in the 3rd 
guards, in 1812, by his being made Aid-de- 
Camp to His Royal Highness, the Prince 
Regent, with the rank of Colonel ; and in 
1815 (having obtained the rank of Major- 
General in the brevet of the previous year) 
by an appointment to a regiment. He was 
also honoured with the medal awarded for 
the battles of Rolleia and Vimiera, and 
with the distinction of Knight Commander 
of the Bath. But promotion and honours 
were not the only sweeteners of his toU. 
In his delightful villa at Fulham, every 
domestic endearment awaited his return, 
after the cares and labours of the day. It 
was impossible for his marriage to be other- 
•wise than happy. Sir Henry Torrens pos- 
sessed an enlightened intellect and afeeling 
heart, and Lady Torrens, who excelled in 
music, in painting, and in dramatic litera- 
ture, was gifted with the powers of reason- 
ing no less than with the principles of taste. 
Sir Henry Torrens was subsequently ap- 
pointed to the situation of Adjutant General, 
and his health, which had suiFered from 
excessive exertion and close confinement 
while he was military secretary, was entirely 
restored. The last important work of Sir 
Henry Torrens, in his situation of Adju- 
tant General, was the revision of the army 
regulations. The experience of the cam- 
paign, and more particularly the successful 
adoption of a new and more rapid mode of 
warfare by the Duke of WeUington, induced 
Sir Henry to revise the old regulations, 
which were founded upon the slow German 
system, and to embody into them, with 
great labour and zeal, the prompt and 
rapid movements which had been so suc- 
cessfully adopted by the British armies. 
This work met with the warm approbation 
of the Commander-in-Chief, and has been 
generally admired by military men, for the 
clear and masterly method of the arrange- 
ments. ■ On Saturday, the 23rd of August, 
1828, Sir Henry Torrens was taking an 
airing on horseback, near Welwyn, in 
Hertfordshire, accompanied by Lady Tor- 
rens and her two daughters, and some 
gentlemen, when he was seized with 
apoplexy. He did not fall from his horse, 
but was taken off its back, and carried 
into the house. Every effort was made 
to efiect his recovery, but in vain. He 
never spoke after the fit, and expired in 
two hours. By the desire of his family, 
the funeral of this gallant officer was pri- 
vate. It took place at Welwyn, on the 
Thursday following. 

TORRENS, Major-General Sir Ar- 
thur Wellesley, K.C.B., second son of 
the before-mentioned Major General Sir 
Henry Torrens, K.C.B.,and Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Colonel Paton, Governor of St. 

Helena, was born in the year 1812, and at 
an early age became page to George IV. 
After receiving his education at Sandhurst, 
he obtained his commission as Ensign and 
Lieutenant in the Grenadier Guards, in 
April, 1825, and remained some years in 
that regiment, in which he was Adjutant, 
from 1829 to 1838. Sir Arthur remained 
in the Guards until he exchanged into the 
23d Regiment (Royal Welsh Fusiliers), of 
which he obtained the command in 1841, 
and served with that gallant corps during 
the rebellion in Canada, and subsequently 
in the West Indies, where he rendered 
great services, so miich so, that he was 
offered, and accepted, the Lieutenant- 
Governorship of St. Lucia, which he 
administered with gi-eat credit. In 1851, 
he retired from the command of the 23rd 
Regiment, and in January, 1853, proceeded 
mth the Commission to investigate the 
military economy of the armies of France, 
Austria, and Prussia. On his return he 
was appointed Assistant-Quartermaster- 
General at the Horse Guards, which office 
he retained until nominated to the rank of 
Brigadier-General to a division of the army 
in Turkey, and served zealously and inde- 
fatigably in the brilliant operations conse- 
quent thereon. At Balaklava his division 
was engaged in the support of cavalry, and 
the Fourth Division lost some men in cap- 
turing two redoubts. General Torrens on 
the morning of the memorable 5th of No- 
vember hadjust returned from the trenches, 
when, under the direction of the late Sir 
George Cathcart, he attacked the left flank 
of the enemy with success, his horse fall- 
ing under him pierced by five bullets. The 
hero was in front, cheering on his men, 
when he was struck by a musket shot, pass- 
ing through his body, injuring a lung and 
splintering a rib. The bidlet was found 
lodged in his greatcoat. Just before General 
Cathcart was struck down by his mortal 
wound, he loudly applauded the daring 
courage and bravery of Sir Arthur, by his 
encouraging remark, audible to all in the 
din of battle, " Nobly done, Torrens," and 
they were, indeed, almost the last words 
he uttered. In consequence of the severity 
of his wound Major-General Torrens re- 
turned to this country in December, 1854, 
and on his recovery he was again placed 
on the staff as Deputy-Quartermaster- 
General. This gallant officer was a godson 
of the late Duke of WeUington. At a 
chapter of the Order of the Bath he was 
nominated a Knight Commander of that 
Mihtary Order. Sir Arthur was appointed 
her Britannic Majesty's Commissioner in 
France, and left London on the second 
week of July, 1858, to enter on his duties 
at the French Court, and up to the day of 
her Majesty's arrival, with the Prince 
Consort and the Prince of Wales, on a 
visit to the Emperor and Empress of the 
French, at the inauguration of the docks, 
&c., Sir Arthur was apparently in his usual 




health. On that day he, with many other 
distinguished subjects of her Majesty, was 
in attendance at the terminus of the rail- 
way, and was detained there longer than 
expected, owing to the late arrival of the 
Queen. Wlien he returned home, he com- 
plained of spasms in the stomach, and 
immediate medical aid was called in. The 
gallant General then took to his bed, which 
he was destined never to leave. He died 
on the 24th of August, 1858, in the forty- 
sixth year of his age. Doubtless this fatal 
I'esult was accderated by grief at the re- 
cent death of a beloved sister, and the 
anxieties attendant on his duties acting 
upon a constitution enfeebled by a severe 
gunshot wound through the body, received 
at the battle of Inkermann, from which he 
had not yet fully recovered. Sir Arthur 
lived at Balcaskie for some months, while 
on a visit to his sister Lady Anstruther 
and Sir Ralph ; and his kind and courteous 
manner, his undeviating rectitude of con- 
duct, his sound religious principles, and 
those generous feelings which should al- 
ways designate the soldier, while they 
adorn the scholar and the gentleman, won 
for Major-General Torfens the respect and 
esteem of all ranks. 

TORRY, The Right Rev. Patrick, 
D.D., Bishop of St. Andrews, Dunkeld and 

Silver Matrix now 
in the Antiquarian 
Museum, Edin- 
burgh. The Good 
Shepherd.with the 
Greek Motto, from 
Acts XX. 24, 'Take 
heed to all the 

Dunblane, was born in the parish of King 
Edward, in the county of Aberdeen, on the 
feast' of Saint John the Evangelist, 27th 
December, 1763. His grandfather, Mr. 
William Torry, was a farmer at Drakes- 
myres, in the same parish, at the beginning 
of the last century. He had five sons, two 
of whom may be here noticed, the one as 
the instructor of the future bishop, and 
the other as his father. James Torry, the 
second son, bom in 1715, was a zealous 
Jacobite, and followed Prince Charles 
Edward in 1745, as a volunteer with Sir 
Charles Innes, in Lord Pitsligo's re.gimeut 
of horse. Like many other devoted follow- 
ers of the Stuart cause, after the failure 
of the Prince's expedition he was compelled 
to abscond; and his nephew used to 
mention that he had been often in the 
hiding-place, on the banks of theGameston, 
where the refugee was obliged to conceal 
himself, and where his mother secretly 
supplied him with food. When the Act of 

Indemnity permitted him to go at large he 
returned to Elgin, where he had previously 
carried on the trade of a manufacturer and 
dyer of woollen cloth; but not finding en- 
couragement on account of his political 
principles and the part he had taken, he 
went back to his native parish and opened 
a school at a place caUed the Craig of 
Garneston. Under the tuition of his uncle 
young Torry received the rudiments of his 
educationi and continued his pupil for 
several years. He afterwards attended a 
school at the village of Cumineston, to 
which he walked daily from his father's 
house, a distance of five miles. Thomas, 
the fifth son of WiUiam Torry, and the 
father of the Bishop, was a woollen cloth 
manufacturer at the Wauk Mill of Garnes- 
ton, where he also occupied a small farm 
on the property of the Earl of Fife. He 
married Jane, the daughter of Mr. Watson, 
a farmer at the Mains of Balmaud, in the 
3ame parish of King Edward. In those 
days, when the use of tea had not been 
long introduced in Scotland, to possess a 
tea-kettle seems to have been a mark of 
some distinction ; and the Bishop used to 
tell that his grandfather had the third 
tea-kettle in the parish; the other two 
being possessed by the Laird of Craigston 
and the Minister. Watson was a 
Presbyterian; and though his son-in-law 
was brought up in the church, he was 
induced to join in rehgious worship with 
his wife. Thus Mr. Torry was born and 
educated a member of the estabhshment ; 
but he probably imbibed from his uncle 
James not only those strong Jacobite 
feelings which clung to him through life, 
but also the germs of those principles, 
which when cherished by subsequent study 
led him to seek the ministry in the sufi'ering 
church of his fathers. Of that church his 
uncle was a devoted member; and the 
Bishop used to relate, how, when he was 
his pupil, he had often listened at his 
chamber door, during the intervals of teach^ 
ing, to hear him read aloud the services of 
the church. As far as can be discovered, 
Mr. Torry never enjoyed the benefit of a 
University or College education ; but his 
industry and perseverance, joined to good 
natural talents, triumphed over this dis- 
advantage; for he became an accurate 
Greek and Latin scholar, and acquired a 
knowledge of Hebrew and Mathematics. 
He soon found an opportunity of exercising 
his learning. James Watson, his mother's 
youngest brother, was, first, teacher of the 
parish school of Selkirk, and afterwards 
rector of the grammar school of Hadding- 
ton. The venerable Mr. Watson, minister 
of Leuchars, who is now (1863) in the 55th 
year of his ministry, was a son of the 
Rector of Haddington school, and a cousin- 
german of the Bishop. At Haddington 
Mr. Torrybecame his uncle's assistant, and 
continued with him about a year ; when 
he went, at the age of 18 to be teachef of 

'^/^fwp (?f ^/:^'^.y¥'n£UMiA) 


Jrhii Twerd 




the parish school of Lonmay, Aberdeen- 
shire. He did not, however, remain long 
in that situation. Though hitherto a 
Presbyterian, he had, no doubt, as has 
been hinted, early acquired from his uncle 
at Garneston a predilection for Episcopacy. 
But it was not tiU he settled at Lonmay 
that he seems to have had serious thoughts 
of submitting to the church. There he 
formed an intimate acquaintance with the 
Rev. William Sangster, the incumbent of 
the Episcopal congregation, a zealous 
Jacobite of the old school. From his inter- 
course with him Mr. Torry's views in favour 
of Episcopacy were greatly confirmed ; and 
they were afterwards ripened by connexion 
with a few more celebrated men, with 
whom he went to reside about the month 
of June, 1782, — the Rev. John Skinner at 
Linshart, in the neighbouring parish of 
Longside ; the father of the late John 
Skinner, Bishop of Aberdeen, and primus 
of the Scottish Church, and grandfather of 
the deceased Dr. William Skinner, who 
subsequently filled both those offices. 
Under the tuition of this excellent classical 
and oriental scholar and learned theologian, 
Mr. Torry not only made good progress in 
all his studies, but also had his mind 
satisfied that the religious body in which 
he had been brought up, was deficient ia 
the one point essential for the discharge of 
the ministerial office, and that the church 
alone possessed the true apostolical au- 
thority. Educated under the Presbyterian 
system, he was well informed, as may be 
supposed, in all matters of doctrine and 
discipline connected with it ; and therefore 
the change which he made to Episcopacy 
must be considered as the result of no 
hasty conclusions, but of mature delibera- 
tion and well-digested thought. Thoroughly 
charitable and tolerant as he ever was to 
those with whom he differed in sentiment, 
it was therefore under the most conscien- 
tious persuasion of the rectitude of the 
change which he made, that Mr. Torry 
sought for and obtained admission to the 
order of Deacons at the hands of Dr. 
Kilgour, bishop of Aberdeen, in 1782. He 
could hardly have had a better instructor 
than Bishop Kilgour, who was a worthy 
successor of Archibald Campbell and 
Rattray, deeply read in the early Liturgies, 
weU acquainted with ecclesiastical history, 
and the last primus who fiUed that office 
in the time of persecution. The disin- 
terestedness of young Torry's choice was 
farther tested by the fact that it was no 
wealthy or well endowed church to which 
he now joined himself, but one still, as we 
have seen, suffering many hardships, and 
under the pressure of severe penal laws, 
imposed for her former adherence to the 
dynasty of the Stuarts. It was the scarcity 
of clergy induced by this state of affairs, 
which alone justified the investing with 
holy orders so young a man as Mr. Torry, 
who was three months under nineteen 

years_ of age; a thing which happened 
also in the case of some of his contempo- 
raries, among whom was his intimate friend 
and affectionate companion for many years, 
the holy and learned Bishop JoUy. After 
his ordination Mr. Torry was immediately 
sent to minister to the congregation at 
Arradoul in the parish of Ruthven, 
Banffshire; where the success of his 
labours fuUy vindicated the premature 
ordination of the young deacon. It may 
be mentioned as a striking instance of the 
difficulties and hardships to which Episco- 
pacy was then subject, that for the first 
two years of his residence at Arradoul he 
performed the services of the church in 
his kitchen; in which he was compelled 
to assemble his small but attached flock 
for want of a better place of worship, and 
which was no doubt chosen for that pui-pose 
as being the largest apartment in his house. 
It was not, however, for concealment, or 
for fear of their enemies, as had been the 
case a few years previously, that the 
Episcopalians in Scotland were sometimes 
obliged to resort to such places of worship 
at that period, for the penal laws being 
relaxed in their operation by time and a 
more tolerant spirit, they might now 
without much dread of legal penalties, 
openly, to a certain extentj worship God 
according to their consciences. Such 
expedients, therefore, as the one just 
noticed, rather indicated the poverty of the 
church's adherents, and proved that at least 
in that quarter it was not merely a few of 
the richer inhabitants of Scotland that 
clung to her ancient faith, but that many 
who had not the means of erecting a suit- 
able church "chose rather to suffer affliction 
for a season" in what they esteemed to be 
the true Church of Christ, than join those 
other religious communities, in whose places 
of worship they might indeed be more 
comfortably accommodated, but of whose 
principles they could not approve. A year 
after receiving the diaconate, Mr. Torry 
was invested with the order of priesthood, 
by the same bishop who had ordained him 
a deacon. Besides the care of his flock 
and his professional studies, he devoted a 
portion of his time to secular teaching, 
and for that purpose received into his house 
young men as boarders and day scholars. 
One of his pupils was the son of Sir James 
Gordon, of Letterfourie, the head of a 
Roman Cathohc family in Banffshire. 
There were many other families, adherents 
of this faith, in that part of the country ; 
and Mr. Torry was brought much into con- 
tact with the members of that Church, both 
clergy and laity. This led him to study 
carefuUy her peculiar dogmas, not for the 
piirpose of controversy, but for the satis- 
faction of his own mind, and with the view 
of enabling him the better to instruct the 
people committed to his charge. The 
Roman priests in that quarter had mostly 
been educated in Spain, and were generally 





men of liigli attainments, as well as of 
Buperior manners ; and his occasional 
intercourse with them at the houses of the 
gentry, as well as elsewhere, must have 
been a severe trial of his faithfulness to 
his own Church. Mr. Torry's youth dis- 
qualified him from taking part in the 
counsels of those illustrious prelates of the 
Scottish Church, which led to the trans- 
mission of the Apostolic Succession to the 
American continent. The merest tyro in 
ecclesiastical history is aware that, after 
applying, without success, to the English 
Bench, Samuel Seabury was consecrated 
to the see of Connecticut, on the 14th of 
November, 1784, by Kilgour, Bishop of 
Aberdeen, and Primus ; Petrie, Bishop of 
Moray; and John Skinner, coadjutor of 
Aberdeen. It was this bold act that opened 
the eyes of the English Church to the claims 
of a sister communion in the far North, 
her very existence being so far forgotten, 
that the American priest was at one time, 
through pure ignorance, about to seek 
a pseudo-episcopacy from the tulchan 
Bishops of Denmark. Even at this early 
period of Mr. Torry's life and ministrations 
we have traces of his zeal for the advance- 
ment of the Church. In the face of all 
those difficulties and disabilities, which we 
can easily imagine to have obstructed his 
plans, he continued, slender as were his 
means, to build a church for his congre- 
gation, chiefly at his own expense. It was 
about this time that he married a daughter 
of Bishop Kilgour, who died within a year 
of her marriage. After holding the charge 
of Arradoul for seven years, Mr. Torry was 
removed to Peterhead, as assistant to 
Bishop Kilgour, who had the cure of the 
congregation in that town. The Bishop 
being called to his rest on the 22nd of 
March following, Mr. Torry was inducted 
to the full charge of the congregation, by 
Bishop John Skinner, who succeeded 
Bishop Kilgour in the diocese. Soon after 
his institution to the charge, he built a, 
church, and again, as at Arradoul, at his 
own cost. On the 31st of January, 1788, 
that event happened which led to the un- 
fettering of the Scottish Church from the 
penalties of the civil laws. Prince Charles 
Edward departed this hfe at Rome, and, 
most conscientiously, the Prelates consi- 
dered their allegiance to the House of 
Stuart at an end, and it was resolved to 
convoke a Synod in which the transfer of 
allegiance to George III. and his family 
might be duly and canonically completed. 
This Synod met at Aberdeen, on the 24th 
April, 1788, and issued a notice, couched 
in the following words :— " The Bishops 
appoint their clergy to make public notice 
to their congregations, upon the 18th day 
of May next, that the following Lord's day 
nominal prayers for the King are to be 
authoritatively introduced, and afterwards 
to continue in the religious assemblies of 
the Episcopal Church." The pastoral was 

obeyed ; but, says an eyewitness, " Well 
do I remember the day on which the name 
of George was mentioned in the Morning 
Service for the first time ; such blowing 
ing of noses, such significant hums, such 
half-suppressed sighs, such smothered 
groans, and universal confusion, can 
hardly be conceived " Mr. Torry, as we 
have already said, was now settled at 
Peterhead, and there he laboured for GO 
years, his acquirements and his popularity 
soon marking him out as one of the most 
rising sons of the Church in Scotland. In 
1792, Mr. Torry married his second wife, 
Jean, daughter of Dr. William Young, of 
Fairside, Kincardineshire. By this mar- 
riage he had three sons and four daughters. 
One of those sons has long occupied the 
honourable office of Dean of the United 
Diocese of St. Andrews, Dunkeld, and 
Dunblane, in the Scottish Episcopal 
Church. He was again left a widower, on 
the 13th of July, 1815. On the death of 
the Right Rev. Jonathan Watson, Bishop 
of Dunkeld, in 1808, Mr. Torry was, by the 
votes of the Presbyters, unanimously elected 
to the Episcopate, and, on the 12th Octo- 
ber of the same year, was consecrated at 
Aberdeen, by the Bishops Skinner, Mac- 
farlane, and JoUy, and canonically ap- 
pointed to fill the vacant see — to which 
were subsequently added, at different 
periods, the dioceses of Fife and Dunblane ; 
and within a few years, it having been 
considered desirable that the ancient title 
of St. Andrews should be resruned, Fife 
became merged in this latter designation, 
St. Andrews, to favour the ancient custom, 
taking the precedence of the other two. 
Hence his title of "Bishop of St. Andrews, 
Dunkeld, and Dunblane." It need scarcely 
be remarked here that, owing to the dispos- 
sessed state of the Scottish Church, the 
dignity of Bishop has seldom or ever, since 
the time of her dis-establishment, super- 
seded the necessity of a congregational 
charge, hence Bishop Torry's continuance 
in that at Peterhead. It was rmder his 
pastoral superintendence that the two 
congregations in that place were, on the 
death of Dr. Laing, united. These 
requiring additional accommodation, the 
present large and commodious struc- 
ture was erected, in 1814, under the 
Bishop's auspices, on the site of his for- 
mer church. In consequence of great bodily 
infirmity, he was compelled in 1837, to re- 
sign the pastoral charge of St. Peter's. 
Soon after this, events took place in his 
diocese, which called forth all his energies 
— gave a decided character to his episcopal 
life, and afi'orded evidence of the strength 
of his principles with the calm determina- 
tion with which he carried them out. These 
events were of a nature calculated to have 
a lasting influence not only in his ovm 
diocese, but on the Church at large. Inti- 
mately acquainted with the principles and 
practices of the Church in her first and 




purest ages — cautious in forming a judg- 
ment — resolute in his adherence to what he 
believed to be right— regardless of all oppo- 
sition and obloquy when once his course 
was decided upon— and adhering to the 
golden maxim, which was often in his 
mouth, that "the part of a Christian Bishop 
is to do his duty, and leave the result in the 
hand of God " — he fearlessly gave his sanc- 
tion and support to measures which might 
have alarmed minds of less comprehensive 
grasp. Ideas of mere expediency always 
gave way before the higher considerations 
of duty. Of the circumstances which 
marked his Episcopate, may be recorded 
with much satisfaction the estabhshment 
of Trmity College, Glenalmond, in his 
diocese, in 1845, for the higher training of 
the sons of the Church, and more especially 
of the sandidates for holy orders. Another 
object which Bishop Torry had at heart, 
and which was warmly advocated by many 
influential persons, whose incHuatious were 
towards the higher development of ritual- 
ism, was the erection of a Cathedral in the 
head of his diocese in 1850 ; and in. connec- 
tion with it, of a collegiate institution for 
training a class of youths whose circum- 
stances prevented their admission to a 
more expensive course of education. This 
was also intended to be a missionary station 
for a staff of resident clergy, one of whose 
offices it should be to extend the principles 
of the Church, and to bring back to her 
bosom her depressed and alienated chil- 
dren. Owing to the dissensions that arose 
among the Presbyterians, and which at 
length terminated in their disruption into 
the two gi-eat bodies of the Establishment 
and the Free Church, many of them, dis- 
satisfied with the existing state of matters, 
were desirous of putting themselves under 
Episcopal jurisdiction, not merely from an 
admiration of liturgical services, but from 
a belief of thereby obtaining quietness and 
peace. Several new congregations were in 
consequence formed, some of which were 
in Bishop Torry's diocese ; and the follow- 
ing letter is interesting, as showing how 
tenderly the Bishop, with all his strictness 
of principle, was disposed to deal with 
them in their anomalous state. It relates 
to a newly-formed congregation in a town 
where he had not yet been able to place a 
permanent clergyman, and was addressed 
to one of its leading members, to whom he 
writes, thus :— " With respect to applicants 
for admission to the Holy Communion, 
we must take for granted that all such are 
either Episcopalians, or desirous of becom- 
ing so ; with the understanding, moreover, 
that when they shall be brought under the 
teaching of a permanent local ministry, and 
have received such instruction as may 
qualify them for comprehending the duties 
and ordinances peculiar to their holy pro- 
fession as members of a pure Episcopal 
Church, they will gladly submit to what 
the rules of the Church have prescribed, 

and avail themselves of every privileo-e 
which will, m that case, become their riHit 
as well as their honourable distinction All 
therefore, who apply (not of doubtful char- 
acter) may be admitted, with the under- 
standing above stated. We must not nar- 
row the door of admission so as to prevent 
the entrance of those who are desirous of 
going in, and there abiding ; nor must we 
burden it farther than is consistent with 
the faithfulness which we owe to our 
Heavenly Master." A " Pastoral Letter " 
in 1846, and a " Pastoral Address " in the 
.oUowmg year, together with a few soHtary 
sermons, are aU that the Bishop ever com- 
mitted to the press. The latter of the pas- 
torals was an affectionate appeal to the 
members of, what was termed, " The Eno-- 
lish Episcopal Church " in Perth, inviting 
them back from a state of unconscious 
schism to allegiance to their legitimate 
superior. The most controverted part of 
the Bishop's career probably was his strono- 
adherence to the use of the Scottish com" 
mumon office, the retention of which gives 
ofi'ence to many who desire entire confor- 
mity with the Church of England, and who 
may not give sufficient importance to the 
national feeling which prompts many Epis- 
copalians to cling to this as a relic of their 
ecclesiastical independence. The recent 
change in the canonical portion of the 
office, would doubtless, have met with his 
unhesitating disapproval. As to the inte^ 
gnty and conscientiousness of the Bishop's 
proceedings, there can be no doubt. Having 
passed throusjh the more remarkable events 
of the Bishop's public career, we now turn 
with undiminished satisfaction to the inner 
stamp impressed on his private life. Per- 
haps, of few Christian Bishops can it be 
more truly recorded, that, through a long 
series of declining years, he was ever 
awaiting, ever expecting his call from 
above. And no more edifying sight could 
be presented to view, than this aged and 
venerable prelate, in the quiet of his domes- 
tic chamber dwelling for hours together on 
the works of our best divines, and, more 
especially, on the life-giving Word of God ; 
and though justly thankful for the un- 
speakable privilege of an authorised version 
of the Holy Scriptures, his delight and 
daily occupation was to study the Divine 
record in the veritable words in which it 
\yas first given. Thus, with the Holy 
Scriptures ever at his side or in his hand, 
and as we may safely aver, its message of 
divine love in his heart, he sank bv slow 
degrees, like the retiring rays of the setting 
sun, tin, " with a hope full of immortahty," 
he gently fell asleep in the Lord. Hi's 
faculties were unimpaired to the last ; and 
when his tongue at length refused to per- 
form its office, the venerable prelate yielded 
to the latest impulse of Christian piety, by 
raising his hands, in the act of blessing 
those who affectionately awaited his depar- 
ture. He died on the morning of the 3rd 




of October, 1852, being tbe 17th Sunday 
after Trinity, and near the close of his 
8yth year ; and on the 13th of the same 
month, he was interred with great solemnity 
at the north side of the altar, in his Cathe- 
dral Church at Perth.— [An elaborate Bio- 
graphy of this estimable Bishop is contained 
in a new work, entitled, " Scotichronicon." 
Glasgow : John Tweed, 186!).] 

TOUCH, Lieutenant William, Assis- 
tant Adjutant-General of the Madi-as army 
— sometime connected with Fife by resi- 
dence, was the eldest son of the late Reverend 
John Edward Touch, minister of the parish 
of KinnouU. He was born in the manse of 
Madderty, of which parish his father was 
then minister, on the 19th September, 1819, 
and he received his early education chiefly 
at the public seminaries of Perth. During 
his school-boy days, he was not remarkable 
for industry; but on all occasions he gave 
unmistakable indications of the talents 
which he afterwards exhibited. Amongst 
his school-fellows, in general, he was beloved 
for his gay and sprightly temper, whilst, to 
those who knew him more intimately, he 
was endeared by a disposition which was 
kindly, open, generous, and sincere. Prom 
the Perth Academy he was removed to the 
University of St. Andi-ews, whei-e he became 
a zealous and successful student. During his 
four years' residence he carried off some of 
the highest honours of the Univei-sity; and, 
having completed the full curriculum, he 
took the degree of Master of Arts. In 1840 
he sailed for India, and from 1842 to 1845 
he took part with his regiment in the 
Chinese war. It was towards the end of 
this period that he was first appointed to 
the Adjutancy of his regiment ; and of the 
success with which he discharged the duties 
of that office, of the affection and regard 
which his character had won for him from 
all with whom he was brought in official 
contact, we have a gratifying proof in the 
following extractf rom the regimental orders, 
issued by his officer commanding on the oc- 
casion of his quitting his regiment on his 
first temporary appointment to the staff: — 
" Lieutenant W. Touch, being about to quit 
for army head-quarters, the commanding 
officer gladly avails himself of the occasion, 
though it promises to be but a temporary 
one, of placing on the records of the 2d 
Regiment of Native Infantry his unqualified 
approbation of the manner in which the 
duties of the Adjutant's department have 
been conducted by that officer. Lieutenant 
Touch has been Adjutant of the regiment 
for the last seven years, during which period 
the untiring zeal and devotion with which 
he has performed his duties have justly 
earned for him not only the highest com- 
mendations of his immediate commandants, 
but likewise attracted the applauding notice 
of yet superior officers. He has won for 
himself the brotherly affection and esteem 
of all the European officers; while his 
gentlemanly urbanity to the native officers, 

and firm, temperate, and kindly bearing to 
the non-commissioned and privates, in up- 
holding the strictest military discipline, 
have endeared him to all the native ranks. 
The commanding-officer would deeply de- 
plore Lieutenant Touch's separation from 
the regiment, but that he sincerely hopes 
that this may prove the opening to a wider 
field in which his sterling merits as an officer 
may become more generally known and fully 
appreciated. Lieutenant Touch carries with 
him the affections and heartfelt wishes of all 
his comrades of the 2d Regiment of Native 
Infantry.". This temporary appointment 
was confirmed, and only ten days before his 
death, Mr. Touch was farther advanced to 
the Assistant Adjutant-Generalship, on the 
occasion of the death of his friend and chief, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Gordon, who was carried 
ofi' by the same terrible disease of which he 
himself died. " We cannot refrain," says a 
Perth friend, " from sharing with the many 
surviving friends and schoolfellows of him 
of whom sweet recollections are now all that 
remain to us, the consolations which we 
ourselves derived from the following pas- 
sage in a touching and beautiful letter, 
which was addressed by the clergyman who 
attended him on his deathbed, to her who 
now sorrows most of all :" — " All that skill, 
and kindness, and affection could do to 
arrest disease, and smooth his dying pillow, 
was done. His medical attendants were 
the most skilful, and, more than all, his 
personal friends watched over him with the 
most unwearied affection." After mention- 
ing the names of several of his brother 
officers, he says — " There was another friend 
who never left him — a humble friend, a 
drummer, formerly in his regiment — of the 
name of Gray. He hung over him with the 
most touching devotion, weeping, and sob- 
bing, and clasping him in his arms, even 
while life had fled. Such was his power 
of winning love from all of every rank." 
Lieutenant Totich died in 1858. 

TYTLER, Patrick Eraser, the well- 
known author of the "History of Scotland," 
was connected with Fife by his marriage 
with the daughter of a Fife proprietor, 
namely Mr. Hog, of Newliston and KelUe. 
A love of letters may be said to have been 
part of Mr. Tytler's inheritance. His 
grandfather, Mr. William Tytler of Wood- 
houselee (born in 1711, died in 1792), 
distinguished himself by his " Inquiry, 
Historical and Critical, into the Evidence 
against Mary Queen of Scots" fpubHshed 
in 1759, and reprinted in 1767) ; by^his 
edition of " The Poetical Remains of King 
James the First, King of Scotland," (pub- 
lished in 1783, reprinted in 1827) ; by his 
" Essay on Scottish Music ;" and by some 
papers in the first volume of the " Trans- 
actions of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland," of which body Mi. Tytler was 
one of the Vice-Presidents. The eldest 
son of this gentleman — Alexander Eraser 
Tytler — was eminent both in law and in 




letters. He was for many years Professor 
of History in the University of Edinburgh, 
and the heads or outlines of the lectures 
which he delivered from that chair must 
be familiar to everyone, from the numerous 
editions which they have passed through 
both in this country and beyond the At- 
lantic. The lectures themselves, as linally 
revised by the author, were first published 
at London in 1834 (in sis volumes), under 
the title of " Universal History, from the 
Creation of the World to the Beginning 
of the Eighteenth Century." Among Mr. 
Tytler's other works, we may mention his 
" Life of Lord Kaimes," and his translation 
of SchUler's drama of " The Robbers." 
He was one of the early friends of Sir 
Walter Scott, in whose writings he is often 
spoken of, and never Avithout respect. 
Having been raised to the Scottish bench, 
in the year 1802, he took the title of Lord 
Woodhouselee, from his paternal acres — 
the "haunted Woodliouselee" of Scott's 
baUad of " The Gray Brother." He died 
in the year 1811. We are not aware of the 
precise date of the birth of his son, the 
future historian of Scotland— but it was 
probably about the year 1790. Patrick 
Eraser Tytler was destined to his father's 
profession, and was enrolled a member of 
the Faculty of Advocates in 1813— the 
same year which gave to the Scottish Bar 
the present distinguished Professor of 
Logic in the University of Edinburgh, and 
the learned and accomplished gentleman 
who is now Solicitor-General for Scotland. 
But, Hke Sir William Hamilton, Mr. Tytler 
(though holding for some years the office 
of King's Counsel in Exchequer), soon 
turned from the law to the pursuit of let- 
ters. If we may trust ourselves to speak 
from a vague recollection, his first adven- 
ture was a volume of travels in France in 
1814 or 1815, written in conjunction with 
Mr. Alison, who then, we believe, saw for 
the first time the recent scenes of those 
wars which he has since commemorated 
in his " History of Europe." But the work 
which first gave Mr. Tytler place of note 
in the world of letters, was his " Life of 
the Admirable Chrichton" — an erudite, 
pleasing, and ingenious book, whichreached 
a second (and much improved) edition in 
1823. The same year saw the publication 
of another volume of the same stamp — 
" An Account of the Life and Writings of 
Sir Thomas Craig of Riccarton, including 
biographical sketches of the most eminent 
legal characters, since the institution of 
the Court of Session by James V. till the 
period of the Union of the Crowns." These 
successful eiForts had plumed the author's 
wing, and stimulated his ambition, for a 
higher flight — the work by which his name 
has become most widely known, and by 
which it wiU go down to after generations. 
The first volume of the " History of Scot- 
land" appeared in the summer of 1828 — 
the ninth and last was issued in the win- 

ter of 1843, with a touching peroration 
which we may be allowed to quote : — " It 
is with feelings of gratitude, mingled 
with regret, that the author now closes 
this work— the history of his country— the 
labour of little less than eighteen years : 
gi-atitude to the Giver of all Good, that life 
and health have been spared to complete, 
however imperfectly, an arduous under- 
taking ; regret that the tranquil pleasures 
of historical investigation, the happy hours 
devoted to the pursuit of trvith, are at an 
end, and that he must at last bid farewell 
to an old and dear companion," The work 
thus commended to the world recounts 
the Scottish annals from the accession 
of King Alexander III. in 1249 to the 
union of the crowns of England and Scot- 
land, under King James VI., in 1603. 
A performance of such extent is almost 
necessarily unequal — there are few men 
who are at home alike amid the chivalrous 
wars of the thirteenth and the diploma- 
tic intrigues of the sixteenth centuries. 
The earlier portions of Mr. Tytler's work, 
though perhaps the most popular with the 
public, will scarcely satisfy the severe de- 
mands of the scholar familiar with the 
recent contributions to the study of north- 
em antiquities. It is when the historian 
reaches the times of the fifth James — ■ 
approaching the confines of the age of which 
the first works both of his grandfather and 
himself had treated — that he appears in the 
full measure of his grace and strength. It 
is with this period, too, that his laborious 
researches begin to be most successful in 
bringing new sources of information to 
light, in correcting old mistakes, and com- 
bating received prejudices. No one can 
turn to the reigns of Mary and James, as 
related in Mr. Tytler's pages, without being 
struck with the vast extent of the contri- 
butions which he has made to the true 
history of that troubled day. His style, 
too, we think, undergoes, in these latter 
volumes, a very marked improvement^ 
adding to its invariable animation, its 
occasional elegance and frequent vigour, a 
measure of ease and dignity which we do 
not always recognise in the opening chap- 
ters. Mr. Tytler found leisure, during the 
composition of his great work, to give 
several others to the world. He contri- 
buted to Mr. Murray's " Family Library " 
one of the most delightful of all his writ- 
ings, three volumes of " Lives of Scottish 
Worthies " (1832-3). For the " Edinburgh 
Cabinet Library" of Messrs. Oliver and 
Boyd, an " Historical View of the Progress 
of Discovery on the more Northern Coasts 
of America" (1832); the "Life of Sir 
Walter Raleigh" (1832) ; and the " Life of 
King Henry the Eighth" (1837.) He 
edited for a London bookseller two volumes 
of " Letters illustrative of the Reign of 
King Edward VI.," printed from the ori- 
ginals in the State Paper Office. He wrote, 
we believe, a few verses for one of the 




" Banuatyne Garlands" about 1829; and 
in 1833 (in conjunction with Mr. Hog of 
Newliston, and Mr. Adam Urqubart) he 
presented to the Bannatyne and Maitland 
Clubs a volume illustrative of the Revolu- 
tion — " Memoirs of the War carried on in 
Scotland and Ireland 1089-1691, by Major- 
General Hugh Mackay." Mr. Tytler was 
twice married. His first wife, as already 
mentioned, was a daughter of Mr. Hog of 
NewUstou ; his second, a daughter of Mr. 
Bonar, the Russian merchant, who sur- 
vived him and left a family of two sons and 
a daughter, in private life he was a lively 
and engaging companion, of agreeable 
manners, and interesting conversation. 
During the present reign, he was more 
than once a guest at Windsor, where he 
was received with a degree of favour, 
which, no doubt, greatly facilitated the 
well-merited gi-ant of the literary pension 
of £200 a-year, which was conferred upon 
him a few years ago, du.ring the adminis- 
tration of Sir Robert Peel. Mr. Tj'tler's 
constitution was never robust, and it 
gradually gave way under the exhausting 
labours of a life of letters. During a 
lingering illness of mind and body, he 
wandered over the Continent in search of 
health, and retiirned to England, only to 
die ia the land for the illustration of whose 
annals he had done much and contemplated 
more. Mr. Tytler died at Great Malvern 
on Christmas Eve, 1849, in the 60th year 
of his age. 

WATSON, The Rev. David, Minister 
of the parish of Leuchars, was born on the 
17th day of May, 1776. He received his 
early education at, and entered the Divinity 
HaU of Edinburgh in 1794. He was much 
of a scholar — all through his student 
career, both at Academy and College, he 
distinguished himself in every department 
of knowledge. The classics and moral 
philosophy were liis favourite studies, and 
in these he greatly excelled. His university 
education was conducted under most 
favourable auspices. Under Dalziel and 
Hill, and siich eminent professors as 
Finlayson and Dugald Stewart, and 
Robinson, any one of ardour like what Mr. 
Watson possessed would not fail to attain 
scholarly proficiency. And when we con- 
sider the quality of his fellow students, and 
mention the names of Brougham, Horner, 
Leyden, and Murray, Andrew Thomson, 
John Thomson, and many others that could 
be easily enumerated, we point to influences 
at once stimulatiag and efi'ective— when 
studying Divinity he joined the literary 
the Dialectic and PhUotheologicalSocieties, 
consisting of many distinguished members, 
and his essays were much commended, and 
his literary powers admired. In due time 
he was licensed to preach the gospel, and, 
as might be expected from his college 
training and elegant mind, very superior 
discourses were produced. In 1809 he was 
presented to the cure of Leuchars, where 

he remained, tUl Providence called him 
hence. This appointment was highly suc- 
cessful ; his ministerial labours were sig- 
nally blessed ; under his care the ^aueya^■d 
floui'ished, and the church received a good 
increase of strength and influence until the 
unfortunate year of the Secession (1843) 
when several of his best and most zealous 
adherents withdrew from his pastoral 
superintendence. But notwithstanding this 
disadvantage, and through the force of a 
long and well-tried ministry, with the co- 
operation of pious and a1jle assistants, the 
chiu'ch of Leuchars soon recovered from 
the shock, and the parish became in good 
working order. Naturally shy and modest, 
he never displayed the extent of his pow- 
ers, the clearness of his intellect, nor the 
amount of his learning and acquirements, 
but those few who got into his inner Life 
knew all. His shyness and modesty also 
prevented his taking any prominent part 
in the proceedings of his Presbytery. 
Though he by no means evaded the eccles- 
iastical duties of his ofiice, firmly held his 
own views, and voted conscientiously and 
fearlessly, yet he had no turn for engaging 
in debate, nor for directing the delibera- 
tions of public courts. Of a temperature 
decidedly reserved and undemonstrative to 
a degree, he was, nevertheless, capable of 
forming strong and lasting friendships ; and 
fortunately for Mr. "Watson, in his most 
vigorous days he was brought into frequent 
contact -with many superior men, such as 
Dr. Chalmers, Mr. Melville of Logic, 
Principal Haldane of St. Andrew's, Dr. 
Maule of Forgan, and Mr. Brown of 
Kilrenny. All these gentlemen were 
frequently visitors at the Manse of 
Leuchars. These he found to be most 
congenial clerical associates, and imdoubt- 
edly they exerted a very sensible and 
improving influence on the whole tone of 
his mind and character. By the dispensa- 
tion of an all-wise Providence he has per- 
mitted to outlive these eminent friends ; 
and it can scarce be supposed that since 
their departure he would be able to attach 
himself with the same cordiality to new 
ones. This esteemed and respected 
clergyman, although for many years 
compelled by declining health and strength 
to abstain from the more laborious duties 
of the ministry, was yet able to interest 
himself in every scheme which had for its 
object the good of his parish, and took 
great delight in encouraging and directing 
the parochial operations of his assistants. 
TiU about July, 1864, he made it a point 
of privilege and duty to be present at the 
celebration of the Holy Communion service 
in his own church ; and on every return of 
the solemn occasion he presided at the 
communion table, and delivered addresses 
distinguished by great energy and warmth 
of appeal, and which will be long and 
fondly rememberedby many of his attached 
people. About 1860 Mr. Watson had au 




acute attack of broncMtis — so serious was 
it that Ms life was despaired of— but by 
the help of a naturally good constitution, 
and the vigilant attention and skill of his 
medical attendants he was (by the blessing 
of God) unexpectedly brought back from 
thegates of death, and with various alter- 
nations of sickness and comparative health 
it pleased Providence to spare him till he 
almost reached the advanced age of ninety. 
The connecting link of an old and new 
generation, Mr. Watson was the type of 
a class that will speedily pass away, for ia 
a great measure he combined the solidity 
and depth of the one with the inquiring 
and active spirit of the other. Not often 
have we the privilege of recording the life 
of one so advanced in years, — so matured 
in Christian experience, and so ripe for a 
better world. Verily of Mr. Watson it 
may be said, "Thou shalt come to thy 
grave in a full age, like as a shock of corn 
Cometh in, in his season." On Sunday 
evening, the 14th of January, it would ap- 
pear that serious and alarming symptoms 
set in. He felt the unfavourable change 
himself, and referred to various premoni- 
tions on the day preceding. Matters grew 
worse and worse, until Monday, the 15th 
of January, 1866, at five o'clock afternoon, 
when he gently, and without a struggle, 
breathed Ms last, in the 90th year of his 
age, and 57th of his ministry. 

WEBSTER, George, better known as 
" Lmton Cuff," or " L. C," a writer of 
verse, was born at Craigrothie, in the parish 
of Ceres, on the 24th March, 1823. He 
received the elements of education at the 
village school there, then taught by the late 
Mr. George Taylor, schoolmaster of Liber- 
ton, near Edinburgh, a most worthy man, 
who seems to have instilled somewhat of 
his own literary taste into his pupil. Web- 
°*"- early began to evince a decided relish 

for reading, and as years passed on, the 
desire for books increased. He soon began 
also to try Ms hand at poetry, but it was 
not until he was upwards of twenty years 
of age, that his compositions appeared in 
print. In the year 1845, he was teaching 
the parochial school of Pitshgo, in Aberdeen- 
shire, and having sent some of Ms verses to 
the North of Scotland Gazette, they met with 
a very favourable reception. From that 
time he became almost weekly a contributor 
to the newspapers, and continued so for 
several years, writing under the unpoetical 
name of " Linton Cuff." Having left Aber- 
deenshire and gone to Hawick, he contri- 
buted largely to several of the Border papers 
both in prose and verse. He is at present 
engaged as parocMal teacher of Dunbar, 
and his verses appear now principally in 
the Scotsman newspaper. Webster is chiefly 
iadebted for his educational training to the 
late Mr. Henry Smyth, parochial school- 
master, Leven, a most excellent teacher, 
especially of the higher branches. He stu- 
died for some time at the University of 

Edinburgh, where he distinguished himself 
by writing a "Lay," entitled, "Quintus 
h abms, after the style of Macaulay This 
poem which was upwards of 600 lines in 
length, was of a spirited nature, displaying 
great ease and power of versification It 
was highly commended by the late Professor 
Pillans, for whose class it was written, and 
who stated that the only other person who 
had ever done anything of the same kind for 
Mm during his long term of office, was the 
late Samuel Warren, author of " Ten Thou- 
sand a-Year," " Diary of a late Physician," 
&c. Webster is a man of refined literary 
taste and ripe scholarship, more so than 
many of those who fancy they are well ac- 
quainted with him would even suspect. 
He is well read, not only in the ancient 
classics, but also in some of the modern lan- 
guages, especially Gennan, whose misty 
legends and ballads full of romance and 
poetry have exerted a strong influence upon 
Mm. It is right to state that, while giving 
his spare hours with unflagging zeal to liter- 
ary pursuits, he is, at the same time, a labo- 
rious and successful teacher. In all the 
places where he has acted in this capacity, 
he has met with strong commendation. His 
poetical effusions have been extensive, but 
have never as yet been published in a col- 
lected form. They consist for the most part 
of short lyrical pieces, dashed ofl" probably 
in some hour of inspiration, after a hard 
day's work. They are of an easy and flow- 
ing style, melodious in their numbers, and 
highly spirited, and having the true poetic 
ring about them. We subjoin a few verses 
by way of specimen, premising only that 
they are not to be considered as " L. C.'s" 
best or worst, but simply what happens to 
be on hand. All his pieces betray the ten- 
der feeling and sentiment of a true poet. 
They are mostly written in fine Enghsh— 
very few in the Scottish dialect, of which 
latter the following is a sample : — 


Come awa', Kirsty, 
Keep up yer rig ; 
Hungry or thirsty, 
Care nae a fig. 
Push in the sickle, 
An' dinna be slack 
At crookin' your elbow, 
An' bendin' yer back. 

Ke'er mind the nettle, 
But tak' a guid grip. 
Thro' fingers in fettle 
There's naething should slip. 
Hungry or thirsty, 
Care nae a fig ; 
Come awa', Kirsty, 
Keep up yer rig. 

Haud laigh wi' the stubble, 
Cut cannie and clean. 
There's nocht without trouble, 
Ye maunna compleen. 
Keep up yer credit, 
Ye're somebody noo ; 
In wi' the sickle, 
An' let U3 get through. 




Dinna sit daiverin' 
Doon at the dyke, 
Or folks will be haverin' 
There's some lad ye like. 
Clashes and claivers 
Are no worth a plack, 
Up wi' the sickle, 
An' doon wi' yer back. 

Come awa', Kirsty, 
Fill yer sheaf fu', 
Keep up yer creiit, 
Ye're somebody noo. 
Ye'll never nee , lassie, 
To borrow or beg, 
Sae ang as ye're able 
To keep up yer rig. 

WHITE, Robert, The Right Rev., 
had the charge of an episcopal congregation 
at Cupar, in Fife, when the clergy of 
Dunblane addressed the coUege of bishops, 
requesting to have him consecrated as 
their ordinary. Mr. Freebairn was, at the 
period in question, invested with the office 
of Primus, and being suspected of indif- 
ference towards the caiise of diocesan 
superintendence, his colleagues did not 
obey his summons to consecrate the bishop 
elect at Edinburgh, but proceeded to Carse 
Bank, near Forfar, where on the 24th of 
June, 1735, they elevated Mr. Wliite to the 
episcopate. The officiating bishops were 
Rattray, Keith, and Dunbar. Bishop 
White was immediately upon his consecra- 
tion collated to the charge of Dunblane, 
and was afterwards, in the year 1743, 
elected by the clergy of Fife. He accepted 
the latter district, in which he appears to 
have continued till the end of his life. He 
was chosen primus in 1757. on the death 
of Bishop Keith, and presided over the 
church till the year 1761, when he was 
removed to a happier state. 

WILKIE, William, D.D., Professor of 
Natural Philosophy in the University of 
St. Andrews, was born at Echlin, in 
the Parish of Dalmeny, and County of 
Linhthgow, 5th October, 1721. His father 
was a farmer, and possessed a small proper- 
ty, to which he succeeded by inheritance. 
He was an upright and an inteUigent 
man, but through a series of misfortunes 
became greatly reduced in circumstances 
in the latter part of his life. The subject 
of this memoir received the earlier part of 
his education at the parish school of 
Dalmeny, then kept by a Mr. RiddeU, a 
respectable and successful teacher. At 
this seminary, young Wilkie gave many 
proofs of a lively and vigorous fancy, and 
of that genius for poetry which afterwards 
distinguished him. Before he had passed 
his tenth year, he had written some little 
poetical sketches of considerable promise. 
At the age of thirteen he was sent to the 
University of Edinburgh. Here he also 
distinguished himself by the superiority of 
his talents, and in particular by the pro- 
gress he made ia classical acquirements, 
and in theology. He had the good fortune 

likewise, while attending college, to form 
intimacies with some of the most celebra- 
ted men of the last century. Amongst 
these were Dr. Robertson, David Hume, 
Adam Smith, and John Home. Mr. 
M'Kenzie, in his life of the last-mentioned 
individual, says that Wilkie' s friends all 
spoke of him as superior in genius to any 
man of his time, but rough and unpolished 
in his manners, and still less accommoda- 
ting to the decorum of society in the 
ordinary habits of his life." "Charles 
Townsend, a very competent judgeof men," 
continues the biographer, " and who, both 
as a pohtician and a man of the world, 
was fond of judging them, said, after being 
introduced to Wilkie, and spending a day 
with him at Dr. CarUle's, that he had 
never met with a man who approached so 
near to the two extremes of a god and a 
brute as Dr. Wilkie." While prosecutiag 
his studies at Edinburgh, Wilkie lost his 
father, who died in straitened circumstan- 
ces, but left his son the stock and 
unexpired lease of a farm at Fisher's Tryst, 
a few miles south of the city, burdened, 
however, mth the charge of maintaining 
his three sisters, who were otherwise totally 
unprovided for. Wilkie, in consequence of 
this event, became a farmer, but unwilling 
to trust entirely to that profession for his 
future subsistence, he continued, while 
conducting the business of his farm, to 
prosecute his studies in divinity, and 
eventually was hcensed as a preacher of 
the gospel, although some years elapsed 
before he obtained a church. Previously 
to his assumption of the gown, he had 
made himself an expert farmer, and so 
remarkable was he, in particular, for his 
successful culture of the potato, then but 
indifferently understood, that he obtained 
the facetious bye-name of the potato 
minister; but while he claimed and really 
possessed the merit of being a superior 
agriculturist to any of his neighbours, he 
always acknowledged that he was their infe- 
rior in the art of trafficking, and the manner 
in which he made this boast, and acknow- 
ledged this inferiority, was characteristic of 
the man. " I can raise crops," he would 
say, "better than any of my neighbours, 
but I am always cheated in the market." 
While pursuing his farming occupations at 
Fisher's Tryst, which he did with the most 
laudable industry and perseverance, labour" 
ing much and frequently with his own 
hands, he did not neglect those studies 
which his classical education had placed 
within his reach. It was here, and while 
labouring with the scythe and sickle, the 
harrow and the plough, that he conceived, 
and, at intervals of leisure, in part wrote 
his poem "The Epigoniad," the work 
which acquired him what celebrity he 
possessed. Through the influence of Mr. 
Laird, Sheriff-Substitute of Mid-Lothian, 
who resided in his neighbourhood, and who 
knew of, and appreciated his abilities, Mr. 




Wilkie obtained the appointment of assis- 
tant and successor to Mr. Guthrie, minister 
of Ratho. To this office he was ordained 
by the Presbytery on the 17th of May, 
1753. Three years afterwards, during all 
which time he continued to reside on, and 
cultivate his farm, he succeeded to the 
entire living by the death of the incumbent. 
After his establishment at Ratho, Mr. 
WUMe became a frequent and welcome 
visitor at Hutton, the residence of the 
Earl of Lauderdale, the patron of the 
parish, who highly esteemed him for his 
worth and talents, and was particularly 
fond of his company. In 1759, he became 
a candidate for the chair of natural philo- 
sophy at St. Andrews, and was successful. 
After settling in that city, the poet pur- 
chased some acres of land, and resumed 
his farming occupations, in which he 
succeeded so well as to leave, at his death, 
property to the amount of three thousand 
pounds. Some time after his appointment 
to the professorship, the University con- 
ferred on him, as a mark of its sense of his 
merits, the degree of " Doctor ia Divinity." 
With this circumstance, the remarkable 
occurrences of his life terminate. After a 
lingering indisposition, he died at St. 
Andrews on the 10th October, 1772, ia the 
51st year of his age. Of Dr. WiLkie's 
personal peculiarities, some curious anec- 
dotes have been preserved. Among the 
most amusing and extraordinary of his 
eccentricities, was a practice of sleeping 
with an immoderate quantity of bed clothes, 
and a detestation which he entertained 
of clean sheets. He has been known to 
sleep with no less than four-and -twenty 
pair of blankets on him ; and his abhorrence 
of clean sheets was so great, that whenever 
he met with them in any bed in which he 
was to lie, he immediately pulled them off, 
crumpled them up, and threw them in a 
corner of the room. On one occasion, 
being pressed by Lady Lauderdale to stay 
one rainy night at Hutton, he agreed, 
though with some reluctance, and only on 
condition that her ladyship would indulge 
him in the luxury of a pair of foul sheets. 
He was of extremely parsimonious habits, 
although, in the latter years of his life, he 
was in the practice of giving away £20 
annually in charity. His parsimony, how- 
ever, did not proceed so much from a love 
of wealth as of independence. On this 
subject he was wont to say, " I have shaken 
hands with poverty up to the very elbow, 
and I wish never to see her face again." 
He was absent to a degree that placed him 
frequently in the most awkward and ludi- 
crous predicaments. 

WILSON, The Rev. Robert, Minister 
of Anstruther-Easter, was born at Denino, 
in the year 1764. He was the son of Mr. 
J. Wilson, farmer, at Letham, near Denino, 
an old burgher, who was much displeased 
with his son for adhering to the Established 
Church. Robert was educated at Denino 

School, and when of proper age, was sent 
to the University of St. Andrews, to com- 
plete his philosophical curriculum, and to 
pass through his theological studies to fit 
him for the ministry. About his twenty- 
third year, he was selected to be tutor in the 
family of the father of the late F. Gordon, 
Esq., where he discharged his duties with 
ability, prudence, and discretion, and gained 
the favour and esteem of Mr. Gordon, and 
all connected with him. In 1796, he was 
presented to the Church and Parish of 
Anstruther-Easter, by Sir John Anstruther 
of Anstruther, Bart., the Patron, and did 
his duty ably and acceptably to his parish 
and congregation, for upwards of forty ■ 
years. Mr. Wilson's father was a good 
pious man, and his son was brought up in 
strict conformity with the persuasion to 
which his father belonged. In consequence 
of his early education, therefore, Mr. Wilson 
acquired, and retained through life, that 
peculiar tone in the pulpit which was 
thought to belong to the Secession Church 
about 70 or 80 years ago. His doctrines 
were orthodox — pure and evangelical — and 
his opinions upon every moral and religious 
subject were heard with reverence and at- 
tention, because they were the result of a 
sound understanding, well exercised by 
reading, meditation, and prayer. Mr. Wil- 
son's manners commanded respect, because 
they were uniformly regular and exemplary, 
such as might be expected from a man who 
never forgot his station, but in aU things 
approved himself a minister of the Most 
High God. In all matters of public con- 
cern, when his conscience told him he was 
doing his duty, opposition never checked 
his exertions, and in questions which aflected 
his church and his successors as much as 
himself, he defended the rights of his order 
with a spirit which feared the face of no 
man. As an instance of his firmness, man- 
liness, and independence of mind, we may 
mention that he successfully defended in 
the Court of Session the right of the minis- 
ter and kirk-session of Anstruther-Eastei', 
to uplift and receive the rents of the church 
seats against the magistrates and council of 
that burgh, who sought to deprive him of 
them, and Mr. Wilson ultimately had the 
satisfaction of appropriating the fund thus 
created to the legitimate purpose of clearing 
out all the old and decayed pews, repairing- 
the fabric of the church which was erected 
in 1634, thoroughly, internally, and exter- 
nally — reseating it anew in the most com- 
modious manner — with the pulpit in the 
east end, and a gallery in the west, and ren- 
dering it altogether one of the most neat and 
comfortable churches anywhere to be found. 
The firmness of Mr. Wilson's mind was not 
shaken by the acute unremitting pain wilh 
which, for several years, he was sore tried. 
His patience and fortitude were the admira- 
tion of those around him, and, through the 
blessing of God Almighty, they contributed 
to his cure. His conversation, in the latter 
years of his life, was filled with expressions 




of gratitude to tlie Giver of all Good for tlie 
eaae and comfort he enjoyed. As long as be 
had strength, Mr. Wilson continued to do 
his duty in the pulpit, and in visiting his 
flock, exhorting and comforting and charg- 
ing them as a father does his children. He 
did not serve his Master Vifith that which cost 
him nothing. He laboured bard in the com- 
position of his sermons, and laboured to 
purpose. The excellence of his matter, the 
evangelical character of his doctrines, the 
strength of his expression, the variety of 
his colouring chastened by a thorough ac- 
quaintance with theologj', and a deep sense 
of the excellency of the knowledge of his 
blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 
rendered him an impressive preacher. The 
ear which heard him blessed him, 7iot be- 
cause he was a flowery, fluent, flattering 
preacher, but because he was a faitlifal 
preacher, who told men the'r faults, who 
warned them of their danger, and carried 
home the truth with power and demonstra- 
tion to their consciences and their bosoms. 
A curious example of this occurred in his 
latter years : — He was preaching one Sun- 
day against drunkenness, and one of the 
bailies, who was not remarkable for tem- 
perance and sobriety, was, after the con- 
gregation came out, twitted by his brother 
magistrates that the discourse was directed 
against Mm, for the minister, they alleged, 
looked earnestly at him, when he used his 
most pithy expressions. In short, they so 
goaded on, and wrought upon the feelings 
of the poor bailie, that they induced him to 
call on the minister, next day, and ask him 
whether the sermon was not directed against, 
and intended to hold him up to ridicule P 
Mr. Wilson, who received the bailie with 
great kindness and courteousness, saw, at 
once, how the matter stood — that it was a 
plot of some wags to take advantage of the 
poor man's credulity to play a trick upon 
him, and to get diversion at his expense ; 
so he told Mm that the discourse was pre- 
pared, and preached in another church, 
many years before, <ind desired him to teU 
his advisers that it was impossible it could, 
on that account, be intended to apply to 
him. As an illustration of the primitive 
times and homely manners of the people 
at the conclusion of the last century, we 
may mention the following curious fact : — 
" Two old women named Tibby Henderson 
and Kate BalsiUie, being rather deaf, sat 
in church in the letteran or elders' seat, 
below the pulpit, and Mr. Wilson having 
given out the xxv. Psalm to be sung, one 
of the old women asked the other what 
Psalm it was ? Upon which the minister, 
looking over the pulpit, kindly but quaintly 
said, ' it's twa axes and a vow, Tibbj^' " — 
In June, 1821, Mr. Wilson married Rachel, 
second daughter of Andrew Johnston, Esq., 
of Pittowie. Mrs. Wilson was a judicious 
and sensible woman ; she soothed and sup- 
ported her husband during his long sickness, 
and by her devoted attention greatly allevi- 
ated the affliction and promoted the comfort 

of his declining years. Mr. Wilson was the 
last of a race of venerable men who filled 
the pulpits of the eastern district of Fife 
with honour and credit, about the first 
quarter of the present century. He was 
called to his rest on the 12th of January, 
1839, in the 75th year of his age, and 43rd 
of his pastorate. 

WILSON, The Rev. Andrew, of Paisley, 
late of Falkland. This popular clergyman 
was born in the year 1814, and died at the 
Abbey Church Manse on Sunday, the 5th 
of March, 1865. The disease which cut 
short this valuable hfe was a rheumatic 
attack in the heart, which, from the com- 
mencement, had rather an alarming aspect. 
The suddenness of the stroke sent grief tu 
many a home in this county, where he 
laboured with so much acceptance for many 
years, and where he was so widely known 
and so universally beloved. When the sad 
news reached Falkland on Monday morn- 
ing, the excitement was intense, he was so 
popular there; and although years have 
gone since he left, his name is still a house- 
hold word. Mr. Wilson's fame as a preacher 
spread far beyond the limits of his parish. 
His sermons bore evident marks of careful 
study, abounding in rich metaphor and 
sound logical reasoning. His language 
was choice, his action graceful, and an 
earnestness pervaded the whole man that 
at once stamped him an eloquent preacher. 
In December, 1864, he preached at Falk- 
land while on a tour through Fife with Dr. 
Norman M'Leod, urging the claims of the 
Home Mission Scheme, and at that time 
he assisted in dispensing the sacrament to 
his old congregation at Falkland, who now 
so deeply mourn his sudden removal in the 
prime of life. A Glasgow contemporary 
thus writes : — " The Rev. A. Wilson, mini- 
ster of the first charge of the Abbey parish, 
died early on Sunday morning. The event 
has excited a painful interest in the com- 
munity. Mr. Wilson possessed a remark- 
ably robust constitution, and only a few 
days ago he was going about apparently in 
his usual health. On Thursday week he 
took part in the proceedings of the Pres- 
bytery, and preached in the Abbey Church 
on the following Sabbath. On Monday he 
dined in the house of a friend, and attended 
his weekly class the same evening. He was 
obliged, however, to dismiss his class some- 
what earlier than usual, feeling unwell. 
On Thursday his medical attendants, Drs. 
M'Kechnie and Graham, saw that the issue 
would prove fatal. Mrs. Wilson, who had 
been for some time at Guernsey with ui\ 
invalid son, returned opportunely on Fii- 
day. Rheumatic affection of the heart was 
the malady. The reverend gentleman was 
fifty-one years of age, and he has left two 
sons and tv/o daughters. Mr. Wilson was 
presented to the first charge of the Abbey 
by the Presbytery of Paisley on the 18th 
February, 1852, and was translated from 
Falkland, where he had been labouring for 




eight or nine years, and was greatly re- 
spected by hia parishioners. The incum- 
bent of the second charge of the Abbey at 
that period was the late Rev. Patrick 
Brewster, who, at his death a few years 
ago, was succeeded by the Rev. J. C. Lees, 
who still officiates with great acceptance as 
minister of the second charge. Mr. Wilson 
was highly esteemed by all denominations 
ia Paisley. One of the most noticeable 
features of his character was an entire 
absence of anything Hke bigotry or intole- 
rance. He was ever ready to join with the 
ministers of other denominations in pro- 
moting the social or religious wellbeiag of 
the community; and he has frequently 
preached in the pulpits of the Dissenting 
churches in the town. No one ever 
approached him for the purpose of obtain- 
ing his co-operation in any benevolent or 
religious scheme, who was not at once 
assured of his cordial aid, and his promise 
was uniformly fulfilled with disinterested 

WILSON", Alexander, M.D., father of 
Scottish letter-founders, was born at St. 
Andrews ia 1714. He was educated for 
the medical profession ; and, in 1737, re- 
paired to London to seek for employment. 
Soon after his arrival, he was engaged as 
assistant to a surgeon and apothecary in 
respectable practice, who was a native of 
Prance. About a year afterwards he was 
introduced by Mr. David Gregory, Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics at St. Andrews, to 
Dr. Charles Stewart, physician to Archibald 
Lord Isla, afterwards Duke of Argyle ; and 
by that gentleman he was made known to 
his Lordship, who received him with great 
kindness, and bestowed on bim several 
marks of his attention and favour. Being 
of an ingenious mechanical turn, he con- 
structed for his Lordship, and some of his 
friends, thermometers of different kinds, 
with more perfection and elegance than 
was at that time common in London. 
Shortly after, a circumstance accidentally 
occurred which gave a new direction to his 
genius, and eventually led to an entire 
change of his profession. He had by chance 
one day visited a letter foundry with a 
friend, who wanted to purchase some 
printing types :and his attention being 
particularly directed to the implements 
used by the workmen in prosecuting that 
art, the idea strack him of being able to 
introduce a certain important improvement 
into the process. He imparted his scheme 
to a friend named Bain, also from St. 
Andrews, who, like himself, possessed a 
considerable share of ingenuity, perse- 
verance, and enterprise, and the two young 
adventurers resolved to relinquish all other 
pursuits, for the purpose of following the 
business of letter-founding, according to 
the improved plan proposed by Mr. Wilson. 
Having waited on Lord Isla, and communi- 
cated to him his views on the subject, his 
Lordship expressed his entire approbation 

of the undertaking.. Messrs. Wilson and 
Bain then entered into partnership, and, 
having _ taken convenient apartments, ap- 
plied with great assiduity to the different 
preparatory steps of the project. " But 
although," says Mr. Hansard in his Typo- 
graphia, " they found their task grow more 
and more _ arduous as their experience 
improved, it may yet be mentioned as a 
fact which bespeaks singular probity of 
mind, that they never once attempted to 
gain any insight whatever through the 
means of workmen employed in any of the 
London foundries, some of whom they 
understood could have proved of consider- 
able service to them." In consequence of 
the expense attending their residence in 
London, they returned about 1739 to St. 
Andrews, where they continued to prose 
cute their experiments, but were unsuc- 
cessful in carrying out their scheme of 
improvement. Having, however, acquired 
some knowledge of the art of letter-found- 
ing, they determined upon pursuing the 
ordinary mode of preparing the types, and 
by their own unassisted efforts and mecha- 
nical ability, they were at length enabled 
to cast a few founts of Roman and Italic 
characters. They subsequently hired some 
workmen, whom they instructed in the 
necessary operations, and at last opened 
their infant letter-foundry at St. Andrews, 
in 1742. The printers of Scotland at that 
period were supplied by the London 
foundries, which put them to much in- 
convenience, and they were, therefore, glad 
to encourage the manufacturing of types so 
near their own home. Their liberal orders 
enabled Messrs. Wilson and Bain to add to 
the number of their founts, and being now 
engaged in a regular business, the increas- 
ing demand for their types, and the prospect 
of extending their sales to Ireland and 
North America, induced them, in 1744, 
to remove their letter foundry to Camlachie, 
in the immediate neighbourhood of Glas- 
gow. In the autumn of 1747, with the view 
of extending their connections in Ireland, 
Mr. Bain settled at Dublin, and two years 
after, the partnership was totally dissolved. 
During his residence at Camlachie, Dr, 
Wilson had become acquainted with most 
of the eminent and learned men of the city 
of Glasgow. When the professors of the 
College formed the design, vntli Messrs. 
Robert and Andrew Foulis, Printers to the 
University, of printing splendid editions of 
the Greek Classics, Dr. Wilson executed 
new types for these works after an im- 
proved model of his ovm, accomplishing his 
task at an expense of time and labour which 
could not be compensated by any profits 
arising from the sale of the types them- 
selves. In consequence of his disinterested 
conduct on this occasion, his name was 
mentioned in the preface to the folio 
Homer, in terms of highly deserved com- 
mendation. In 1760 he was appointed 
Professor of Practical Astronomy in the 




University of Glasgow. He was one of tlie 
original members of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh ; and, in 1774 and 1783, he con- 
tributed two interesting papers on the 
Solar Spots to the London Philosophical 
Transactions. He died October 16, 1786. 
WINRAM, John, one of the early re- 
formers, was descended from the Pifeshire 
family of the Winrams, of Kirkness or 
Ratho. He is supposed to have commenced 
his studies at St. Leonard's College, St. 
Andrews, in 1513, where, two years 
afterwards, he took th«» degree of B.A. 
He afterwards entered into the order of 
the monks of St. Augustine, and after 
havingbeen a canon-regular for some years, 
was elected, about 1534, third prior, and in 
1536 sub-prior, of their abbey or monastery 
at St. Andrews. The prior, Lord James 
Stewart, afterwards the Regent Murray, 
was then in his minority, and, consequent- 
ly, much of the common business of the 
abbey devolved on the sub-prior. Although 
he held such a prominent situation in the 
Popish church, Winram secretly favoured 
the doctrines of the Reformation; and 
whUe he carefully avoided uttering in 
public anything that might subject him to 
persecution, he did not fail to enligliten 
the minds of many, particularly among the 
monks and noviciates of the abbey, in the 
knowledge of the truth. At the trial of 
George Wishart, the martyr, at St. Andrews, 
February 28, 1546, Winram was desired by 
Cardinal Beaton to open the proceedings 
with a suitable sermon. This was evidently 
done to test his principles ; but the wary 
sub-prior was on his guard, and, although 
in preacliing on the parable of the wheat 
and tares, he entered upon a definition of 
heresy, he took care not to commit himself, 
and concluded by declaring that heretics 
ought to be put down, " even in this present 
world." After the condemnation of 
Wishart, the sub-prior ventured to speak 
to the Bishops on his behalf, whereupon 
the Cardinal upbraided him, saying, " Well, 
Sir, and you, we know what a man you 
were, seven years ago." A shortt ime after 
the death of the Cardinal, Winram, who, 
during the vacancy, was vicar-general of 
the diocese, was called to account by 
Hamilton, the Archbishop-elect, for allow- 
ing Knox to preach his "heretical and 
schismatical doctrines," unreproved. He 
therefore, held a convention of the friars 
of the abbey and learned men of the uni- 
versity, before which he summoned Knox 
and Rough, anotlier protestaut preacher. 
At this meeting, Knox, aware of the report 
concerning the private sentiments of 
Winram, demanded from him a public 
acknowledgment of his opinion, whether 
the doctrines taught by him and his col- 
league were scriptural or unscriptural ; for, 
if he beUeved them to be true, it was his 
duty to give them the sanction of his au- 
thority. Winram cautiously replied that 
he did not come there as a judge, and 

would neither affirm nor condemn the 
points in question ; but, if Knox pleased, 
he would reason with him a Httle. After 
maintaining the argument for a short time, 
the sub-prior devolved it on an old 
Greyfriar, named Arbuckle, who seemed 
to be in his dotage. The latter was soon 
forced to yield with disgrace, Winram 
himself being the first to condemn his 
extravagant assertions. Although he dis- 
approved of many of the proceedings of the 
Popish clergy, Winram, whose conduct 
was sometimes extremely ambiguous, con- 
tinued till a late period to act vsrith them, 
and, in April 1558, he was present at the 
trial and condemnation of Walter Mill, 
the martyr, at St. Andrews. Being a 
member of the Provincial Council of the 
Popish clergy, which met in 1549, he was 
employed by his brethren to draw up the 
Canon intended to settle the ridiculous 
dispute, then warmly agitated amongst the 
clergy, whether the Pater Noster should be 
said to the saints, or to God alone. In the 
Council which sat in 1559, he was nomina- 
ted one of the six persons to whose 
examination and admonition the Archbish- 
ops of Glasgow and St. Andrews submitted 
their private conduct. He appears soon 
after to have openly joined the Reformers, 
and, in April 1560, was one of the ministers 
to whom was committed the impoi-tant 
trust of compiling the Old Confession of 
Faith, and the First Book of Discipline, 
one of his co-adjutors being John Knox, 
with whom he had formerly disputed at 
St. Andrews. In Apiil 1561 he was elect- 
ed one of the five ecclesiastical superin- 
tendents of provinces, his district being 
Fife, Fothrick, and Stratherne. After 
this he was a constant attendant on the 
meetings of the General Assembly, and 
was employed in their committees on the 
most important afiairs ; but, like the other 
superintendents, he was frequently accused 
of negligence in visiting the district com- 
mitted to his charge. In Jannary 1572 he 
attended the Convention at Leith called by 
the Regent Morton, at which the Tulchan 
bishops were authorized, and the former 
ecclesiastical titles ordered to be retained ; 
and, on the 10th of the following month, 
he was employed as superintendent of the 
bounds to inaugurate Mr. John Douglas as 
Archbishop of St. Andrews. On this oc- 
casion, Winram was appointed archdeacon 
of that Diocese, but, having resigned the 
County of Fife to the new Archbishop, he 
was iTsually designated superintendent of 
Stratherne during the next two years. On 
Mr. Douglas' death, in 1574, Winram 
resumed the whole of his former province. 
He died in September 1582. He is supposed 
to have been the author of the Catechism, 
commonly called Archbishop Hamilton's, 
regarding which there are some curious 
notices in the notes to Dr. M'Crie's Life of 
WORDSWORTH, The Right Rev. 




Charles, D.C.L., Bishop of the United 
Diocese of St. Andrews, Dunkeld, and 
Dunblane ; bom in 1806 ; is the second son 
of the late Dr. Cristopher Wordsworth, 
many years master of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and nephew of the celebrated 
poet. He was educated at Harrow and at 
Chi-ist Church, Oxford, where he obtained, 
among other distinctions, two Chancellor's 
prizes, that for Latin verse in 1827, and for 
the Latin essay in 1831, and was placed in 
the first class of literal humaniores, when 
he took the degree of B.A. in 1830. In 
reward for the first of these distinctions, 
he was appointed to a studentship by the 
Dean. After taking the B.A. degree, he 
remained at Oxford for two or three years 
as a private tutor, during which time he 
reckoned among his pupils the Duke of 
Newcastle, the Right Hon. W. E. Glad- 
stone, the Bishop of Salisbury, and others 
who have since attained to eminence. In 
1835, he was elected second master of 
Winchester CoUege, a single instance of 
that oflice being conferred on one not 
educated as a Wykehamist. In 1846, being 
in weak health, he resigned the second 
mastership, and in the summer of that 
year, was appoiuted first warden of Trinity 
CoUege, Glenalmond, Perthshire, which 
office he held for seven years, and during 
that time the institution was indebted to 
him in great measure for its establishment 
on a firm and prosperous basis. He also 
materially aided the progi-ess of the build- 
ings, the college chapel, which cost £8800, 
being buUt solely at his expense. In 1852, 
he was elected Bishop of the United 
Diocese over which he at present presides, 
and in the following year, at the installation 
of the present Chancellor, was admitted to 
the honorary degree of D.C.L. by the 
University of Oxford. In 1854 he resigned 
the wardenship, and has since devoted 
himself exclusively to the duties of the 
Episcopate, taking an active part in the 
affairs of tlie Scottish Church. The pub- 
lished works of the Bishop of St. Andrews 
are chiefly of a theological character ; with 
some exceptions, however, among which 
must be mentioned his " Graecse Gram- 
maticEe Rudimenta," first published in 
1839, and which is now in the thirteenth 
edition. On leaving Winchester, he pub- 
lished " Christian Boyhood at a Public 
School," a series of discourses in two 
volumes, 8vo. ; " The CoUege of St. Mary, 
Winton," an Ulus crated work in quarto. 
He is also author of " Catechesis," a manual 
of instruction on confirmation ; a " Letter 
to the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone on 
Religious Liberty," and of various sermons, 
charges, and pamphlets. His elaborate 
judicial " opinions " on the cases of the 
Bishop of Brechin and the Rev. P. Cheyne, 
and his " Notes on the Eucharistic Con- 

troversy" (the last printed for the use of 
the clergy and private circulation only) are 
a powerful vindication of the doctrines held 
by the Anglican Church. He has made 
various appeals to the Presbyterian com- 
munity in Scotland in the form of lectures, 
&c., in behalf of unity among Christians ; 
and his last publication, during the present 
year, entitled, " A United Church of Eng- 
land, Scotland, and Ireland advocated," 
contains a discourse on the Scottish Refor- 
mation, together with "Proofs and Illus- 
trations designed to form a manual of 
Reformation, Facts, and Principles." 

WYNTOUN, Andrew, a poet and chro- 
nicler of the fourteenth century, of whose 
personal history Uttle is known, was a 
canon-regular of St. Andrews, and, about 
1395, Prior of the monastery in St. Sert's 
Inch, in Lochleven. In the chartulary of 
the Priory of St. Andrews, there are several 
public instruments by Andrew Wyntoun, 
as Prior of Lochleven, dated between the 
years 1395 and 1413 ; and in the last page 
of his Chronicle, according to the copy in 
the King's Library, he mentions the Council 
of Constance, which began November 16, 
1414, and ended May 20, 1418. He is 
supposed to have been contemporary with 
Barbour, whose superior merits he has 
more than once taken occasion to acknow- 
ledge. His "OrygynaU ChronykUl of 
Scotland" was undertaken at the request 
of Sir John Wemyss, the ancestor of the 
noble family of that name. Notwith- 
standing its great value, both as the oldest 
Scottish manuscript extant, except " Sir 
Tristrem," and as the first record of our 
national history, it was suffered to remain 
neglected for nearly four centuries. In 
17'J5, however, a splendid edition of that 
part of it which relates more inmiediately 
to the affairs of Scotland, was pubUshed 
with notes, by Mr. David Macpherson, who 
very judiciously left untouched the whole 
introductory portion of his famous '' Chro- 
nykUl," in which, after the fashion of 
Roger of Chester, and other venerable 
historians, the author wisely and learnedly 
treats of the creation, of angels, giants, 
&c., and of the general history of the world, 
before he comes to that which more per- 
tiuently concerns the proper subject of his 
work. In Wyntoun's Chronicle there is 
preserved a Uttle elegiac song on the death 
of King Alexander III., which Mr. Mac- 
pherson thinks must be nearly ninety years 
older than Barbour's work. Wyntoun is 
supposed to have outUved 1420, as he 
mentions the death of Robert Duke of 
Albany, an event which happened in the 
course of that year. The oldest and best 
preserved manuscript of Wyntoun's Chro- 
nicle is in the British Museum. There are 
also copies of it in the Cotton Library, and 
the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. 


Before entering on the consideration of 
the old charters, and other writings be- 
longing to the Burgh of Crail, let us en- 
deavour to give a short account of the 
ancient town itself. Crail, a Eoyal and 
Parliamentary burgh, in the County of 
rife and Presbytery of St. Andrews, is of 
great antiquity, and is situated near the 
eastern boundary of the Shire. It lies four 
miles east from Anstruther, two from Eife- 
Burgh of Oraii cummon Seal, ness or the East Ncuk, ten south-east of St. 
Andrews, and thirty -two north-east of Burntisland. It was anciently 
named Caryle, or Carraile, afterwards contracted into Craill or Cryle, 
and in Latin it is called Oppidum or Biirgum, Caralce or Caralice, 
It is not improbable that it is compounded of Gaer, a town, and ayle, 
a wing or corner, which is quite descriptive of the place, the town 
being situated in the eastern corner of the county, commonly known 
by the name of The East Neuk of Eife. Crail is mentioned by old 
historians as a town of considerable note, as early as the middle of 
the ninth century. Ada, mother of Malcolm IV., gave to the monks 
of Dryburgh, a toft of houses in her Burgh of Crail. 

It consists chiefly of two parallel streets, extending along the 
shore from east to west, intersected by others of inferior note. 
Many of the houses are large, and of ancient appearance, giving 
evidence of the grandeur of former days, when some of the neigh- 
bouring proprietors of land, had either their house in town, or one 
to which the dowager might retire when the old laird died, and his 
son came into possession of the estate. There was a Royal residence 
within the town, upon an elevation overlooking the present harbour, 
of which some vestiges still remain, but at what time it was erected, 
cannot now be ascertained, nor by how many crowned heads it was 
occupied. However, historians of the present day agree in admitting, 
that David I. lived in it about the beginning of the twelfth century, 
and Sibbald says he died there. 

It is not unlikely that this monarch, or some of his successors, 
may have conferred some important privileges upon the town, in 
which he occasionally dwelt ; but of that we have only this presump- 
tive evidence, that when King Eobert Bruce granted a charter to 
the burgh, which is dated at Stirling, the twelfth day of June, 1310, 
he confirmed to the burgesses and community, privileges which 
they had enjoyed under former Kings, and exempted them from all 


jurisdiction vice cotnmitis de Fife. This charter, with several new 
grants, was afterwards ratified by Eobert II., Queen Mary, James 
VI., and Charles I. By these charters the privileges of the burgh 
extended not only over the town and common muir, but also from 
the middle of the water of Leven, to the water of Puttekin, now 
called Pitmilly Burn, with a right to the fishings, tolls, anchorages, 
shore dues, &c., in all the harbours and creeks, vsdthin these bounds, 
being an extent of coast of about twenty-five miles. Tet, though 
all these rights were confirmed by Charles I., in his deed executed 
at "Whitehall, on the 20th April, 1635, there seemed to have been 
some heartburnings excited, and a desire expressed by many, to get 
free from the jurisdiction of Crail, long before that date. Por in 
1587, when Anstruther was erected into a Eoyal Burgh, we find in 
the proceedings of Parliament, that James Greddy, burgess of Crail, 
appeared before the King and three Estates, and in name, and on 
behalf of that burgh, solemnly protested that the " erection, creation, 
and confirmation of the Burgh of Anstruther into ane Free Burgh 
Royal, suld on nawys be hurtful or prejudicial to the said Burgh of 
Carrail, anent the richts, liberties, and privileges of the same." 
About the same year, the Bailies and Council of Crail are under- 
stood to have let in feu-farm, the customs, anchorages, &c., of Elie, 
to Thomas Dishington of Ardross, through whom they have been 
transmitted to the family of Anstruther, and by that family to the 
late William Baird, but the feu-duty does not appear to have been 
paid for several years. 

The towns of Pittenweem and Anstruther also appear to have 
complained of the jurisdiction of Crail as a grievance, and threatened 
to resist payment ; but the dispute was settled by arbitration, and 
both towns continued to pay a sum yearly, in name of reddendo, the 
former the sum of six shillings and eightpeuce, and the latter the 
Isum of eleven shillings and a penny, and a free trade is now estab- 
ished between them. A similar contract seems to have been made 
with the late Thomas, Earl of Kellie, about the year 1810, for the 
customs, anchorages, &c., of Eifeness, Old Haiks, and Kingsbarns, 
and thus the ancient jurisdiction of the burgh has been much 

The ends of the streets leading out of the toT\Ti still retain the 
name of ports, from which it is inferred, that at one period they 
had been actually shut up with gates, and that they were so, is 
evident, not only from the fact that an Act of Parliament was passed 
in 1503, wherein it is statute and ordained, that " all towns and ports 
on the seaside, sik as Leith, Inverkeithing, Kinghorn, Dysart, Crale, 
and others, ware their common gudes on the walls of the town to 
the seaside with ports of lime and stone," but some people are alive 
who recollect of the ports beiiig taken down. The burgh had also 
liberty of holding a free market upon Sunday, which, by an Act 
passed in Parliament in 1587, was changed from Sunday to Saturday, 
and all markets between the waters of Leven and Puttekin forbidden 
on any other day. In proof of this we may state, that the following 


entry is found in the Session Eecord of St. Andrews, 18th April, 
1582 : "A great number of drapers, fleshers, and merchants, accused 
of keeping the market of Crail on the Sabbath, prohibited from 
repeating the offence under pain of exclusion and debarring of 
themselves, their wives, bairns, and servants, from all benefit of 
the Kirk in time coming, viz., Baptism, The Lord's Supper, and 

It is generally believed that Crail was at one time the seat of a 
priory dedicated to St. Rufus, and when the writer was a boy, a 
ruinous gable with Grothic windows was standing, and bore the name 
of the Prior Walls. That gable was thrown down by the sea about 
the year 1801, and there now only remain some of the foundations 
of the outworks to point out where it once stood. The adjoining 
ground, however, retains the name of the Prior's Croft, and a well 
of excellent water near the old building is still called the Briery, 
or Priory Well. This is not mentioned among the religious houses 
suppressed at the Reformation, but Leighton, in his " Pife Illus- 
trated," states, that according to General Hutton, there is an old 
manuscript inventory, among the Harleian Manuscripts in the 
British Museum, in which the following charter is mentioned: — " To 
the Prior of Crail, of the second teinds of the lands between the 
waters of Neithe and Nith." There was also a chapel within the 
Castle of Crail, dedicated to St. Rufe, which had teinds, but its 
name is now only to be found in ancient charters. 

The present church is so old, that many believe it to be the one 
in which David I. worshipped when he lived in Crail ; and although 
its beauty has been much destroyed by the alterations it has under- 
gone, it is still a fine specimen of pointed architecture. It consists 
of a central nave, with aisles, divided by a row of pillars on each 
side, and at the east end a portion of what originally formed the 
choir in which daily service was performed. The choir was for a 
number of years shut up, but in 1828, it was re-opened, and seated 
for the sake of additional accommodation to the parishioners. In 
all, the church wiU now accommodate upwards of 900 persons, 
being about the legal allowance for the population. This church, 
which, with the teinds, both parsonage and vicarage, anciently 
belonged to the Priory of Haddington, was, in the year 1517 (upon 
the petition of endowment of Sir William Myrtown, Yicar of 
Lathrisk, and Janet, Prioress of Haddington), erected into a 
Collegiate Church, with a provost, sacrist, ten prebendaries, and a 
chorister. The provost had a right to the vicarage tithes, and six 
of the prebendaries had annuities, payable out of certain lands and 
tenements of houses lying in the town and neighbourhood, mortified 
for that purpose by Sir William Myrtown, who is called founder of 
the College Kirk of Crail. At that time, besides the high altar, 
which was richly endowed, there were eight other altarges within 
the church dedicated to the Virgin Mary, to St. Catharine, to St. 
Michael, to St. James, to St. John the Baptist, to St. Stephen, to 
St. John the Evangelist, and St. Nicholas. 


In the Chavtulary of Crail, now lodged in the Advocates' Library, 
Edinburgh, there is a list of the " ornaments and sylver -werk of the 
College Kyrk of Carale," which is curious, and of which we may give 
a portion relating to the High Altar :■ — 

Ane great chalice of silver, double gilt. 

Ane great eucharist for the sacrament, double gilt. 

Ane littb eucharist, not gilt. 

Two silver censers : 

Two silver chandeliers : 

Two silver cruets : 

all given by Sir Thomas Myreton, Archdean of Aberdeen, and 
Provost of Crail. 

A cross of silver, double gilt ; and 
A little chalice, single gilt, 

given by the Prioress of Haddington. 

Then follows a list of the Vestments for the High Altar. 
The following is the list of the books in the Choir : — 

In the first two haill books in the temporale called aspitionis, and twa haill books of 
the Sanctis called sanctorum. 

Item. Four new half books, twa for the symmer, and twa for the winter, containing 
the temporale and the sanctorum. 

Item. Three haill antiphonals. 

Item. Ten Psalters, all parchment, and fine text-hand. 

Item ,^ne new legend of parchment, containing the temporale, and commone of 

Item. Ane book of the evangelis, and ane epistolar. 

Item. Ane LettrenoUe in gritt volume, containing the brieffs of antamys, hymns, 
rounds, graills, and alta. 

Item. Ane book in print callit ordinarium dunnorium, chained at the desk of the 
High Altar. 

Por many years after the college was established, the church 
retained its connection with the Priory of Haddington ; for though 
King James VI., in 1586-7, made over to the town of Crail the 
place called the College, with the College Kirk, and all emoluments 
belonging to the provost and prebends thereof, with the advocation, 
donation, and right of patronage, it was not till 1594 that an Act of 
Parliament was passed disjoining the church and parish from the 
priory, and establishing Crail as an independent rectory. 

By this act, one-tliird part of the fruits was assigned to the 
minister serving the cure, another to the College of St. Andrews for 
the sustentatiou of students of theology, and the remaining third to 
the College of Edinburgh for students of philosophy, Lord Lindsay 
being declared patron of the parsonage and bursaries. " About the 
time of the Reformation," says the E-ev. Mr. Bell, a former minister 
of Crail, " Lord Lindsay seems to have obtained from the prioress 
and convent of Haddington, a tack of the teinds, both parsonage 
and vicarage, for the yearly rent of two hundred and fifty merks." 
The patronage was vested in Sir William Murray of Balvaird, 
who presented a Mr. Murray to the benefice. He then resigned 
the patronage into the King's hands, in favour of John, Lord 
Lindsay, who, in 1609, obtained from Mr. Murray a confirmation 


of the former tack of the teinds, " for three livis and three nine- 
teen year." " The town of Crail," says the same writer, " having, 
by several charters, obtained a grant of the Collegiate Church 
and its revenues, with the right of patronage, &c., disputes began 
to arise between it and Lord Lindsay, concerning their respective 
rights. To prevent lawsuits, a compromise was entered into in 
1630, by which the town's right to the Collegiate Church and 
place called the College, with right of patronage, was confirmed ; 
but its claim to emolument was expressly restricted to the tithe 
fish, and the rents, fees, and duties, wliich had been the especial 
property of the Provost and prebendaries. The parsonage and 
vicarage tithes, excepting the tithe fish, were declared to remain 
with his Lordship and his successors. In 1774-6, the question 
concerning the right of patronage to the Farisli Church was tried. 
By an interlocutor of the Lord Ordinary, it was given against the 
town, and the Earl of Crawford, as successor to Lord Lindsay, 
was decerned undoubted patron. The Earl of Grlasgow is now 
patron as representing the Earl of Crawford. 

It is proper to mention that in this church John Knox preached 
and excited the people to begin the work of aboKshing the monu- 
ments of idolatry in Fife. In reference to this, G-rierson, the historian 
of St Andrews, says " John Knox, on Sunday, the 29th May, 1559, 
preached a sermon at the town of Crail, in which he represented 
the favourers of Popery as gtiilty of the heinous sin of idolatry, and 
their churches as containing the monuments of it — pictures and 
images. The effect of his eloquence was such, that the populace 
immediately arose, and, in a very short time demolished all the 
churches in Crail, Anstruther, and other adjacent towns along the 
sea coast. He then proceeded to St. Andrews, where the preacher 
delivered another sermon of the same sort, on Sunday the 5th of 
June, and the effect of it was similar to that which had before taken 
place at Crail ; for the infuriated mob set instantly about demolishing 
the superb Cathedral Church, plundered both the monasteries of the 
Black and Q-reyfriars, and razed these edifices to the ground." 

Long centuries before the memorable year 1559, when the fury 
of John Knox hurled its altars and its idolatries to the ground, this 
venerable pile was the scene of high and holy festival. Full often 
has the tapers' glow, from countless silver lamps, flickered on column 
and carved stone, while overhead, the lofty arches rang with the 
sacred chant of prior and of priest, as with rich and flowing vest- 
ments they waved the sacred censers which breathed a sweet and 
precious perfume on the gorgeous scene. The destruction of the 
old ecclesiastical buildings scattered over the land, is, indeed, to be 
regretted ; but some allowance must be made for the ignorance of 
the times, and the more unsettled state of the country. There were 
doubtless many gi-eat and good men in those days — men whose 
learning and life and conversation were blameless. That Christi- 
anity was deeply indebted to these men — these early fathers of the 
Church, no one can deny. It is to them we not only owe our early 


ecclesiastical history, but eveu, uuder Grod, the holy scriptures 
themselves, aud we ought cordially to welcome and cherish a 
growing desire in our own times to render justice to their undoubted 
claims upon our affectionate gratitude and esteem. A late historian 
in his great work, " The Monks of the West," has done much 
towards deepening our reverence for the pioneers of the Christian 
faith ; and " The Monasticon," a work by the Eev. J, ¥. S. Grordon, 
D.D., of Griasgow, now in course of publication, will throw no 
inconsiderable light on the history and character of the Monastic 
institutions of Scotland. The parochial registers of Crail commence 
on the 15tli April, 1648, with a minute in the beautiful handwriting 
of Mr. James Sharp, who was then minister of the parish, and 
afterwards Archbishop of St. Andrews, and are carried on with little 
interruption to the present day. They now occupy, we understand, 
sixteen folio volumes, and are valuable records of the days of other 
years, for they not only contain the minutes of session, with an 
account of its discipHue, a register of births, baptisms, and marriages, 
along mth the receipts and disbursements for the poor, and a list of 
deaths and burials; but by their direct or indirect reference to 
passing events, they tend to throw light upon the state of society 
and the history of the times. No doubt in perusing them, we are 
sometimes astonished at the powers wliich the oilce-bearers of a 
Protestant Church seem to have exercised over the persons and 
properties of the people ; but if we carry our minds back to the rude 
state of society which then existed, and reflect on the difiiculty which 
the learned had to instil moral and religious feelings into the 
ignorant population, we will probably admit that the men acted in 
the manner that was best suited to the time. With these views, 
we may perhaps be able to vindicate the conduct of the future 
Archbishop from all reproach, on account of his several acts of 
discipline while minister of Crail. One grand point against which 
Mr. Sharp seems to have firmly and properly set his face, was the 
desecration of the Lord's Day, and there is no wonder that this was 
necessary, seeing that the parents of the then generation were 
accustomed to regard it as the day of greatest relaxation and 
pleasure ; it being then only about 60 years before his time that 
an Act of the Scottish Parliament was passed, abolishing the Sunday 
market in Crail. 

Though, then, the power assumed by Mr. Sharp and his successors 
seems to have been occasionally unwarrantable, yet, when we look 
back to the state of the times, we are compelled to admit that the 
stretch of power was for the benefit of the people themselves, and 
perhaps was the only way in which the lower classes could be 
brought to submit to authority, human or divine. 

Some of the antiquities will be mentioned, such as the castle, the 
priory, and the college, to which may be added that a nunnery is 
said to have existed near the Nethergate Port, of which only an 
entrance remains ; but at this entrance human bones were found 
when the street was levelled a few years ago. In the church there 


is an oblong Runic stone a good deal mutilated, having cut upon 
it a Maltese cross, with figures like serpents over it. Below the 
transept, as Leighton describes it, on each side of the lower limb 
of the cross, a variety of figures are sculptured, now much defaced 
and indistinct. On the right side is a portion of a horse, a wild 
boar, the legs of a man, another horse, and a ram; on the left, a 
figure is seated in a chair, something like a man, with a head of a 
bird, as seen on the Egyptian antiquities ; and lower down, part of 
a horse, and part of a dog. Other relics of a similar antiquity are 
believed to have been in the church before last repair, but the 
workmen not knowing the value put upon them by antiquaries, 
hewed them down into paving stones. Many urns, containing 
calcined bones, have been dug up in difierent parts of the parish. 
In 1843, at a place called Swinkie-hill, probably Sueno's Knoll, no 
fewer than seven urns were discovered, and in April, 1845, another 
was found at Toldrie. They seem to be all of the same kind of 
material, though differing a little in size. The general shape is 
tapering towards both ends with various beltings, and some with 
zigzag ornaments. 

All were found with their mouths downwards, imbedded in an 
artificial mound, which seemed to have been placed over them. 
Some of these urns may now be seen in the museum at St. Andrews. 
When levelling the ground adjoining to Castlehaven, several stone 
coffins were found ; but about 36 years ago, about 30 were discovered 
lying in regular rows, with bones so entire, that the farmer dug a 
hole and buried them. The last were upon the estate of Wormiston, 
not far from the cave in which the Danes are said to have murdered 
King Constantine II., in the year 874, and may have contained the 
remains of persons killed at that time. 

Another antiquity which seems deserving of notice, is the Danes' 
dyke, a building of dry stones, of about half-a-mile in length, said 
to have been raised by the Danes when they fled before Constantine 
after defeat at the water of Leven in 874. This dyke at one time 
enclosed a considerable piece of ground, of a triangular shape, 
having on the east side the little harbour of Eifeness, whence it is 
said the Danes expected to escape in their boats, which were then 
hovering at the mouth of the Eirth. A considerable portion of it is 
now removed, the farm-house of Craighead being built upon its site. 
At the one end, which must have been within the dyke, is a natural 
cave in the rocks ; this is called King Constantino's cave, and is the 
spot of his murder. At the other end of the dyke a place is pointed 
out, called the Longman's grave, where the ashes of a Danish warrior 
may have been deposited. 

Almost all the baronial abodes have been suffered to fall into 
decay or ruin, and some of them are now only known by name. At 
the southern extremity of the parish, an old house, with vaulted 
cellars and rooms above, occupied by farm servants, is the chief 
remain of the extensive mansion of the Cunninghams of Barns. 
Here, about 1620, the poet and historian, Drummond of Haw- 


thoruden, is vmderstoocl to have written his celebrated Polenio 
Middinia; or, Battle of tlie Duugliill, a Iminorous poem, in doggerel 
Latin, giving a satirical description of a real or imaginary quarrel 
between tlie Lady of Barns and one of ber neighbours. Here he 
tuned the lyre to the full enjoyment of a lively imagination and 
buoyant spirits. Here he may be said to have enjoyed the happiest 
period of his life ; and here liis feelings received a shock which no 
human contrivance was able to remove. For it was at this spot, 
near CreUla Crofta, and in this house, of which a remnant yet is 
seen, that he captivated the aftections of Miss Cunningham, the 
daughter of the principal heroine of the Polemo, and engaged her 
for his wife. The marriage day was fixed — the friends were invited 
— the feast was in preparation, and the parson engaged to do the 
solemn duty, when the beautiful and youthful bride was seized with 
fever, and died. Drummond's grief on tliis occasion he has expressed 
in poems which have gained him the name of the Scottish Petrarch. 
In the hope of relieving his burdened spirit, he forsook hia patri- 
monial estate and country for foreign climes. Eight years he spent 
abroad. At length, returning, he was united to Miss Logan, 
grand-daughter of Sii^ Eobert Logan of Eestalrig. _ 

In process of time the estate of Barns passed into other hands, 
and is now the property of Major-Greneral Philip Anstruther, C.B., 
of Thirdpart, of whom a notice is given in the foregoing supple- 
ment. A small summer house on the rock projecting into the 
sea at Castlehaven, points out the spot where Sir Neil Cunningham, 
an elder branch of the house of Barns, entertained his followers, 
and whence he defied the assaults of his inveterate enemies. The 
ruins of the castle were pulled down about thirty years since. 

Newhall Tower is now completely gone, so that only some old 
persons can point to the spot where it once stood. 

Balcomie Castle, once reckoned amongst the finest buildings in Fife, 
and in which a late owner is reported to have said he could accom- 
modate a troop of dragoons, and give every man a bed and every 
horse a stall, is now reduced to one wing, which, however, affords 
genteel and ample accommodation for the tenant. The ancient lofty 
tower still remains, though much mutilated ; and while it forms an 
excellent landmark to mariners, shows what the building must have 
been. Some of the houses which enclose the court-yard are evidently 
of far more recent date than the castle, for over the arched gateway 
into the court, there are two stones on one of which are the arms of 
Learmonth, as depicted on the siting, in the Parish Church, with the 
initials J. L. at the bottom, and on the other the arms of Myi-ton, 
with the initials E. M. Between these stones, there is a vacant 
space, as if a third had dropped out, and fortunately Mr.Todd the 
former tenant discovered it, not long ago, as one of the paving stones 
of his barn floor. On this, there are at the top, hands joined as if by 
the ties of wedlock, and underneath the arms of Learmonth and 
Myrton quartered, with the letters, J. M., and date 1602 at the base. 
We must therefore conclude that the initials J. M. and E. M. mean 


Sir John Learmonth and Elizabeth Myrton, the proprietors of the 
estate at the time, and husband and wife, when that portion of that 
building was erected. Now, Sibbald states, that from Malcolm IV, 
to James II. the Castle belonged to the Hays; — that since the Leslies 
have had it, and that afterwards, it came to the Learmonths, which 
would lead down to nearly the above date. Sir James Learmonth, 
eldest son of Sir John, became a Lord of Session, in 1627, as Lord 
Balcomie. He was a member of several Parliamentary Commissions, 
and died on the bench, in Edinburgh, while presiding as Lord Presi- 
dent of the Court. Lamont says, in June 1657, " Lord Balcomie had 
a son John, who became a Regent in the old College of St. Andrews, 
but he must have died young, as his Lordship was succeeded in the 
Castle and Estate, by a daughter as heiress. This daughter married 
Sir William Gordon of Lismore, and the property continued in the 
Gordon family till 1705, when it was purchased by Sir William 
Hope, son of Sir James Hope of Hopetoun. Sir William was a 
soldier who had seen much foreign service, and gained the renovm of 
being the most expert swordsman of his day. He published a work 
called the ' Complete Pencing Master,' in which he described the 
whole art, and gave directions how to act in single combat, or on 
horseback. According to a tradition in the country, the fame of Sir 
William and his book induced a foreign cavalier to take a far journey 
to try his skill. Having arrived at Crail with this intent, he chal- 
lenged Sir William to meet him on horseback, on the open field. The 
parties met, within a mile of Balcomie Castle, at the spot where the 
standing stone of Sauchope still remains, and which the road from 
Crail to Balcomie then passed. The onset was dreadful, but at length 
Sir William's sword, with deadly force, penetrated the body of his 
antagonist. The wounded cavalier fell, and with his dying breatli 
declared his name and title, and requested his victorious antagonist 
to become the protector of his widowed lady." 

Sir William died in 1724, and was succeeded by his son, Sir 
George, who enjoyed the property only for a very few years. Sir 
William, the son of Sir George, was an officer in the East India 
Company's Service, and was killed in India. Thereafter the property 
was sold to Mr. Scott of Scotstarvit, and left by him to his second son. 
General Scott, who rebuilt the part of Balcomie House, now occupied 
by the tenant, and added a large house at the north end of it, for a 
billiard-room. The General seems to have had one son, who died 
young, and was interred in the Choir of the Church of Crail. His 
three daughters became respectively Duchess of Portland, Countess 
of Moray, and Lady Canning. By these noble persons, the Castle and 
Estate was sold to Thomas, Earl of Kellie, who pulled down the old 
building, and reduced it to what it now is. The Rev. James Isaac 
Mony penny of Pitmilly, is now the proprietor. 

In the Castle of Balcomie, Mary of Gruise was hospitably enter- 
tained by the then proprietor in June 1538, having landed after a 
stormy passage at the adjoining ci-eek of Fifeness, to be married to 
King James V. 


Airdrie House, which is situated on one of the most beautiful an(] 
commanding positions in the parish, is embosomed in wood in every 
direction, except the south, whence the finest view is to be had. 
The ancient tower and most of the walls of the original house remain 
entire, though the interior arrangements are made to coiTespond with 
modern taste. Of this place, Sibbakl says, " In Kiug David II.'s 
reign, I find that it belonged to Duudemore of that Ilk. Afterwai'ds 
it came to the Liimsdaines, who had it in 1466." The family of 
Lumsdaine possessed it till at least the end of the 16th century, as is 
jiroved by a fine monument erected in the north-west corner of the 
churchyard, of date 1.598. "From the Ijumsdaines," says the same 
writer, " it was purchased by Sii- John Preston of Penicuik, Presi- 
dent of the Court of Session in King James VI.'s time, though it 
would appear he inherited it through his lady." This Baronet seems, 
along with many of the gentlemen in his neighbourhood, to have 
keenly espoused the cause of Charles I., and to have been subjected 
to pains and penalties, in consequence. For, within a month after the 
death of that ill-fated monarch, we find in the record of the Kirk 
Session of C rail, 16th February, 1649, that Lord Balcomie, Sir John 
Preston of Airdrie, Lawrence Cunningham of Barns, John Lindsay of 
Wormiston, and a number of others, whose names are mentioned, 
had to appear before the congregation, to acknowledge publicly their 
sinful engagement, during the seventeenth century. 

Airdrie became the property of General Anstruther, who greatly 
enlarged the house, by the addition of two wings, of which the one 
was a large and lofty hall, with figures in niches, pictures on the 
wall, massy chandeliers for lights, and a splendid chimney-i^iece of 
white marble, which he brought workmen from Italy to execute. 
After the General's death, the estate was purchased by Methven 
Erskine, Esq., afterwards Earl of Kellie, who died there in 1830. 
Upon the Earl's death. Sir David Erskine, Baronet, succeeded as 
heir of entail. He took down the wings built by General Anstrnther, 
and removed the fine chimney-piece to his own house at Cambo, where 
it now ornaments the drawing-room. 

Upon the same estate, but a little to the west of Airdrie, at Eed- 
wells, or Redwalls, stood an ancient and extensive building, the his- 
tory of which we have not been able to discover. It was a quadran- 
gular building, having the ground apartments on every side arched 
over with hewn stone, and small apertures for loopholes, at regular 
distances from each other. Over these, there was a second storey of 
solid masonry, containing accommodation for a numerous family, and 
at one end, a well paved barn, with two inclined planes up to the 
door, as if for cattle carrying up their burdens, and again descending. 
The barn, the last remains of this singular erection, was taken down 
a few years ago, when the walls were found to be of amazing thick- 
ness, and of uncommon strength. A general impression is, that it 
had been a religious house. 

Wormiston, the residence of David Ay ton Lindesay, Esq., is a fine 
old house, surrounded by hardwood trees of considerable age and size. 


This propei'ty, Sibbald says, belonged of old to a family of the name 
of Spens, descended from Macduff, Earl of Fife, but in the beginnino- 
of the seventeenth century, it came into the possession of Patrick 
Lindesay, a descendant of Lord Lindesay of the Byres. John Linde- 
say, son of the first proprietor of this name, was, like Lord Balcomie, 
and the landholders in this quarter in general, a strenuous supporter 
of Charles I. and IT., as his descendants afterwards were of King 
James and Prince Cliarles, and much the family suffered in conse^ 
quence of their attachment to that unfortunate race. This gentleman 
had to submit to the degradation of appearing before the congregation 
within the Church of Crail, and there making a public disavowal of 
his adherence to the cause of Charles I., and at the Battle of Worces- 
ter, in 1651, one of his sons was slain, and another taken pi-isoner, 
while contending in the royal army. Patrick, the son taken prisoner, 
either experienced the leniency or escaped the cruelty of Cromwell, 
and after the Restoration, was appointed Commissary of St. Andrews; 
an office which was held by several of his descendants in succession. 
In the troubles of 1715, this family ajDpears to have taken an active 
part in favour of King James, and to have suffered in substance, if not 
in person ;* and in 1746, Patrick Lindesay, son of the then proprie- 
tor, was executed at Carlisle, for having joined Prince Charles, and 
fought at the battle of Culloden. 

The last proprietor, Patrick Lindesay, Esq., commanded a ship for 
a number of years in the East Indies, and afterwards purchased the 
patrimonial property from his elder brother, who had succeeded to 
the estate of Kilconquhar. 

^ Kirkmay House is a handsome and spacious building, at a little 
distance back from the principal street of the burgh, with pleasure 

* A letter which was found in Wormiston House, together with the annexed 
extracts from the Kirk Session Records, will serve to show tlie state of the parish in 
1715. This letter is addressed to the Laird of Wormiston and Heritors of the Parish 
of Crail, and is as follows :— " Sir, I am directed and ordered by the Earl of Mar, 
Commander-in-Chief of His Majesty's Forces in this Kingdom, to transmit to one of 
the principal Heritors of each Parish, the enclosed order ; and it is required that the 
order so transmitted, should be intimated to the several heritors and their tenants 
within your parish to the intent that punctual obedience to my Lord Mar's orders may 
be given. You have enclosed warrant sent you to be published, and intimated accord- 
ingly. If payment of the money imposed is refused or delayed after three days, a 
party of Highlandmen are to be employed to poind for payment. What loss that will 
occasion to your parish you may easily conceive, and that it may be prevented is 
heartily wished by. Sir, your most humble servant. Ja. Smyth. Dated Cupar, 13th 
October, 1715."— Session Record, 18th October, 1715. There was no sermon Sabbath 
last, the Highland army being here. November 13th. There was no sermon Sabbath 
or week-day, the town being then bombarded, and the minister sought for to read the 
Earl of Mar his edict. November 20th. No sermon on Sabbath, the Highlanders 
being in the town. November 27th. The minister forbidden to preach in the church, 
unless he read the Earl of Mar his edict, and pray for King James. A young man, 
Mr. Nivens, by order of Bailie Crawford, preached in the church after the old Episco- 
pal fashion. Our minister preached in his own house. December 6th. Sermon in the 
minister's house. December 11th. No sermon; being stopped by a party of High- 
landers. December 18th. Sermon in the minister's house, forenoon ; but interrupted 
afternoon. December 25th. No sermon, being stopped by letters ; one from Bailie 
Crawford to Bailie Robertson ; another threatening letter to the minister. January 
31st, 1716. No sermon on Sunday by our minister, the Highland men being here. 
One Mr. Nivens, aue Episcopal preacher, possessed the kirk that day, and had thf 
English service. 


ground in front, and a fine garden and offices behind. It was built 
m 1817, by Kobert Inglis, Esq., of Kirkmay, a descendant of the 
Baronets of Crammond ; and is a fine modern structure. It is pre- 
sently possessed by a son of Mr. Inglis, named William, who is a 
Captain of the Fife Militia Artillery. 

The Churchyard of Crail is peculiarly full of interest to the anti- 
quary, and even to the moralist. It is a large and almost level 
enclosure, fringed with venerable trees of stately growth. Its deep 
green area is marked like the sea, with the graves in which unnum- 
bered generations have passed into dust and silent forgetfulness, there 
to rest until that great day, when we shall all of us be contemporaries, 
and make our appearance together. 

Of all the country churchyards in Fife, this of Crail is by far the 
richest in quaint old tombstones, and on this account the ancient 
graveyard is well worthy of a visit from the curious and intelligent 

The most imposing of these venerable memorials is in the north- 
west corner, bears the date 1598, and has been already alluded to, 
being in memory of James Lumsdaine, the last but one of the Lairds 
of Airdrie of that name. It is now moss-grown and dilapidated, but 
withal it is a fine specimen of the monuments of the old Scottish gentry. 
On the centre tablet, which is supported by double columns, and 
capped with a florid pediment, is sculptured the escutcheon of the 
family ; while on prominent parts of the tomb are also carved death- 
heads and other ghastly symbols of the grave. 

On the west wall of the churchyard is the enclosed burying-place 
and massive mural monument of the Moncrieffs of Sauchope— an old 
and once influential family ; and in this part of the churchyard there 
are also several other highly- wrought mural tablets commemorating 
the lives of country families and people of distinction, the rude and 
doleful sculpture of which give a fair specimen of the progress of Scot- 
tish art in the beginning of the seventeenth century. 

In the south-west corner, an antique tomb, with a Latin inscrip- 
tion, records the name of Mr. John Wood, who is not unlikely to have 
been a relative to the conforming minister of Scoonie, whose settle- 
ment, according to Lament, was as unpopular as that of Logic in our 
own day. The entry gives a curious insight into the state of public 
feeling on the coast of Fife at that troubled time ; and for this reason 
it may be quoted : — 

" 1669. November 18th. — Mr. Eobert Wood, a Crails man borne, 
was admitted minister of Sconie, in Fife, be the Presbyterie of Kirk- 
caldie. Mr. John Ramsay, minister of Markinch, did preach the day 
of his admission. His text was Ezekiel, 3 chapter, 17, 18, and 19 
verses, ' Son of Man, I have made thee a Watchman unto the House 
of Israel,' &c. Remember the day of his admission— there was none 
of the Heritors pi-esent at the Kirk, and but some of the Elders, and 
there was not so much as one of them that gave liim the right hand 
of fellowship." 

Adjoining the main entrances into the churchyard, on the right 


hand, is tlie stately old tomb of the Lindsays of "W^ormiston, the fii-st 
of whom purchased the estate 247 years ago. 

To the east of this tomb is a small enclosed plot, where tradition 
asserts that, on more than one occasion, the "plague" was buried. 
This was done by our superstitious forefathers in the following 
approved fashion : — It was an universal belief with them that the 
dreadful pestilences which were wont to decimate Scotland, had their 
seat in the air, and for the purpose of intercepting the deadly visitor, 
large wheaten loaves were raised high up on poles, which, after being 
so exposed for a length of time, were carefully buried where they 
should not be disturbed ; for the wise people of those days firmly 
believed that the discoloration of the loaves showed the veritable 
presence of the pest, which, save for this antidote, would have spread 
death and ruin amongst the inhabitants. 

On the south wall of the churchyard is the conspicuous tomb of 
Alexander Leslie, the Episcopalian minister of Crail at the Revolu- 
tion, in 1689, whose virtues and sufferings for his attachment to his 
persecuted church are set forth in a Jong Latin epitaph. He died in 
1703, fourteen years after his ejectment for nonconformity to the 
Presbyterian Establishment. Time, however, is now making sad 
ravages on the honest clergyman's tomb, for the two large marble 
tablets have been rent through long exposure, and are now fast hasten- 
ing to decay. 

Also, on the south wall, is the fragment of a statue of a knight in 
armour, which tradition avers to represent King Robert the Bruce. 
The hero of Bannockburn, after that glorious victory, did confer cer- 
tain important burghal privileges on the town of Crail, and it is not 
improbable that this statue owes its existence to the gratitude or 
patriotism of the old inhabitants ; but, if this is the case, it is much to 
be regretted that this interesting monument should have been allowed 
to fall, and continue in its present forlorn condition. The legs of the 
figure alone remain in an upright condition in the mural niche, the 
dismembered trunk of the doughty warrior lying ignobly on the 
ground at some distance away. The sides of the recess are carved 
with sword and shield, and many a warlike emblem besides, but there 
is no inscription or mark to indicate whether it is king or baron who 
would be commemorated. 

Towards the north-east of the churchyard are several beautiful 
family burying-places of recent erection, enclosed with neat railings, 
and planted with flowers and evergreens consecrated to the tomb. 

On a chaste tablet, surmounted with a finely-carved funeral urn in 
one of the enclosures is the following inscription, the truth of which 
will yet find an echo in many a heart in Crail : — 

" Sacred to the memory of John William Maillardet, Esq., late 
Deputy-lnspector-General of Hospitals, H.M. Madras Army, East 
Indies, who fell asleep in Jesus on the 19th December, 1862, in the 
fifty-seventh year of his age. He was a kind and affectionate hus- 
band and father, a sincere friend, and of a gentle and christian spirit. 
' The just shall live by faith.' " 


In tlie same neighbourliood an elegant monument marks tlie grave 
of Mrs. Kobert Murray, who died in 1862, at the advanced age of 
101 years. So far as we are aware, this is the greatest age ever 
attained in the east of Fife. 

The finest modern monument, however, in the churchyard is in 
memory of the Rev. William Merson, M.A., late incumbent of the 
parish. It is a beautiful Gothic arch, reminding you of the richly- 
wrought porch of some fair and stately chapel of that time when reli- 
gion found its loveliest expression in works of art. In the recess a 
polished mural tablet records the inscription, which briefly sets forth 
the name, the date of the death, the age, and the period of the ministry 
of the venerable pastor, together with the name of his spouse, Jessie 
Grant Glass, who died in 1841, twenty-four years before her husband. 
On the top of the monument, eternity and the boundless love of our 
blessed Redeemer are represented by the circle within the cross. At 
no great distance from this gi'aceful memoi'ial, is the monument of 
Mr. James M'Min, the teacher of the parish school, whose memory 
was so much endeared to some of his old pupils, that they erected this 
tribute of respect and gratitude to mark his grave. 

Near the back stile, or north gateway of the churchyard, a strong 
massive building was erected in 1826, for the purpose of securing the 
dead from the sacrilegious spoilers who were so readily bi-ibed to act 
as agents for the anatomist. Like other churchyards along the coast, 
that of Grail was often the scene of midnight desecration, and it was 
with good reason that the fears or the affections of the inliabitants 
induced them to erect the deadhouse, in which the remains of their 
friends were kept for a period of six or seven weeks, or until the pro- 
gress of decomposition had checked the probability of their being 
removed to the dissecting-room. For several years past, however, this 
building has ceased to be in use, except for one or two families. 

In the open area, the tombstones are peculiarly numerous and of all 
shapes, from the low moss-grown stone at the head of the forgotten 
grave, to the handsome obelisk and urn-crowned monument which the 
piety and affection of to-day has consecrated to the memory of the 
departed. One of the most prominent and pleasing of these recent 
memorials is a tribute of filial love. It was erected a few months ago 
by Mr. James Peattie and his brothers. Beneath a beautiful emblem 
of the purity and lowliness of the Christian life, is the inscription 
with the appropriate conclusion : — " The righteous hath hope in his 
death;" and on another line the noble passage — "I shall be satisfied 
when I awake with thy likeness." 

On an upright stone in another part of the graveyard, are the 
eloquent lines : — 

" The grass shall fade, the flowers shall pass away, 
Yet let this truth the fainting spirit stay, 
The Word of God is firm and lasts for aye." 

There are many other tombs, the epitaphs and devices on which 
well merit attention. 


Of Old Chaetees and othee Weitings belonging to tie Burgh 
ofCEAiL, hetween the years 1369 and 1755. 

Charter by Richard, Abbot of Balmerinoch, and Convent thereof, 
to William of Anstruther, and Mariota de . . . . his spousei 
of a land on the north side of the High Street of the Burgh of Crail' 
which formerly pertained to Richard of Walter, and the said Mariot • 
to be holden of the said Abbot and Convent of Balmerinoch, for pay- 
ment yearly of 3 shillings, at the feast of Penticost and St. Martin. 
Balmerinoch, 20th April, 1369. 

Charter by Simon Otyr, Burgess of Crail, to William de Myrtown, 
Laird of Cambo, of his two tenements within the Burgh of Crail' 
under the rock near the east gate of the said burgh. To be holden of 
the Laird of Pitmilly, for payment of 100 whitings yearlv. Crail 
4th March, 1402. » ^ J 

Charter by the Burgesses and Community of the Burgh of Crail, to 
John de Lummysden, Laird of G-lengyrnoch, of a piece of land com- 
monly called Tolryloch on the outer part of the Burgh Muir of Crail, 
near the lands of Tolry. To be holden of the said Burgesses and 
Community by the said John de Lummysden and his heirs, in fee and 
heritage, for payment yearly of 12 silver pennies in name of feu and 
blench duties, and reserving to them their rights to the Mill of Crail, 
and to the water leading thereto. 10th October, 1469. 

Instrument of Protest taken by John Thomson. Procurator for the 
Bailies and Community of Earlsferry, in presence of the Lords, Audi- 
tors, in Parliament assembled at Stirling, bearing that the said Bailies 
and Community have been cited before the said Lords at the instance 
of Richard, Abbot of the Monastery of Culross, and Convent thereof, 
for the spoliation and unjust detention of £10 usual money of Scot- 
land, but they not having compeared in support thereof, protested in 
name of the said Bailies and Community, that the said Abbot and 
Convent should not in future be heard in said cause, but found liable 
in the expenses incurred by his constituents. Stirling, 13th October, 

Instrument by Alexander de Myrton, Burgess of Cupar, in pre- 
sence of a notary and witnesses, that he the said Alexander de Myr- 
ton, late Dean of the Cathedral Church of Glasgow, and John de 
Myrton of Randalstoun, his brother-german, and that the said Thomas, 
by his last will and testament, had bequeathed to the Chaplains, for 


the time serving at the Altar of Blessed Katheriiie, the Virgin, with- 
in the Parish Church of Crail, an annual rent of 12 merks money of 
Scotland, and willed and ordained that the same be given to Sir John 
Ottyr, present Chaplain of said Altar. 28th June, 1457. 

Assignation by Sir Gilbei-t Calvert, Chaplain of the Altar of the 
Blessed Mary, within the Parish Church of Crail, to Thomas Myr- 
ton of Randalstoun, of the Church lands belonging to the said Chap- 
lainry, lying near the lands of Randalstoun, and that during the life- 
time of the said Sir Gilbert for payment yearly, of 4 merks money of 
Scotland. Instruments taken thereon in the Church of St. Leonards, 
within the city of St. Andrews, 23rd July, 1462. 

Charter by David Wemyss of Lethokir, to George Dishington, 
Bnrgess of Crail, his cousin, of a particate of land within the Burgh 
of Crail, on the south side of the Pottergate. To be holden burgage 
for payment of 4 pence usual money of Scotland. 17th Oct., 1463. 

Attestation by William de Balcomby, one of the Bailies of the 
Burgh of Crail, that upon 22nd March, 1465, John Lumsdene of 
Ardo, resigned in his hands an annual rent of 7 shillings payable 
from the land pertaining to the deceased John Bele, Burgess of the 
said Burgh, lying on the south side of the south street of said Burgh, 
annual rent of 4 shillings from the land of John "Woodcock, in the 
"Westgate, and 3 shillings and 8d. from the lands of James Lumsdene, 
brother of the before-mentioned John Lumsdene, and that thereupon 
the said William de Balcomy, gave seisin thereof, to Sir Robert de 
GuUan, Chaplain. 24th March, 1466. 

Attestation by William Pyot, brother and Bailie of Friar Patrick 
Pyot, Master of the Hospital of St. Germans, that Sir John Ottyr, 
Chaplain of St. Katherine's Altar, within the Parish Church of Crail, 
resigned in his hands a tenement of land in the market gate of the 
Burgh of Crail, and that thereafter, he the said Walter Pyot in behalf 
of his said brother, gave seisin to the said Sir John Ottyr, of said 
tenement. Date indistinct, but apparently about 16th April, 1466. 

Charter by Robert de GuUan, to Janet Brown, his spouse, of an 
annual rent of 14 shillings and 8 pence, payable at the usual terms, 
from lands in the Burgh of Crail. 14th Februaiy, 1471. 

Instrument of Resignation by Brother John Smith, in the hands 
of Alexander Hay, one of the Bailies of St. Andrews, of a tenement 
to Edward Wallace, and Mariot his spouse. 12th May, 1472. 

Instrument bearing that John Lok, Master of Arts, Professor of 
Theology, and Rector of the Parish Church of Finhaven, within the 
diocese of Brechin, appeared in the personal presence of Brother 

John Mure, Yicar-General of Scotland, of the Order of 

and required of him whether he at any time bygone, gave authority 
or license, to set in tack, oi; dispose of a tenement of land in the south 
street of St. Andrews, who having denied the same, the same John 
Lok, with Brother John Smith, Prior of the said Order of . . . 
. . . and others. Brethren of said Order, disposed said tenement 
to the said John Lok, 24th June, 1472. 

Charter of Confirmation by the above-mentioned Vicar-General of 


tlie Oi'der of of assedation in favour of the said 

John Lok of the tenement mentioned in the preceding Instrument. 
Glasgow, 8th June, 1473. 

Charter by John Lok, Canon of Brechin, to Emma Brown, 
daughter of John Brown of the Baxter Wynd, of a tenement on the 
north side of South Street, and tenement in the Buckeer Wynd of 
St. Andrews, and that during her lifetime only, and afterwards to her 
children. St. Andrews, 25th September, 1473. 

Letter of reversion by Mr. David Seton, Vicar of Coupar, for 
resigning in favour of John Lok, a tenement within the city of St. 
Andrews, upon the north side of the Southgate thereof, and that upon 
payment by the said John Lok and his heirs, of the sum of £20 usual 
money of Scotland, after premonition of fifteen days, to be made 
at the time of high mass within the Parish Church of Creich. St. 
Andrews, 22nd November, 1482. 

Charter by John Lok (Canon of Brechin), with consent of Mr. 
Robert Lok, his uncle, to William Carstairs, citizen of St. Andrews, 
of a tenement on the north side of the south street of St. Andrews, 
and that in consideration of a certain sum of money paid to him by 
the said William Carstairs in his urgent necessity. To be holden of 
the said John Lok and his heirs for payment by the said William 
Carstairs, and Elizabeth, his wife, of the duties used and wont, and 
to the Archbishop of St. Andrews for the time, the burgage dues, as 
said is. October, 1483. 

Instrument bearing that Richard Wallace compeared in presence 
of the Provost and Bailies of the city of St. Andrews, and humbly 
represented that he was infeft and seised in a land on the north side 
of the south street of St. Andrews, but that it had come to his ears 
that WOliam Carstairs had obtained a Charter of said land from 
John Lok, while he was in lawful possession thereof, therefore 
supplicating the said Provost and Bailies to proceed to said land and 
reduce the same. November 21st, 1483. 

Instrument of protest taken by Richard Wallace, citizen of St. 
Andrews, that the pretended resignation of John Lok, in the hands 
of Robert Arthur, Bailie, of a land on the north side of the south 
street of St. Andrews, and seisin following thereon in favour of 
William Carstairs, citizen of St. Andrews, should not be to the hurt, 
or prejudice, of the said Richard Wallace. 18th February, 1483. 

Note. — In explanation of the date February following that of 
November in the same year, it may be observed that the year 
commenced at that time on the 25th of March, and continued so 
until the year 1600, when it was changed to the 1st January. 

Instrument of resignation by Emma Brown, daughter of Patrick 
Brown, citizen of St. Andrews, in the hands of Robert Arthur, one 
of the Bailies of the said city, of an annual rent of 20 shillings payable 
from the land of William Carstairs in the Kirk Yennel of St. Andrews, 
and which Bailie thereupon gave seisin of said annual rent to the said 
William Carstairs. 26th May, 1484. 


Instrument bearing that Thomas Butler of Ramgally, in name and 
behalf of Isabel Butler, compeared in presence of John Monypenny 
and others, Bailies of St. Andrews, at the tenement ]iertaining to 
William Carstairs, citizen of St. Andrews, situated on the north-side 
of the south street of said city, and declared that the said Isabel 
Butler had right to an annual rent of 36 shillings from the foresaid 
tenement which had not been paid to her, and declaring that the same 
should be distrienzed therefor, &c, 1486. 

Instrument bearing that William Carstairs, citizen of St. A ndrews, 
on the one i)ai-t, and Richard Wallace, also citizen thereof, on the 
other part, compeared in the presence of Mr, Andrew Myrtown, 
Chamberlain of William, Archbishop of St. Andrews, and the Provost 
and Bailies of said city, on account of the dispute existing between 
them as to their respective rights to a tenement on the north-side of 
the south street of St. Andrews, whereupon the said Chamberlain and 
others produced letters by the Archbishop, dated January, 1485, 
April 6th, 1486, and April 27th, 1486, respectively, addressed to the 
Provost and Bailies of St. Andrews, authorising them to do justice 
in the cause between the said parties, and bearing that the said Richard 
Wallace resigned the said tenement in the hands of Andrew Kyd, one 
of the foresaid Bailies, who thereupon gave seisin of the same to the 
said William Carstairs. June 2nd, 1 486. 

Instrument of resignation by Richard Wallace, citizen of St. 
Andrews, in the hands of Andrew Kyd, one of the Bailies of St. 
Andrews, of a tenement on the north-side of the south street of St. 
Andrews, and seisin following thereon in favour of William Carstairs 
last above mentioned. 2nd June, 1486. 

A Charter by John Ottyr, Chaplain of the Altar of St. Katherine, 
the Virgin and Martyr, within the Parish Church of Crail, to Mariot 
Annell, spouse of the deceased George Pringle Burgess of Crail, of a 
particate of land and house thereon on the south-side of the market 
gate of Crail. To be holden for payment of 3 pence at the feast of 
St. Michael the Archangel, to the Preceptor of the Star of Bethlehem 
and Hospital of St. Katherines ; and 6 shillings and 8 pence to the 
Chaplain of the foresaid Altar of St. Katherines ; and also 22 pence of 
annual rent to the said John Ottyr, and 100 herrings caught in winter. 
13th March, 1486. 

Charter by Mr. Alexander Butler, Yicar of the Parish Church of 
Dunse, to Margaret, daughter of Ebote Butler, whom failing, to 
Alexander, son of the said Ebote, of an annual rent of 36 shillings 
payable from the tenement of William Carstaii'S, on the north side 
of the south street of St. Andrews. St. Ancb-ews, 16th April, 

Attestation by Thomas Annell, Chaplain and Bailie, to Mr. Thomas 
Pyot, Preceptor of the Star of Bethlehem, that he had received resig- 
nation from John of Lumsdain, son and heir of James of Lumsdain, 
of a tenement of land on the south side of the Southgate of the 
Burgh of Crail, and that he had thereupon given seisin of said 
tenement to Sir William of Myrtown, Chaplain of St. Michael the 


Archangel, in the kirk of Crail, in name of the Archangel 3rd 
March, 1490. 

Attestation by John of Spence, one of the Bailies of the Burgh of 
Crail, that John of Dishington, son of the deceased George of Dish- 
ington, Burgess of the said Burgh, had resigned in his hands a rood 
of land, with the tenement thereon, on the north side of the market 
gate of Crail, whereupon the said John Spence gave seisin of the said 
subject to Sir William of Dishington, brother of the said John. 18th 
October, 1491. 

Instrument bearing that Sir John Ottyr, Chaplain of the Altar of 
St. Katherine the Virgin, in the Parish Church of Crail, founded by 
the deceased Mr. Thomas Myrtoun, and of which Altar the Laird of 
Randalstoun was patron on the one part, and Sir William Myrtoun, 
canon and patron of the Altar of St. Michael within the said church 
founded by himself, on the other part, agreed for their mutual advan- 
tage that the said Sir William Myrtoun should resign in favour of 
the said Sir John Ottyr, the said Chaplainry, with the sum of 24 
merks, and other rights pertaining thereto, during his lifetime, the 
said Sir John Ottyr thereupon resigned in favour of the said Sir 
Thomas Myrtoun, the Altar of St. Katherine, and rights and privileges 
thereof with consent of his foresaid patron. 27th April, 1495. 

Instrument of ratification by John Myrtoun of Rannaldstoun, of the 
grants made by his predecessors, John Myrtoun of Rannaldstoun, and 
by Mr. Thomas Myrtoun, Dean of Glasgow, of 6 acres of land and 
tenement in the Pottergate of Crail, to the Chaplains of the Altar of 
St, Katherine the Virgin, within the Parish Church of Crail, now 
pertaining to Sir William Myrtoun, Chaplain thereof, and obliging 
himself inviolably to observe and perform the tenor of the said grants 
to the said Sir William Myrtoun in all time coming. 22nd March, 

Attestation by Thomas of Wemyss, one of the Bailies of the Bui-gh 
of Crail, that William Cass, one of the Burgesses of the said Bui'gh, 
made resignation in his hands of an annual rent of 6 shillings of ground 
annual, payable from a croft of land ;under the Heugh bewest the 
Holm, and which Thomas of Wemyss thereupon gave seisin of said 
ground annual to John Mann, Burgess of the said Burgh of Crail. 
9th May, 1502. 

Attestation by James Annell, one of the Bailies of the Burgh of 
Crail, that Thomas Law, Marion, his spouse, and Thomas Law, their 
son and heir, made resignation in his hands of 2 roods of biggit land 
lying together on the north side of the Southgate of the Burgh of 
Crail, and which James Annell thereupon gave seisin of the said 2 
roods of land to James Morrison and Margaret Kay, his spouse. 16 th 
January, 1502. 

Instrument of Resignation by William Carstairs, citizen of St. 
Andrews, and Elizabeth Ramsay, his spouse, in the hands of Robert 
Mercer, one of the Bailies of St. Andrews, of a tenement on the 
north side of the south street of St. Andrews, and which Robert 
Mercer thereupon gave seisin of the said tenement to Beatrix 


Carstairs, daughter cai'nal of the said William and Elizabeth, and 
bearing that the same was done on account of the said Beatrix having 
given her consent to resign another tenement on the east side of the 
Kirk Vennel of St. Andrews, upon which resignation taking place, 
the}' the said William and Elizabeth were to make payment to her of 
£40 money of Scotland. 19th January, 1503. 

Attestation by Thomas Wemyss, one of the Bailies of the Burgh of 
Grail, that John of Cunninghame of the Westbarns, as Procurator for 
Andrew Anstruther of that Ilk, made resignation in his hands of 
2 tenements of " biggit" land, with 2 yards and 3 butts lying toge- 
ther on the north side of the west gate of the Burgh of Crail, and 
which Thomas Wemyss thereupon gave seisin of an annual rent of 
20 shillings usual money of Scotland, to Sir William of Myrtovm, 
(Chaplain of the Altar of St. Michael) 29th July, 1505. 

Attestation by the said Thomas of Wemyss, that Marjory Stewart, 
spouse of John of Wemyss, with consent of her said husband, made 
resignation in his hands of a rood of " biggit " land on the south side 
of the market gate of the Burgh of Crail, and which Thomas of 
Wemyss thereupon gave seisin of the said subject to the foresaid Sir 
William Myrtoun, Chaplain. 2nd September, 1505, 

Procuratory by John of Wemyss, Burgess of the Burgh of Crail 
and Parish Clerk thereof, to John Lumsdain of Ardro, John Aber- 
cromby, and Jolin of Lumsdain, to pass to the presence of the Bailies 
and community of the said Bui'gh, in the tollbooth thereof, and there 
in his name to resign in their hands his office of Parish Clerk of said 
parish, in favour of Thomas Wemyss, his son. St. Andrews, 15th 
June, 1506. 

Charter by David Spence, Laird of Williamstone or Wolmerstone, 
to Sir William Myrtoun, Chaplain, of 2 acres of land on the Potter- 
gate of the Burgh of Crail, 2 i-oods of land in the said Pottergate on 
the soxith side of the Common Loan, 3 roods of land in said Pottergate 
on the south side thereof, croft called Rudewell Croft on the east 
side of the burying ground of the Parish Church of Crail, croft called 
Colpote Croft, on the south side of the East Brig, tenement and yard, 
and rood of land in the market gate, 3 roods and 3 perches of land 
there, croft on the south side of the south gate of the said Burgh, 
and that in consideration of £85 paid to him the said David Spence. 
To be holden burgage for payment of the burgage dues payable 
therefor, used and wont, and of 10 pence to the service of the Virgin 
Mary. Crail, 15th July, 1507. 

Instrument of resignation by Mariota Anstruther, relict of Alex. 
Spence of Braidleys, in the hands of Thomas Wemyss, one of the 
Bailies of the Burgh of Crail, the lands contained in the foregoing 
charter, in favour of David Spence of Wolmerstone, her eldest son, 
and which Thomas Wemyss thereupon gave seisin of the said lands 
to the said David Spence, as heir to the said Alexander Spence, his 
father. 15th July, 1507. 

Instrument bearing that William Calvei-t, son and heir of David 
Calvert of Kingsbarns, compeared in presence of Thomas Wemyss, 


Bailie of the Burgh of Crail, and required of him to grant seisin in 
his favour of an acre of land on the north side of the Pottergate of 
the Burgh of Crail, and which Thomas Wemyss thereupon gave seisin 
to the said William Calvert of the said acre of land, and which was 
immediately thereafter resigned by him in the hands of the said Bailie, 
in favour and for new infeftment thereof, to be granted by him to 
Janet Wilkie, mother of the said William Calvert, and for payment 
of a certain sum of money to his two sisters and their husbands. 
18th September, 1508. 

Charter by Nicholas Todrick, Burgess of the Burgh of Crail, to Sir 
William Myrtoun, Chaplain, of an annual rent of 12 shillings money 
of Scotland, payable from 2 tenements, the yards and crofts, adjacent 
thereto on the south side of the market gate of Crail. To be holden 
in fee and heritage of the said Nicholas Todrick and his heirs. 13th 
October, 1508. 

Charter by Sir Thomas Preston, Vicar of St. Andrews, with consent 
of Sir John, Prior of the Metropolitan Church thereof, to Sir William 
Myrtoun, Vicar of Lachrisk, of a tenement on the north side of the 
south street of St. Andrews, and tenement on the north side of the 
market gate thereof. To be holden of the Archbishop of St. Andrews, 
for payment of the duties used and wont. St. Andrews, May 27th, 1509. 

Instrument bearing that Andrew Anstruther of that Ilk compeared 
in presence of Thomas Wemyss, one of the Bailies of the Burgh of 
Crail, and produced an indenture entered into between .... 
Anstruther of that Ilk, and the Bailies and community of the said 
Burgh, dated 19th May, 1309, stating that the said Bailies and 
community of the Burgh of Crail had right to the haven duties and 
small customs of the town of Anstruther belonging to the said 
of Anstruther, viz. : — 4 penny custom, half- 
penny customs, and the like small customs, and in which they were 
infeft " of our Lord, the King that now is," &c., and requiring of the 
said Bailie that the same should be examined and read, and transumpt 
made thereof of the same was found authentic. 4th June, 1509. 

NoiE. — The above is very difficult to read. 

Attestation by John Abercromby, one of the Bailies of the Burgh 
of Crail, that he proceeded to a tenement on the south side of the 
market gate of the Burgh of Crail, and gave seisin thereof to Sir 
Thomas Todrick, Chaplain, as nearest and lawful heir to Barbara 
Todrick, dai;ghter and heir of the deceased Nicol Todrick, Burgess 
of the said Burgh. 6th June, 1509. 

Instrument of resignation by John Clerk, heir of Sir William 
Dishington, Chaplain, in the hands of John Aberci'omby, one of the 
Bailies of the Burgh of Crail, of an annual rent of 1 2 shillings money 
of Scotland, payable from a tenement, yard, and 3 butts of land on 
the north side of the market gate of the said Burgh, and which John 
Abercromby thereupon gave seisin of the said annual rent to Sir 
William Myrtoun, Chaplain of the Altar of St, Katherine, situate 
within the Parish Church of Crail. September 22nd, 1509. 


Papal bull or license by Pope Julian II., 
addressed to the Archdean of Murray, bearing 
that the Parish Church of Lathrisk, in the 
^ diocese of St. Andrews, had become vacant by 
the resignation of Thomas Hog, Vicar thereof, 
and in the hands of the Pope, and being satisfied 
of the upright life, probity, and virtue of William 
Myrtoun, aj^pointing him to be Vicar of the 
said church, and to the enjoyment of the annual 
rents and duties thereof, together with £'9 yearly. 
St. Peters at Rome, 7th February, 1509. 
Attestation by John Myrtoun of Randalstoun, thnt he proceeded 
in virtue of letters of bailziary and tack, granted by Joan, Lady 
Prioress, and convent of the Nungate of Haddington, to the lands of 
Peatfield, in the constabulary of Ci'ail, and entered Sir William 
Myi'toun, Vicar of Lathrisk, his tenants and sub-tenants to the said 
land, for the term of 17 years. 19th May, 1510. 

Charter by Janet Wilkie, spouse of the deceased David Calvert in 
Kingsbarns, to Sii- William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, of an acre 
of land on the north side of the Pottergate of the Burgh of Crail. 
To be holden of her in fee and heritage. Crail, 10th September, 1510. 
Charter by Sir Thomas Todrick, brother and heii- of Sir William 
Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, of a tenement and yard on the south 
side of the market gate of the Burgh of Crail. To be holden burgage 
for payment of the Burgh mails used and wont, and 2 shillings to the 
service of St. Katherine, in the Church of Crail. Monastery of Had- 
dington, 3rd March, 1514. 

Procuratory of resignation by the above mentioned Thomas Todrick, 
in favour of John Richardson, Alexander and William Clark, and 
John Man, for resigning in the hands of the Bailies of the Burgh of 
Crail, of the above mentioned tenement and yard, for seisin to be 
granted thereupon to the said Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lath- 
risk. Monastery of Haddington, 1st April, 1512. 

Instrument bearing that Alexander Dawson and Janet Phillip, his 
spouse, compeared in the presence of Sir Symon Henderson, Chaplain, 
Procurator for Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, and obliged 
themselves, the Holy Evangelists touched, to give seisin to the said 
Sir William Myrtoun, in a tenement and croft on the north side on 
the west gate of the Burgh of Crail, in warrandice of an annual rent 
of 12 shillings money of Scotland, payable from a tenement of land of 
the said Burgh on the west side of the tenement of the Lady Prioress 
of Haddington. 8th September, 1512. 

Instrument bearing that John Borthwickof Balhouffie, Gordonshall, 
and Petmark, and Alexander Borthwick, his grandson, compeared in 
presence of Mr. Hugh Spence, Professor of theology, Doctor of decreets, 
and Provost of the Collegiate Church of St. Salvador, and there the 
said John Borthwick made faith that he should not come in the 
contrary of the charters and rights granted by him to Sir William 
Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, of an annual rent of 20 merks, money 


of Scotland, payable from the foresaid lands, under the pain of perjury. 
12th October, 1512. 

Charter by Alexander Borthwick of Balhouffie and Gordonshall, 
with consent of John Boi'thwick, his grandfather, to Sir William 
Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk^ of an annual rent of 20 marks, money 
of Scotland, payable at the usual terms from the lands of Balhouffie, 
Gordonshall, and Petmark, and in consideration of 400 merks in gold, 
paid to them by the said Sir William Myrtoun, and the Chaplains of 
the Altar of St. Michael the Archangel, within the Parish Church of 
Crail, founded by him for payment yearly of a penny, money of 
Scotland, at the principal messuage of the said lands in name of 
Blench Farm. Balhouffie, 14th October, 1512. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of Sir William Myrtoun, Yicar of 
the Parish Church of Lathrisk, in the lands of Balhouffie, and others 
contained in the foregoing charter, and proceeding thereon. 14th 
October, 1512. 

Letter of warrandice, by Alexander Borthwick of Balhouffie and 
Gordonshall, with consent of John of Borthwick, his grandfather, to 
Sir William Myrtoun, Yicar of Lathrisk, obliging himself to make 
payment to the said Sir William, of an annual rent of 20 merks, 
money of Scotland, furth of the lands of Balhouffie, Gordonshall, and 
Petmarth, he, the said Sir William Myrtoun, having paid to him the 
sum of 400 merks in " guyd golde." Balhouffie, 16th October, 1512. 

Charter by John Otter, Chaplain of the Altar of St. John the 
Baptist in Inverkeithing, to the Chaplains and Clerk of the Parish 
Church of Crail, of an annual rent of 6 shillings and 8 pence, payable 
from two tenements on the east side of the vennel leading to the port 
of Crail, and tenement on the hill, leading as said is, and that for 
offering up prayers on the 22nd of February, yearly, for the souls of 
John Otter, his father, and Helen Hog, his mother, and other services 
in the church. Inverkeithing, 19th December, 1512. 

Instrument of resignation by Sir John Otter, Chaplain, in the 
hands of Thomas Wemyss, one of the Bailies of Crail, of the tenement 
mentioned in the foregoing charter, and annual rent of 6 shillings and 
8 pence payable therefrom, and which Thomas Wemyss, Bailie, there- 
after gave seisin of said annual rent to Sir David Gaw, Chaplain of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary, in behalf of the said Chaplains and Clerk. 
22nd December, 1512. 

Instrument bearing that Sir William Myrtoun, Yicar of Lathrisk, 
compeared in presence of John Abercromby and George Kenlochy, 
Bailies of Crail, and the community and parishioners thereof, and 
represented to them, that to the praise and honour of God, the Virgin 
Mary, and all Saints, he had founded an Altar in the Church of Crail, 
wherein was performed mass, vespers, singing, and other services, and 
that the same was in their presentation and donation, therefore 
supplicating them when the same became vacant, that they should 
provide Chaplains and Clerks to officiate thereat, and to sustain and 
uphold the said Altar, which the said Bailies and community agreed 
to do and perform. 9th October, 1514. 


Papal Bull or License by Pope Leo X., addressed to the Abbot of 
Cambuskenneth in the diocese of St. Andrews and official of St. 
Andrews, authorising him to make payment to William Myrtoun, 
Clerk of the diocese, of an annual pension of 20 merks, money of 
Scotland, and 15 gold ducats, from the rents and duties of the 
Vicarage of the Parish Church of Crail, in the aforesaid diocese. St. 
Peter's at Rome, 5th of the nones of May, 1514, 

Papal Bull or License by Pope Leo X., addressed to William 
Myrtoun, of the diocese of St. Andrews, authorising him, in terms of 
his owii petition, and that of the Abbess of the Monastery of St. 
Clai-e of Haddington, of the oi'der of Cistertians, in the foresaid 
diocese, patron of the Parish Church of Crail, to admit Alexander 
Dunbar to the Vicarage of the said church, now vacant by the decease 
of John Spence, late Vicar thereof, and to allow him a yearly pension 
of 20 merks money of Scotland, and 15 gold ducats. St. Peters at 
Rome, 5th of the nones of May, 1514. 

Charter by Sir Andrew Ballone, Canon of the Metropolitan Church 
of St. Andrews, with consent of John, Prior of said Church, to his 
cousin, William Alexander, of an annual rent of 5 shillings money of 
Scotland, fui-th of a tenement of land on the north side of the south 
street of St. Andi-ews. Edinbm-gh, 1st October, 1515, 

Instrument bearing that Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, 
compeared in presence of John Lnmsdane of Ardre, and John Cass, 
one of the Bailies of the Burgh of Crail, and appointed the Lairds of 
Cambo, Newhall, Randalstoun, West Barns, Williamston or Wolmer- 
stone, Ai'dre, and Petalie, patrons of the five chaplainries founded by 
him within the Parish Church of Crail, viz. : — Of the Virgin Mary, 
St. Michael the Archangel, St. James the Apostle, St. Bartholomew, 
and St. Nicholas!, 15th October, 1515, 

Instrument of cognition and seisin in favour of the said Sir Andrew 
Ballone, as heir aforesaid, in a tenement on the north side of the south 
street of St. Andrews. 10th March, 1515. 

Charter by the above mentioned Sir Andrew Ballone, Canon 
Regular of the Monastery of St. Andrews, with consent of John, 
Prior of the Metropolitan Church of St. Andrews, to Sir Thomas 
Ryotson, Vicar thereof, of two tenements, the one thereof on the north 
side of the south street, and the other thereof on the south side of the 
market gate of St. Andrews, To be holden for payment of certain 
sums to the chaplainries therein mentioned. St. Andrews, 12th 
March, 1515. 

Instrument of resignation by the foresaid Sir Andrew Ballone, of 
the tenements mentioned in the foregoing charter, and seisin following 
thereon, in favour of the said Sir Thomas Preston. 12th March, 

License by Andrew, the Archbishop of St. Andrews, Primate of 
Scotland, addressed to William Myrtoun, Clerk of the diocese of St. 
Andrews, narrating that the Parish Church of Crail was then vacant, 
through and in the gift of the Abbess and Monks of the Monastery of 
Haddington, thereupon nominating Alexander Dunbar Vicar of the 


said Parish Church, and to an yearly pension of 20 merks, together 
with the accustomed fruits and rents thereof. Edinburgh, 9th April, 

Transumpt obtained before John Baptist of the Apostolic See, by 
the G-race of Grod, Bishop of ... . and Judge and Execu- 
tor appointed thereupon of License by Pope Leo X., addressed to 
the Abbot of Cumuskeuneth, of the Diocese of St. Andrews, and 
official thereof, authorising him to make payment to Sir William 
Myrtoun, Vicar of the Diocese of St. Andrews, of an annual pension 
of 2 merks money of Scotland, and 15 gold ducats from the rents 
and duties of the Vicarage of the Parish Church of Crail, in afore- 
said diocese, dated at St. Peter's at Eome, 5th of the nones of May, 
1514 ; and in like manner, License by the said Pope Leo X., 
addressed to "William Clerk of the said Diocese of St. Andrews, 
authorising him in terms of his own petition, and that of the Abbess 
of the Monastery of St. Clare of Haddington, of the Order of St. 
Cistertians, within the said diocese, patron of the Parish Church of 
Crail, to admit Alexander Dunbar to the said church, now vacant 
by the decease of John Spence, late Vicar thereof, and to the fruits, 
and profits, and duties thereof, dated as the above, 15th August, 

Charter by John iibercromby, Burgess of Crail, with consent of 
David Spence of "Wolmerston, Superior of the lands of Little Broad- 
leyes, to Sir "William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, of an annual rent 
of 20 shillings money of Scotland, payable furth of 8 acres of the 
said lands of Little Broadleyes, in the constabulary of Crail, and 
that in consideration of £14 money of Scotland paid to liim by the 
said Sir "William Myrtoun. To be holden feu of the said John 
Abercromby, for payment of a penny yearly. 25th August, 1516. 

Instrument of Eesignation in the hands of David Spence of "Wol- 
merston in favour of Sir "William Myrtoun, of an annual rent of 20 
shillings payable from the lands of Little Broadleyes mentioned 
in the foregoing charter and proceeding thereon. 26th August, 

Instrument of Seisin following on the foi-egoing Charter and 
Instrument of Eesignation, in favour of Sir "William Myrtoun, 
Vicar of Lathrisk, of an annual rent of 20 shillings of Scotland, pay- 
able furth of the lands of Little Broadleyes, lying in the constabu- 
lary of Crail. 27th August, 1516. 

Obligation by John Abercromby, Bailie of Crail, to make pay- 
ment to Sir "William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, of an annual rent 
of 20 shillings money of Scotland, from the lands of Little Broad- 
leyes, in terms of the charter and others foregoing. August 28th, 

Charter by John Abercromby, Burgess of Crail, with consent of 
Helen Balcolme his spouse, to Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of 
Lathrisk, of an annual rent of 2 shillings money of Scotland, payable 
from a tenement on the north side of the market gate of CraU, in 
warrandice of the lands of Little Broadleyes, lying in the constabu- 


lary of Crail. To be liolden of the said Sir John Abercromby for 
payment of a penny yearly in name of blcncli duty. 4tli October, 

Letter of Reversion by Sir Andrew Ballon, Canon E-egular of the 
Metropolitan Church of St. Andrews, with consent of John, Prior 
of the said Church, in favour of Sir Thomas Preston, Canon thereof, 
and Vicar of the Church of the Holy Trinity of said city, renouncing 
his right to two tenements in St. Andrews, and declaring the same 
to be lawfully redeemed, and the sum of 140 merks money of Scot- 
land, for which the same had been wadset, had been thankfully paid. 
27th February, 1516. 

Instrument bearing that Mr. Alexander Dunbar, Vicar of Crail, 
of his own free-will, gave consent that the Vicarage of Crail, in the 
Diocese of St. Andrews should now be rented into a perpetual Pro- 
vostry, on account of the foundation of the new College, in the 
Parish Church of Crail, and therefore obliged himself to pay out of 
the fruits and rents of the said Vicarage to the Vicar pensioner 
who should be appointed to said Provostry, the sum of £10 money 
of Scotland yearly, and in like manner bearing that Sir William 
Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, promised to pay to the said Vicar pen- 
sioner, the sum of 5 merks yearly fund of his annual rents within 
the Burgh of Crail. 3rd March, 1516. 

Charter by Andrew, Archbishop of St. Andrews, Primate of Scot- 
land, confirming Letters by Janet, Prioress of the Monastery of 
Haddington, Sir "William Myrtoun, Vicar of the Parish Church of 
Lathrisk, and of the Bailies and Community of the Burgh of Crail, 
and Parishioners of the Parish Church of Crail, for the foundation 
of a Provostiy, with certain Prebendaries within the College Cliurch 
of Crail, which are in all time coming to be in the gift and f)resen- 
tation of the said Prioress of Haddington, as follows, viz. : — 1. The 
Provostry of the Blessed Virgin Mary, with the Collegiate Church 
of Crail, with the manse and glebe pertaining thereto, and 15 merks 
money of Scotland, payable from the annual rents of Crail. 2nd. 
Prebendary in the aisle of the Virgin Mary, founded by Sir Wm. 
Myrtoun, with an annual rent £14 13s. 4d. money foresaid, payable 
from the lands therein mentioned. 3rd. Prebendary also in the 
foresaid aisle, an annual rent of £13 6s. 8d. payable from the lands 
of Kellie and Barony thereof, also founded by the said Sir William 
Myrtoun. 4th. Prebendary of the Altar of St. Michael, founded as 
said is, with an annual rent of £13 6s. 8d. money foresaid, payable 
from the said lands and barony. 5th. Prebendary founded as said 
is, called the second prebendary of St. Michael, and annual rent of 
£13 6s. Sd., payable from the lands of Grordonshall and Balhouffie. 
6th. Prebendary of St. James the Apostle, founded as said is, with 
annual rent of £13 6s. 8d., payable from the lands of Sy]osess and 
others. 7th. Prebendary of St. Nicholas founded as said is, and 
annual rent of £13 68. 8d., payable from the lands of Cambo, 
Belsches, and others. 8th. Prebendary of St. Bartholomew, founded 
as said is, and annual rent of £13 6s. 8d., payable from the lands of 


AukUeys. Prebendary founded by the Constabulary, Community 
and_ Parishioners, and annual of 2 merks from the annual rents of 
Crail and other emoluments, as contained in the foundation rio-hts 
thereof, and bearing that the said Bailies, Community, and Pa?ish 
of CraH were bound thereby to sustain a Parish Clerk who should 
ring the bells, on all necessary occasions, and administer in fire and 
water to the said Collegiate Church, also that transumpts be made 
of said charters of foundation whereof two copies to be kept at the 
Monastery of Haddington, and one thereof to remain at the Colleoe 
of Crail. St. Andrews, 20th June, 1517. "" 

Instrument of seisin in favour of Elizabeth Eamsay, relict of 
Wilham Carstairs, in a tenement on the north side of the south 
street of St. Andrews ; seisin given by David Winchester, one of the 
Jiailies of St. Andrews. Penult April, 1518. 

Instrument of .Resignation by the said Elizabeth Ramsay, relict 
ot_ William Carstairs, citizen of St. Andrews, in the hands of the 
said David Winchester, of the foresaid tenement and seisin, given 
by him thereupon to Sir Henry Carstairs, son and heir of the said 
William Carstairs, who thereupon again resigned the said tenement 
lor seism, to be granted by him in favour of William Carstairs, citi- 
zen of St. Andrews. Penult April, 1518. 

Charter by Sir Henry Carstairs, son and heir of William Carstairs, 
and Elizabeth Kamsay, relict of the said William, and Beatrix his 
daughter, to William Carstairs, citizen of St. Andrews, and Janet 
Smith his spouse, of a tenement in St. Andrews, lying on the north 
side of the south street thereof. St. Andrews, 1518. 
_ Instrument of Resignation by William Clark, Burgess of Crail, 
m the hands of John Abercromby, one of the Bailies of Crail, of a 
tenement, yard, and three butts of land on the north side of the 
market gate of said burgh, and seisin given by him thereupon to 
(xiles Clark, daughter of the said William Clark. 15th May, 1518 
Instrument of Resignation by the said Giles Clark, in the hands* 
of the said John Abercromby, who thereupon gave seisin of the 
foresaid tenement, yard, and three butts of land, to Sir William 
Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk. 15th May, 1518. 

Instrument bearing that Alexander Borthwick of G-ordonshall 
and Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, compeared in presence 
of a Notary, and stated that the said Alexander Borthwick had dis- 
poned to the said Sir William Myrtoun and his successors. Prebends 
of the Collegiate Church of Crail, an annual rent of 20 merks money 
of Scotland, payable from the lands of G-ordonshall, BalhoufSe, and 
Petmarth, and who had thereupon granted to the said Alexander 
Borthwick, a letter of reversion for redemption of the said annual 
rent,_and bearing that the said Alexander had agreed to renounce 
his right to the said letter of reversion, in consideration of his beino- 
paid the sum of 400 merks money of Scotland. 18th May, 1818. " 
Charter by George Dishington of Ardross, to Sir William Myr- 
toun, Vicar of Lathrisk, of an annual rent of 18 merks money\ ' 
Scotland, payable from the lands of the two Cullenachs, viz., Middh 


touu and Haystoun, lying in the Lordship and County of Kinross, 
and that in consideration of the smn of £400 like money paid to 
him by the said Sir William Myrtoun. St. Andrews, July 26th, 

Eatification by Janet Lundy, young Lady of A rdross, without the 
presence of her husband, Greorge Dishington, Fiar thereof, of the 
foregoing Charter. 26th July, 1518. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of 
Lathrisk, in the foresaid lands of the two Cullenachs, and annual 
rent of 18 merks money of Scotland, payable therefrom. Seisin 
given by Greorge Dishington, Fiar of Ardross. 29th July, 1518. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of Sir Thomas Preston, Vicar of 
St. Andrews, in an annual rent of 5 shillings money of Scotland, 
payable from a tenement of land on the north side of the south 
street of St. Andrews. Seisin given by David Winchester, one of 
the Bailies of St. Andrews, on the resignation of William Alexander, 
citizen thereof. 5th August, 1818. 

Letter of Keversion, by Beatrix Carstairs, daughter of William 
Carstairs, to William Carstairs, Citizen of St. Andrews, bearing 
that William Carstairs, citizen thereof, had resigned, in her favour, 
a tenement on the north side of the south street of St. Andrews, 
nevertheless obliging herself, in the event of his making payment 
to her of the sum of £24, money of Scotland, to renounce, in his 
favour, the said tenement, together with all right and title which 
she had thereto, and declare the same lawfully redeemed. St. 
Andrews, 17th May, 1519. 

Instrument of Kesignation, by Sir Thomas Preston, Vicar of St.^ 
Andrews, in the hands of David Winchester, one of the Bailies of 
St. Andrews, of two tenements in the city of St. Andrews, the one 
whereof on the north side of the south street, and the other on the 
south side of the Market-gate thereof, and which bailie thereupon 
gave seisin of said tenements to Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of 
Latlarisk, 26th May, 1510, 

Instrument of Seisin, in favour of Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar 
of Lathrisk, in a tenement and croft on the north side of the Cross- 
gate of the Burgh of Crail, proceeding on the resignation of John 
Abercromby, burgess of Crail, with .consent of Elene Balcolmy, his 
wife, in the hands of John Eichardson, one of the bailies of the said 
burgh, 7th June, 1519. 

Obligation of Warrandice, by Sir Thomas Preston, Vicar of the 
Parish Church of St. Andrews, bearing that he had disponed to Sir 
William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, two tenements lying within 
the city of St. Andrews, No. 86, and obliging himself to warraud 
the same to the said Sir William Myrtoun to be free from all trouble 
or inquietude, under payment of the sum of £400 money of Scot- 
land, vsdthin the College Church of Crail, founded by the said Sir 
WiUiam Myrtoun. St. Andrews, 9th June, 1517. 

Charter, by John Abercromby, burgess of Crail, with consent of 
Elene Balcolmy, his spouse, to Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of 


Latlirisk, of an annual rent of thirteen sliilliugs and four pence 
money of Scotland, payable from his tenement on the north side of 
the Market-gate of Crail, and that in consideration of a certain sum 
of money, paid to the said John Abercromby, in his urgent neces- 
sity. Crail, 6th July, 1517. 

Instrument of Seisin, in favour of Sir William Abercromby, 
Chaplain-Prebend of the Altar of St. Michael, within the College 
Church of Crail, founded by Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lath- 
risk, in an annual rent of twenty merks, payable from the lands of 
Balhouffie, Grordonshall, and Petmart, lying in the County of Fife. 
Given by the said Sir William Myrtoun, 15th April, 1520. 

Instrument, bearing that Sir Thomas Preston, Vicar of St. 
Andrews, had disponed to Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, 
two tenements within the city of St. Andrews, and who had there- 
upon granted to the said Sir Thomas Preston a letter of reversion, 
for redemption thereof, upon his making payment to him of the sum 
of £220 money of Scotland ; but it had been agreed between them 
that the said Sir William should presently pay to the said Sir 
Thomas the sum of 200 merks money aforesaid, and that he should 
give up all right competent to him, in virtue of said letter of rever- 
sion, which he did accordingly, and ratified the right of the said Sir 
William Myrtoun to said tenements. 6th July, 1520. 

_ Charter, by Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, in the 
diocese of St. Andrews, bearing that he had acquired certain lands 
and annual rents, through care and industry, and had appointed 
certain chaplains of the Church of the Blessed Virgin, viz., the 
chaplains and one clerk, and that with the authority of Andrew, 
Archbishop of St. Andrews, therefore, to the honour and glory of 
Q-od, the Son, and Holy Spirit, the Blessed Virgin Mary, and all 
Saints ; also, for the safety of his own soul, the soul of James the 
IV., deceased; dame Janet Hepburn, Prioress of Haddington ; his 
father and mother, predecessors, and successors ; the soul of King 
James the Fifth; Archbishop of St. Andrews, — granting to Sir 
James Brown, prebend of the aisle of the said Blessed Virgin Mary, 
in the said College Church of Crail, called the Second Prebendary, 
an annual rent of £16 10s. money of Scotland, payable from the 
lands of Balmonth, Little Braidleys ; tenement pertaining to Andrew 
Cass, lying in the Westgate ; tenement, garden, and two butts of 
land in said Westgate; an acre of land in the Pottergate, acre of 
land, called the Colpot Croft, in the Eastgate ; acre of land in the 
Pottergate, acre of land in the gate leading to John Clerk's, and Sir 
William Dishington's acre of land in the Nungate ; and from a house, 
with the half of a yard, on the north side of the Marketgate of Crail, 
and house, garden, and croft adjoining to the lands of Thomas Daw- 
son, all lying in the county of Fife, to be holden for performance 
of the foresaid services. Crail, 22nd October, 1520. 

Charter, by Sir William Mp-toun, Vicar of Lathrisk, in terms of 
the foregoing charter, to Sir Thomas Bowman, prebend of the aisle 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary, within the Collegiate Church of Crail, 


called the third Prebendary, of an annual rent of £14 6s. 8d. money 
of Scotland, payable from the Barony of Ardross, three acres of land 
called Little Peatfield, one acre of Land in the Pottergate, the tene- 
ment of Thomas Yule, tenements at the West Port, tenement on the 
south side of the Marketgate, butt of land in the Nethergate, tene- 
ment, garden, and croft there, tenement in the Marketgate, and 
others. Crail, 22nd October, 1520. 

Charter, by the said Sir "William Myrtoun, in terms of the fore- 
going charters, to Sir AVilliam Abercromby, Prebend of the Altar 
of St. Michael the Archangel, within the Collegiate Church of Crail, 
called the Fifth Prebend, of an annual rent of £73 6s. 8d., payable 
from the lands of Grordonshall, Pytmart, and Balhouffie, lying in the 
county of Fife. Crail, 22nd October, 1520. 

Eental of the Prebendary of the Altar of St. John the Baptist, 
situate T\dthin the College 'Kirk of Crail, founded by Sir William 
Myrtoun, Vicar of the Parish Church of Lathrisk, as delivered by 
him to James Leitch, prebend of said Altar, viz., annual rent of £12, 
payable from the lands of the two Cullenachs, i.e., Haystoun and 
Middletone, within the county of Kinross, annual rent of twenty 
shillings and sixpence from the land of John Dykes, on the west 
side of the Brig of Crail, and annual rent of twelve shillings and 
fourpence, from the lands of William Carstairs, on the west side of 
said Brig. 1520. 

Instrument of Eesignation, by William Carstairs, citizen of St. 
Andrews, in the hands of David Gruthrie, one of the bailies of 
St. Andrews, of a tenement on the north side of the south street 
of said city, and which bailie thereupon gave seisin of said 
tenement to Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk. 23rd July, 

Charter, by William Carstairs, citizen of St. Andrews, to Sir 
William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, founder of the Collegiate 
Church of Crail, of a tenement on the north side of the south street 
of St. Andrews, and that in consideration of a certain sum of money 
paid to him therefor, to be holden for payment of twenty shillings 
and eightpence to the chaplain of the Altar of the Holy Trinity, 
with the Parish Church of St. Andrews, 13 to the vicar of St. 
Andrews, two shillings and eightpence to the chaplain of the Altar 
of St. Stej)hen in said church, two to the chaplain of the Altar of St. 
Niuians, eight shillings to the Monastery of St. Andrews. St. 
Andrews, 23rd July, 1521. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of Sir John Bowman and William 
Abercromby, Chaplains, Prebends of the Collegiate Church of Crail, 
in a tenement on the north side of the south street of St. Andrews, 
proceeding on the resignation of Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of the 
Parish Church of Lathrisk, in the hands of David Guthrie, one of the 
Bailies of St. Andrews 23rd July, 1521. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of Sir David Bowman, Chaplain and 
Procurator of the College 3h\irch of Crail, in a tenement on the north 
side of the south street of St. Andrews, proceeding on the resignation 


of Sir "William Myrtoun, Vicar of the Parish Church of Lathrisk, in 
the hands of David Guthrie, one of the Bailies of St. Andrews, 
Penult April, 1532. 

Instrument bearing that Mr. Thomas Meldrum of Newhall, David 
Myrtoun of Cambo, and others, the Bailies and community of the 
Burgh of Crail, having assembled in the Court House of the said 
Burgh, admitted Sir William Turner, Chaplain, to the Chaplainry of 
the Holy Cross, within the Collegiate Church of Crail, founded by Sir 
William Myrtoun, Vicar of the Parish Church of Lathrisk, and of 
which Chaplainry the said Bailies and community were patrons, the 
same being then vacant by the demise of Sir Alexander Swinton, late 
Chaplain thereof. 6th May, 1522. 

Charter by Sir Thomas Preston, Vicar of St. Andrews, to Sir 
William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, of an annual rent of 13 shillings 
money of Scotland, payable from the tenement of William Carstairs, 
lying on the north side of the south street of St. Andrews, and that 
in consideration of a certain sum of money paid to him by the said 
Sir William Myrtoun. St. Andrews, pi' July, 1522. 

Instrument of seisin following on the foregoing charter in favour 
of the said Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, given by 
David Given, one of the Bailies of St. Andrews, on the resignation 
of Sir William Preston, Vicar of St. Andrews. Prenult July, 

Instrument of seisin in favour of Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of 
Lathrisk, in an annual rent of 7 shillings, payable from a tenement, 
croft, and yard, on the south side of the Nethergate of the Burgh of 
Crail, proceeding on the resignation of David Calvert, son and heir 
of the deceased William Calvert, Burgess of the said Burgh, in the 
hands of Mr. Thomas Lumsdaine of the Star of Bethlehem, Bailie. 
22nd September, 1522. 

Letter by John, Prior of the High Church of St. Andrews, and 
Vicar-General, bearing that Lord Andrew, late Archbishop of St. 
Andrews, Primate and Legate of Scotland, had, at the humble suppli- 
cation of Janet, Prioress of the Monastery of Haddington, of the 
Order of Cistertians, Sir William Myrtoun, Presbyter of the Parish 
Church of Lathrisk, and of the Bailies and community of the Burgh 
of Crail, founded the College Chui'ch of Crail, and confirmed the rules 
and statutes to be observed therein, inviolably confirming the said 
statutes, and all chartei's and other grants to the said Collegiate 
Church. Also, of new ordaining that the Vicar and Prebends thereof 
shall, at all times necessary, meet in the said church without talking, 
murmu.ring, or laughter, and without vain and vague countenances, 
but in. peace and silence, and with all gravity. Also, bearing that 
the ofiicial of St. Andrews shall twice in the year, at least, visit the 
said Collegiate Church, for the purpose of censuring or pvinishing 
abuses therein, and to superintend the state of the ornaments and 
others therein, and to be allowed, therefor, for his expenses, the 
sum of 40 shillings money of Scotland. St. Andrews, 1st June, 


Note. — The reason that this letter was granted by the Vicar- 
G-eneral, and not by the Archbishop, seems to be that the 
See was then vacant. The letter is of considerable length, 
but the abridgement here given is perhaps as much as is 

Charter by Alexander Balcolmy, Burgess of Cupar, to Sir Thomas 
Lumsden, of the lands called the Bir-croft, w^th the tenement thereof 
on the south side of the market gate of the Burgh of Crail, and in 
consideration of the sum of 100 merks money of Scotland, Crail, 
1st May, 1513. 

Decree Arbitral and Sentence pronounced by Mr. James Simpson, 
Eector of Kirkforther, and official of St. Andi^ews, in certain contro- 
versies and complaints between Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of 
Lathrisk, Sirs Andrew Myrtoun, William Turner, David G-awe, 
David Bowman, John Bowman, James Brown, Edward Annell, 
Thomas Bowman, William Boswell, James Corstorphine, and Wm. 
Abercromby; the Founder and Chaplains and Choristers of the 
Choir of the Collegiate Church of Crail, on the one part, and Mr. 
Thomas Lumsdaine on the other part, decerning that the said 
Thomas Lumsdaine in common with all the other chaplains to per- 
form the duties imposed on them by the said founder, viz., four 
obsequies for the safety of the soul of said Founder, the like for 
Dame Janet Hepburn, Prioress of Haddington, the like for Lady 
Margaret Car Comitesse de Erroll, one for the soul of Andrew 
Abercromby, burgess of Dundee, and all other duties and services 
required. Church of the Holy Trinity of St. Andrews, 7th Novem- 
ber, 1524. 

Ratification by Mariota Todrick, spouse of Greorge Bawin, Burgesa 
of the Burgh of Crail, of a disposition by her said husband, to Sir 
William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, Chaplain and Founder of the 
Collegiate Church of Crail, of a tenement and rood of land on the 
south side of the market gate of the said burgh. 6th May, 1525. 

Instrument bearing that in presence of John Abercromby, and 
John Gribson, Bailies of the Burgh of Crail, David Myrtoun of 
Cambo, John Lumsden of Airdrie, and others of the Community of 
the said burgh, patrons of the Altar of the Holy Cross, within the 
Collegiate Church of Crail, compeared Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar 
of Lathrisk, founder of said Collegiate Church, who proposed to 
them that it was his intention to found two schools within the said 
burgh of Crail ; one thereof for teaching grammar, and the other 
thereof for teaching music ; and appointing Sir John Bowman and 
Sir James Bowman, preceptors to the said schools respectively, all 
which the said Bailies and Community ratified and confirmed. 9th 
November, 1525. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of Sir David Bowman and Sir 
William Abercromby, Chaplains and Prebends of the Collegiate 
Church of Crail, in 15 acres of the arable lands of Pinkerton, and 
annual rent of 5 merks, furth of the lands of Pittowie, in warrandice 


thereof, 6 acres of arable land iu the Pottergate of the Burgh of 
Crail, called Eingland's Croft, profundis maribus by Sir William 
Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, founder of the Collegiate Church of 
Crail, also by the Bailies of Crail on the resignation in their hands 
of parts of said subjects, by Sir William Myrtoun. 21st November, 

Charter by Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, in the Dio- 
cese of St. Andrews, founder of the Collegiate Church of Crail, by 
Avhichfor the glory of Grod, the Son, the Blessed Virgin Mary, and 
all Saints, for the safety of the souls of King James V., James, his 
Archbishop, his own soul, his father and mother, his predecessors 
and successors. Sir Thomas Myrtoun, Archdean of Aberdeen, and 
others, granted in as far as in his power in virtue of Eoyal Confir- 
mation in his favour, to the Prebends and Chaplains of the Altars of 
the Holy Cross, the Blessed Virgin Mary, and others, of tenements 
in the city of St. Andrews, viz., tenement on the north side of the 
south street, thereof, tenement in the market gate, thereof, 5 acres 
of land in Pinkerton, £5 money of Scotland from the land's of Pit- 
towie, 6 acres of land in the Pottergate of the burgh of Crail, per- 
taining to the service of St. Katherine, another acre in the said 
Pottergate, 4 tenements on the north side of the market gate there- 
of, other 4 tenements there, 4 merks yearly from the lands of Pit- 
cullie, 15 shillings annually from the lands of G-eorge Bawin, in the 
market gate, 6 shillings from the lands of David Galbraith, in the 
south gate tenement of Margaret Powstie, iu the market gate. To 
be holden for performance of the services within the Collegiate 
Church of Crail, and payment of the burgh dues respectively to the 
Magistrates of St. Andrews and Crail therein mentioned. Crail 
20th April, 1526. 

Instrument by which the Lords of Council and Session nominated 
various persons Sheriffs of Fife, to hold Courts for the administration 
of Justice, to take cognition in the cause betwixt the Burgh of Crail, 
and John Anstruther of that Ilk, anent the validity of an Indenture 
entered into between Andrew Anstruther of that Ilk, and the said 
burgh, dated 19th February, 1396, " penes minores custumers ville 
et portus de Anstruther," &c. 10th December, 1526. 

Transumpt by James Simpson, Eector of Kirkforther, principal 
official of St. Andrews, at desire of Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of 
Lathrisk, founder of the Collegiate Church of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, of Crail; of Charter by King James V. to the said Sir William 
Myrtoun, and to eight chaplains within said church, and prebends 
and vicar-pensioner thereof, confirming charter of foundation by the 
said William Myrtoun, dated 20th September, 1526 ; confirmation 
dated 14th November, 1526. Chapel of St. Ann, within the City of 
St. Andrews, 26th February, 1526. 

Charter by David Monypenny of Pitmilly, to Sir William Myr- 
toun, Vicar of Lathrisk, founder of the Collegiate Church of Crail 
and prebendars of said church, of an annual rent of 6 merks usual 
money of Scotland, payable from the lands of Pitmilly, lying in the 


constabulary of Crail, and that in coBsideration of £80 paid to Kim 
by the said Sir William Myrtouu. Crail, 27tb July, 1528. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of Sir "William Myrtoun, Yicar of 
Lathrisk, in an annual rent of 6 merks money of Scotland, payable 
from the said lands of Pitmilly, lying in the constabulary of Crail, 
proceeding upon the foregoing charter. 27tli July, 1528. 

Obligation by David Monypenny of Pitmilly, to the said Sir 
"William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, for payment of the annual 
rent of 6 merks money of Scotland, payable from the lands of Pit- 
milly mentioned in the foregoing Charter and Instrument of Seisin. 
St. Andrevi^s, 1st August, 1528. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of Thomas Eeid, baker, St. Andrews, 
in a tenement on the north side of the south street of St. Andrews, 
proceeding on the resignation of John Davidson, citizen of St.^ 
Andrews, and Katherine Eichardson, his spouse, in the hands of 
Andrew Learmouth, one of the Bailies of St. Andrews. April 
29th, 1529. 

Charter by William Lumsdain of Airdrie, to Sir William Myr- 
toun, Vicar of Lathrisk, founder of the Collegiate Church of Crail, 
of 2 acres of arable land lying on the west side of the Burgh of 
Crail, and annual rent of 12 shillings payable from the lands of John 
Lyell, within the said burgh, and annual rent of 16 shillings from 
the land of Andrew Ballon, lying as said is, and that in considera- 
tion of £48 13s. 4d. paid to him by the said Sir AVilliam Myrtoun. 
Crail, 16th August, 1529. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of 
Lathrisk, in 2 acres of arable land, and others mentioned in the 
foregoing charter, proceeding on the resignation of the said William 
Lumsdain, in the hands of John Abercromby, one of the Bailies of 
the Burgh of Crail. 25th August, 1529. 

Obligation by the said William Lumsdain of Airdrie, John Lyell, 
and Andrew Ballon, to Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, 
for payment to him yearly, of 5 bolls and 5 pecks of sufficient bar- 
ley from the 2 acres of land, and others mentioned in the foregoing 
Charter and Instrument of Seisin. St. Andrews, 28th August, 1529. 
Instrument bearing enactment by Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of 
Lathrisk, founder of the Collegiate Church of Crail, and others, pre- 
bends thereof, that no prebend or chaplain should absent himself 
Irom his duty for the space of one day without leave asked and 
obtained under pain of deprivation. 1st October, 1529. 

Instrument bearing enactments by certain of the Heritors and 
Bailies of Crail, as patrons of the Altar of the Holy Cross, founded 
in the Collegiate Church of Crail, by Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar 
of Lathrisk, at desire of the said Sir William Myrtoun, in terms of 
the foregoing, so far as respected the said Altar. 29th October, 

Instrument bearing that Greorge Clepham, Greorge Barry, George 
Corstorphine, and David Hay, with consent of David Spenge of 
Braidleys, compeared upon the lands of Braidleys, and divided the 


same into two equal portions, wliereof the one pertained to the 
said David Spence, and the other thereof to Sir William Myrtoun, 
Vicar of Lathrisk, and the said David Spence thereupon disjjoned 
his half of said lands to the said Sir William Myrtoun. 27th 
3Iarch, 1531. 

Obligation by William Dishington, Fiar, and G-eorge Dishingtou, 
Laird of Ardross, to Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of the Parish 
Church of Lathrisk, founder of the Collegiate Church of Crail, and 
prebends thereof, to make payment to them yearly, in terms of a 
charter granted by them thereupon, of an annual rent of 20 merks 
money of Scotland, furth of the lands and barony of Ardi'oss, and 
that under pain of payment of 800 merks like money, the same being 
in consideration of 100 angel nobles, 18| rose nobles, 7 Harry 
nobles, 20 double ducats, and 1 single ducat, all in gold, paid to 
them by the said Sir William Myrtoun. St. Andrews, 2ith January, 

Instrument of seisin in favour of Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of 
the Parish Church of Lathrisk, in an annual rent of 20 merks, 
payable from the above mentioned lands and barony, given proprius 
manibus by the said William and Greorge Dishingtons. 24th 
January, 1531. 

Act of Mr. John Weddert, Eector of Flisk, and official of St. 
Andrews, Judge of the Consistorial Court thereof, for deciding 
causes, affirming instrument, dated 12th October, 1512, by Alexander 
Borthwick of Grordonshall, for payment to Sir William Myrtoun, 
Vicar of Lathrisk, of an annual rent of 20 merks from the lauds of 
Balhouffie, Gordonshall, and Petmark, and obliging Robert Borth- 
wick of Grordonshall, son and heir of the said Alexander Borthwick, 
to implement and fulfil the same in all points to the said Sir William 
INlyrtoun. Chapel of St. Ann, in the city of St. Andi-ews, 4tli May, 

Obligation by William Dishingtou, Fiar of Ardross, to Sir William 
Myrtoun, Vicar of the Parish Church of Lathrisk, founder of the 
Collegiate Church of Crail, and his successors, prebends thereof, to 
make payment to them of an annual rent of 10 merks money of 
Scotland, furth of the lands and barony of Ardross, and that under 
payment of 400 merks like money, the same being in consideration 
of 200 merks in gold paid to them by the said Sir William Myrtoun. 
Ardross, 4th April, 1532. 

Note. — Both these obligations refer to charters granted there- 
upon, but they do not now seem to exist. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of 
Lathrisk, in an annual rent of 10 merks, payable from the lands 
and barony of Ardross, mentioned in the foregoing obligation given 
proprius manibus by the said William Dishingtou. 4th April, 1532. 
Instrument bearing that Thomas Meldrum of Seggy, and others. 
Heritors and Burgess of Crail, compeared within the Chapter House 
of Crail, founded by Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, and 


iiomiuated and appoiuted Sir Edward Auuel to be Prebeud of the 
Altar of the Holy Cross mthiu the said Colle^'iate Church, vacaut 
by the demise of Sir AVilliam Turner, late Prebend thereof, (he 
ha\dng been found upon examination to be sufficiently instructed in 
grammar and music). 19th July, 1532. 

Charter by Sir William ^Nlyrtoun, Yicar of Lathrisk, founder of 
the Collegiate Church of Crail, by which for the safety of the souls 
of those therein mentioned inter alia, the soul of Sir Thomas 
Myrtoun, Archdean of Aberdeen, late Provost of Crail, from whom he 
had received the sum of 400 merks of gold of just weight towards the 
founding of said Collegiate Church, and for the souls of all deceased 
enduring the pains of purgatory ; granting to Sir John Murray, 
Prebend of the Altar of St. Katheriue within the said Collegiate 
Church, of an annual rent of £13 Os 8d, payable from the lands of 
Ardross. To be holden for performance of the religious duties 
therein mentioned. 3rd August, 1532. 

Attestation by John Cornwall, one of the Bailies of the Burgbof 
Crail, that John Pringle had made resignation in his hands of a 
tenement of land and half a yard be-west the Bridge of Crail, in 
favour of William Pringle. 13th October, 1532. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of Sir John Murray, Prebend of 
the Collegiate Church of Crail, in an annual rent of G shillings and 
8 pence, payable furth of a tenement on the north side of the 
Nethergate of the Burgh of Crail, given by John Cornwall, one of 
the Bailies of the Burgh aforesaid, on the resignation of Thomas 
Davidson, Burgess of Crail, with consent of Janet Parmer, his 
spouse, and that in consideration of the said Sir John Murray 
performing a mass upon the 7th May, yearly, for the safety of the 
souls of the said Thomas Davidson, and his father and mother, and 
all the faithful deceased and other services. 15th August, 1534. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of John Thomson and Janet Scott, 
his spouse, in a bakehouse on the west side of the road leading to 
the port of Crail, given by Andrew Eichardson, one of the Bailies of 
the Burgb of Crail. 29th October, 1537. 

Charter by Sir Andrew Myrtoun and others, Prebends of the 
Collegiate Church of Crail, to Andrew Young, citizen and burgess 
of St. Andrews, and Elizabeth Westland, his spouse, of a particate 
of land on the south side of the market gate of St. Andrews. To 
be holden for payment to them of the sum of 4 merks money of 
Scotland. Crail, 1538. 

jS'oTE. — This Charter is in the form of an indenture. 

Petition by David Spence of Wormestone, addressed to David, 
Archbisbop of St. Andrews, that he may permit William Costorphin, 
Priest, to receive an annual rent of £10 money of Scotland, furth of 
his lands of AYormestone. Crail, 20th May, 1539. 

Charter by Sir David Bowman, Chaplain of the Altar of St. James 
the Apostle, within the Collegiate Church of Crail, to Sir Andrew 
Myrtoun, Vicar, Pensioner and President of the Choir of the said 


Churcli, and David Bowman, Edward Anuan, and other prebends 
and choristers thereof, of an annual rent of 5 bolls barley, furth of 
the lands of Balcomy and Stewartflat, and that in consideration of 
their performing the several religious services therein mentioned, 
and inter alia, by walking once yearly through the streets of Crail 
to exhort the inhabitants thereof to their duty. Crail 7th June 

Instrument of seisin in favour of Sir David Bowman, Prebend of 
the Collegiate Church of Crail, in an annual rent of 5 shillings, 
payable furth of a tenement on the north side of the market gate*of 
the Burgh of Crail, given by Greorge Chapman, one of the Bailies of 
the said Burgh, on the resignation of the said Sir David Bowman 
7th June, 1539. 

JN'oTE. — It appears by this instrument that Sir William Myrtoun^ 
Vicar of Lathrisk, founder of the Collegiate Church of Crail, 
was then dead. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of the Prebends of Crail, in a piece 
of waste ground on the south side of the JS'ethergate of the Burgh 
of Crail, and that in consideration of their performing a mass Je 
requiem for the soul of John Cruich, on the day of his decease, given 
by Andrew Richardson, one of the Bailies of the said Burgh, on the 
resignation of the said John Cruich, but reserving his own life rent 
thereof. 5th November, 1539. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of the foresaid Prebends of the 
Collegiate Church of Crail, in an annual rent of 10 shillings, payable 
from a tenement on the south side of the market gate of the Burgh 
of Crail, given by the said Andrew Eichardson on the resignation 
of Sir David Bowman, Prebend of the said Collegiate Church 3rd 
December, 1539. 

Charter by Eobert Arnot of Woodmill, and Elizabeth Balcolmy, 
his spouse, to John Connell, Burgess of Crail, of 3 acres of land 
called the Smithlands, near the Burgh of Crail, between the lands 
of Peatfield and Westbarns. To be holden for payment to the King 
and his successors of 5 shillings money of Scotland, and that in 
consideration of a certain sum of money paid to them therefor 
Woodmill, 25th June, 1540. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of the Prebends of the Collegiate 
Church of the blessed Virgin Mary, of the burgh of Crail, in an annual 
rent of 10 shillings usual money of Scotland, furth of a tenement at 
the harbour of Crail, given by Andrew Eichardson, one of the Bailies 
of Crail, on the resignation of Sir Edward Annan, chaplain, and 
that in consideration of their saying a mass de requiem for the souls 
of Thomas Annan, burgess of Crail, and Margaret Wilson, his 
spouse, on the Feast of St. Sebastian, yearly. 15th July, 1540. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour as said is, of an annual rent of 6 
shillings, furth of a tenement on the south side of the Overgate of 
the Burgh of Crail, given by the foresaid Bailie on the resignation 
of John Crook, in consideration of their saying a mass de requiem 


for tlie safety of the soul of Margaret Long, liis spouse, yearly, on 
the day of her decease. 15th July, 1540. 

Obligation by William Dishington, Fiar of Ardross, and others, 
narrating that they had granted an annual rent of G merks money 
t)f Scotland, payable furth of the lands and barony of Ardross, to 
the Prebends of the Choir of the Collegiate Church of Crail, and 
obliging themselves (the holy scriptures touched) to observe and 
fulfil the same in all respects conform to the tenor thereof, and 
renouncing their right of redeeming the same. 27th May, 154-1. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of the Prebends of the Collegiate 
Church of Crail, of a tenement in the Overgate of the Burgh of 
Crail, given by Andrew Eichardson, one of the Bailies of the said 
Burgh of Crail, on the resignation of William Annand, in consider- 
ation of their performing a mass de requiem for the safety of the 
soul of Sir Andrew Annand on the day of his decease, in the most 
decent form, reserving his own liferent of the said subject. 15th 
July, 1541. 

Indenture between Mr. Alexander Curror, Sir David Bowman, 
and otliers. Prebends or Chorists of the Collegiate Church of Crail, 
on the one part, and Andrew Wright, citizen of St. Andrews, and 
Beatrix Bruce, his spouse, on the other part, by which the said pre- 
bends dispone to the said Andrew Wright and his spouse, a tene- 
ment on the east side of the new close of St. Andrews. To be 
holden of the said prebends and their successors, for payment 
yearly of 46 shillings and 8 pence money of Scotland. 19th June, 

Indenture between the foresaid Prebends, on the one part, and 
Alexander Thomson, citizen of St. Andrews, and Janet Watson, his 
spouse, on the other part, by which they dispone to the said Alex. 
Thomson and his spouse, a tenement on the west side of said new 
close, and that for payment yearly to them of the sum of 43 shillings 
and 4 pence money foresaid. 19th July, 1541. 

Indenture as said is, on the one part, and William Kinloch, citi- 
zen and biu-gess of St. Andrews, and Besseta Birrell, his spouse, on 
the other part, by which the said prebends dispone to the said 
William Kinloch, and his spouse, a tenement on the east side of the 
new close of the said city of St. Andrews, for payment to the said 
prebends of 46 shillings and 8 pence money of Scotland. 11th 
March, 1541. 

Charter by Sir David Bowman, Prebend of the Altar of St. James 
the Apostle, within the Collegiate Church of Crail, to Mr. John 
Bowman, his cousin, priest and preceptor of the grammar school of 
the Burgh of Crail, situated near the Altar of St. John the Baptist, 
within the said church, of a croft containing six and a half acres of 
land, mth the tenements and gardens pertaining thereto, holding 
burgage of the Burgh of Crail, croft of land on the north side of the 
Pottergate, croft called the Lyne Croft, consisting of half an acre of 
land, on the east side of the Nethergate, and tenement and yard on 
the north side of the Over or Marketgate of the said burgh. To be 


holden for performance of tlie relioious duties and services tlicroiii 
mentioned. Crail, 5th October, 1542. 

Indenture between Mr. Alexander Curror, Sir David Bowman, 
and others. Prebends or Chorists of the Collegiate Church of Crail 
on the one part, and Andrew Ednam, citizen of St. Andrews, ami 
Eupham Br3^die, his spouse, on the other part, by which the said 
Prebends dispone to the said Andrew Ednam and his spouse, a 
tenement on the west side of the new close of the city of St. Andrews. 
To be holden for payment to them yearly of the sum of 46 shillings 
and 8 pence money of Scotland. Penulto, January, 1542. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of John Lumsden, in a croft of land 
on the south side of the market gate of the Burgh of Crail, given by 
William Bowsy, one of the Bailies of the said burgh, on the resigna- 
tion of Mr. Thomas Lumsden. 22nd January, 1543. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of Andrew Cairntown, and others, 
Prebends of the Collegiate Church of Crail, in an annual rent of 23 
merks, payable furth of the lands of Cambo and Belsches, proceeding 
upon the resignation of David Myrtoun, with consent of William 
Myrtoun, his son. 24th May, 1545. 

Obligation by Alexander Meld rum of Dunipace, and Margaret 
Myrtoun, his spouse, to Mr. Alexander Curror, Sir David Bowman, 
and others. Prebends of the Collegiate Church of Crail, obliging them- 
selves thereby to implement and fulfil to the said Prebend,\ Charter 
granted for payment of an annual rent of six merks, 8 shillings, pay- 
able furth of the lands of Dunipace, and that under the penalty of 100 
merks. Crail, 5th July, 1546. 

Obligation by Sir James Learmouth of Balcomy, Knight, and 
Dame Gizill Meldrum, his spouse, to Sir Thomas Clerk, Prebend of 
the Altar of St. Michael the Archangel, within the Collegiate Churcli 
of Crail, founded by the deceased Sir William Myrtoun, Yicar of 
Lathrisk, obliging themselves to make payment to him and his succes- 
sors. Prebends of said Altar, of an annual rent of 17 merks, usual 
money of Scotland, furth of the lands of Balcomy, the same being in 
consideration of a certain sum of money paid to them by the said'sir 
Thomas Clark, and that under the penalty of £100 like money. St. 
Andrews, 22nd August, 1546. 

Contract between Mr. Patrick Myrtoun, Archdean of Aberdeen 
and Provost of the Collegiate Church of Crail, on the one part, and 
the Prebends and Chorists of the said Church on the other part, by 
which, in consideration of their having paid to him the sum of 475 
merks usual money of Scotland, by the said Prebends, he assigns and 
makes over to them the sum of 190 merks, being the amount of the 
fruits and rents of the said Provostry and Vicarage of Crail, disponed 
by him in tack to Sir Edward Annand, farmer thereof, and that ay 
and until they be fully paid, of the said sum so advanced by them a't 
the term of Allhallowday, and the invention of the crop, Crail, 26th 
August, 1546. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of James White, in a tenement on 
the north side of the market gate of the Burgh of Crail, given by 


Andrew Riclianlson, one of the Bailies of the said burgh, on the 
resignation of Helen Dunbar, spouse of the said James White, 17th 
November, 154G. 

Instrument of seisin in fiivour of Mr. Alexander Curror, Colligistart 
of Crail, in an annual rent of £-1 8s, payable furth of the lands of 
Dunii)ace, proceeding on the resignation of Alexander Mtddrum of 
Dunipace. 14th June, 1547. 

Transumpt obtained before INIr. Walter Feithy, Dean of Ai-ts of 
the University, and Walter Mar, Priest, as Executors of the deceased 
Mr. Robert Lawson, Vicar of Ecclesgreig, narrating that the said Mr. 
Robert Lawson had founded an Altar to be called the Holy Blood 
Altar, within the Church of the Holy Trinity of St. Andrews, and 
had gi-anted to the Chaplains thereof a tenement on the south side of 
the market gate of the said city foi- the sustenance of one Chaplain 
therein. Of confirmation of the said foundation by James, Prior of 
the Metropolitan Church of St. Andrews, dated 12th May, 1548. Of 
confirmation by John, Archbishoj) of St. Andrews, of said foundation, 
dated 24th July, 154'J ; and instrument of seisin in favour of the said 
Mr. Robert Lawson in said tenement, on the resignation of the said 
Mr. Robert Lawson, dated 23rd May, 1545-1549. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of John Bowsie and Janet . . 
his, in a tenement on the north side of the Market-gate of 
Crail, given by William Bowsie, one of the Bailies of the Burgh of 
Crail, on the resignation of James White, with consent of Helen 
Dunbar, his spouse, 13th June, 1550. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of Andrew Cun-or, and the other 
collegianers of the College of Crail, in an annual rent of 20 merks 5 
shillings and 4 pence, payable furth of the lands of Dunipace, on the 
resignation of Alexander Meldrum, of Dunipace, and Margaret 
Myi-ton, his spouse, 4th July, 1550. 

Charter by Mr. Alexander Curror, Sir David Bowman, and others, 
prebends of the Collegiate Church of Crail, to David Kay and 
Katherine Nicholl, his spouse, of a tenement on the south side of the 
JNlarketgate of the city of St. Andrews, to be holden for payment 
yearly to them of 53 shillings and 4 pence, money of Scotland. 
Crail, 15th July, 1550. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of Sir John Brown, chaplain, in 5 
acres of arable land, whereof 4 acres lye in the Ward, and the other 
thereof in the Murray Law, being parts of the lordship of Cambo, 
proceeding on the resignation of NV'illiam Myrtoun of Cambo, in con- 
sideration of the sum of 200 merks paid to him by the said Sir John 
Brown. 20th January, 1550. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of Andrew Farmer, senior, burgess 
of Crail, in the Mills of the burgh of Crail, in security of an annual 
rent of £14, usual money of Scotland, payable therefrom, given by 
Mr. John Arnot, one of the bailies of the said burgh, with consent of 
the council and community of the same. 17th November, 1551. 

Charter of Thomas Lumsdain, of Ardre, Mr. Thomas Arnot, 
William Bow.sie, and John Davidson, bailies of Crail, and burgess 


and community tliereof, to the foresaid Andrew Farmer, in Kippo, 
and Margaret Forster, his spouse, of the two common mills' pertainina 
to the council and community, and multui-es payable to said milL* 
to be holden feu of the said burgesses and community for payment 
yearly of 20 merks, money of Scotland, and 13 shillings and 4 pence, 
like money, in augmentation of the rental. Crail, 7th December, 155l! 
Instrument of seisin in favour of the said Andrew Farmer and 
Margaret Forster, his spouse, in the above-mentioned mills of Crail. 
9th January, 1551. 

Charter of the foresaid Thomas Lumsdain, and others, to William 
Bowsie, burgess of Crail, of a partuate of land near the burgh of 
Crail, called Easter Loan, situate among the lands pertaining to the 
service of Holy Cross, and that in consideration of the sum of 100 
merks money of Scotland, to be holden for payment of 13 shillings 
and_4 pence like money yearly, to the said burgesses and community. 
Crail, January, 1551. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of Sir Andrew Annand, in a tene- 
ment on the north side of the Market-gate of the Burgh of Crail, 
given by one of the bailies of the said burgh, on the resignation of 
Thomas Davidson. 15th February, 1551. 

Charter by Thomas Lumsdaine, of Ardre, to Mr. Alexander Curror, 
and others, prebends of the Collegiate Church of Crail, of an annual 
rent of 14 merks usual money of Scotland, payable furth of the lands 
of Sypsies, lying at the Burgh of Crail, the same being in consideration 
of a certain sum of money, to be holden for i^ayment yearly of a penny 
m name of blench, if asked only. Crail, 21st November, 1552. 

Instrument of Seisin in fVivour of the said Mr. Alexander Curror, 
and others, in the annual rent mentioned in the foregoing charter, and 
proceeding thereon. 22nd November, 1552. 

Letters by Queen Mary, addressed to the Provost and Bailies of 
Crail, bearing that it was statute and ordained formerly by the Queen's 
dearest mother, her dearest cousin James Duke of Chatelherault Earl 
of Arran, Lord Hamilton, Governor of the Eealm, and Lords of 
Secret Council, that there should be raised throughout the haill bur- 
rows of the realm the number of 300 footmen, well furnished with 
powder, flask, and other gear pertaining thereto, and to be habited in 
new hose, "and new don blac of canwes, at ye leift, and sa mony as 
" beis not furnist with hagbuttes, as said is, that thai be all abulzeit 
" as said is above-written, Weill furnist with jak, steillbou, sweird, 
'• bucklair, slevis of plait or mailze, and ane speir of sax elnis lang 
" or thereby," to pass to France, for the support of the King o1" 
France, and therefore charging the said Provost and Bailies to have 
two men ready, conform to a roll made up, to be sent to Edinburgh 
between and 10th January next, under pain of rebellion. Edinburoli 
6th December, 1552. =" 

Letter of Reversion by Andrew Farmer in Kippo, to the bailies, 
council, and community of the burgh, bearing that they had set to 
the said Andrew Farmer and Margaret Forster, his spouse, the corn 
milnes of Crail, lying on the east side of the King's Castle, conform 


to fell cliartei- made thereupon, but declaring nevertlielcss tliat liow 
soon the said council and community should make payment to him 
of the sum of 550 merks money of Scotland, the same should be held 
lawfully redeemed. 20th January, 1552. 

Charter by Queen Mary, confirming charter by King Robert to 
the burgesses of Crail, " Quod hebeant teneant et possesseant Villam 
'• de Crale in liberum burgum cum thole et theme et die fore singulis 
" diebus dominicis et aim omnibus libertatibus coramoditatibus et 
*' assiamintis quibus uiste iisi sunt aut uti potuerunt temi^oribus 
" Regum Scotie predecessorum nostrorum a mediate aqua de Lyveu 
" usque ad aquam de Putokyn Yolunusque quod burgeuses dicti burgi 
" et eorum successores liberi sunt, de tlioloiieo et alius custumis per 
" totum regnum Scotie Quare firmiter pt-ohebemus ne quis conti-a 
"temorem hujus nostra infeodationes dictos burgenses nostra aut eorum 
" successoi-es aliquate nus vexare presumate injuste super nostram 
"penarium foris facturum." Apud, Edinburgh, 10th May, 1553. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of William Muir, in a tenement on 
the west side of the ])ort of the Burgh of Crail, given by Thomas 
Martin, one of the bailies of Crail, on the resignation of the said 
William Muir. 15th May, 1553. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of Sir Jaspar Buchanan, and the 
other prebends of the Collegiate Church of Crail, in a tenement on 
the north side of the West-gate of the Burgh of Crail, given by John 
Bisset, one of the bailies of Crail, on the resignation of John King, 
and Janet Gourlay, his spouse. 30th November, 1553, 

Instrument of seisin in favour of John Reid, as heir to Thomas 
Reid, baker, St. Andrews, and Janet Nory, his mother, in liferent, 
in a tenement on the north side of the south street of St. Andrews, 
given by Alexander Sibbald, one of the bailies of St. Andrews, on 
the resignation of the said John Reid. 29th February, 1553. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of Sir David Bowman, and the 
other prebends of the Collegiate Church of Crail, in an annual rent 
of 20 merks money of Scotland, payable furth of the lauds of Third- 
part, or Caiplie, lying in the County of Fife, ](roceeding iipon precept 
of seisin, by Alexander Inglis, of Inglis-Farvit. 9th May, 1554. 

Instrument of protest taken by William Myrtoun, of Cambo, bear- 
ing that there had been a contract entered into between him and 
David Sibbald, of Cookston, by which the said David Sibbald, and 
Margaret Sibbald, his spouse, bound themselves under the penalty of 
£100 Scots to permit a ditch or landstand to be cut for his behoof, 
upon the said lands of Cookston, but which they had not implemented, 
therefore, protesting for payment of said penalty. 12th September, 

Letter of sack by William Bowsie, and other bailies of the Burgh 
of Crail, with consent of the council and community of the said burgh, 
to John Anstruther of that ilk, and others, of the small customs on 
the east side of the burn of Anstruther, and that for the space and 
term of 9 years next to come, they paying, therefore, yearly to the said 
burgh, the sum of 5 merks money of Scotland. Crail, 20th May, 1555, 


Discharge by Andrew Lundy, of Balgony, of the sum of £5, for 
the annual rent of Crail, for the term " fyfte fy ve" yeiris, (1555). 

21st August. 

From this indorsation, this appears to be the duty payable iu 

Instrument of Seisin, in favour of Alexander Corstorphine, in a 
laigh house and croft at the Castle, in security of an annual rent of 
5 merks given by Andrew Lumsden, one of the bailies of the burgh 
of Crail, on the resignation of Andrew Richardson, with consent of 
Margaret Hay, his spouse. 24th March, 1555. 

Procuratory by Alexander Meldrum, of Sagy or Seggie, to Alex- 
ander Gourlay, to give seisin to Mr. John Chalmers, prebend of the 
Collegiate Church of Crail, of an annual rent of 10 merks 2 shillings 
and 8 pence, payable furth of the lands of Dunypace. 24th Septem- 
ber, 1556. 

Charter by the said Alexander Meldrum, of Segy, with consent of 
Margaret, his spouse, to the said Mr. John Chalmers and the other 
prebends of the Collegiate Chixrch of Crail, of the foresaid annual rent 
of 10 merks 2 shillings and 8 jience, payable from the lands of Duny- 
pace. Crail, 8th January, 1556. 

Obligation by Alexander Meldrum, younger, of Seggy, to implement 
and fulfil the foregoing charter to the said prebends of the Collegiate 
Church of Crail, in all the circumstances thereof, and that under the 
penalty of 100 merks money of Scotland. Crail, 8th January, 1556. 

j^OTE. — Both the Charter and Obligation are in favour of the 
whole prebends of the Collegiate Church, although only Mr. 
John Chalmers, is included in the Procuratory. 

Letters by Queen Mary, addressed to the Bailies of Crail, charging 
them to summon the whole inhabitants within their jurisdiction to a 
weaponschawing, and thereafter to levy the fines and inlaws of such as 
shall not be found sufficiently provided with weapons and armour, 
and that under the highest pains as accords. Newbottle, 4th August, 

Charter by James, Commendator of the Monastery of St. Andrews, 
with consent of the chapter thereof, to Thomas Bain, burgess of the 
burgh of Crail, and Janet Dun, his spouse, of a croft of land, called 
the Poor's Croft, lying on the east side of the said burgh, to be holden 
of the said commendator, for payment of 4 shillings money of Scotland, 
and 3 shillings, like money, yearly, in augmentation of the rental. St. 
Andrews, 5th October, 1557. 

Instrument of Seisin, in favour of the said Thomas Bain, and Janet 
Dun, his spouse, in the foresaid croft, mentioned in the forgoing charter 
and proceeding thereon. 10th October, 1557. 

Discharge by Sir Robert Carnegie of Kinnaird, Knight, collector 
of the temporal men's tax of £50,000 granted to the Queen's Grace, 
to Mr. George Meldrum, Bailie of Crail, of the sum of £15 money of 


Scotland, for the tax of tlie burgli of Crail, being for the second term. 
Edinburgh, 4th March, 1557. 

Decreet of the Magistrates of the Burgh of Crail at the instance of 
Andrew Farmer, tacksman of the mills of the said burgh, against John 
Kid, James Dawson, burgesses of Crail, and others, for abstracting 
their corns from the said mills, therefore decerning them to make 
payment to the said Andrew Farmei', of the mulctures equivalent to 
said corns. Crail, 15th April, 1558. 

Discharge by Robert Richardson, treasurer, clerk to William 
Henryson Dingwall, Pui'suivant, in name and behalf of the Bailies of 
the Burgh of Crail, of the sum of £12 money of Scotland, in terms of 
discharge above mentioned. Edinburgh, 18th November, 1558. 

Obligation by Thomas Lumsden of Ardre, by which he binds and 
obliges himself to implement the charter granted by him to Mr. 
Alexander Currar, and others, prebends of the Collegiate Church of 
Crail, of the annual rent payable from the lands therein mentioned. 
8th February, 1558. 

Charter by Alexander Cunningham, fiar of "VVestbarns, with consent 
of William Cunningham, of Westbarns, his father, to William Bowsie, 
burgess of Crail, of .3 acres of arable land, called Nyne Rigs, lying on 
the west side of the burgh of Crail, and barony of Westbarns, to be 
holden for payment yearly of 2 bolls barley, of the measure of C'rail, 
for each of said acres, and 2 shillings in augmentation of the rental, 
and 20 shillings like money, at the entry of his heirs. Crail, . ., 

Letter of Reversion by Andrew Farmer, younger, son of Andrew 
Farmer, in Kippo, bearing that his said father had infeft him in the 
two common mills of the burgh of Crail, pertaining to him in feu 
farm, and that how soon his said father, or Thomas Farmer, his eldest 
son, should make payment to him of the sum of 550 merks money of 
Scotland, together with a rose noble, -within the Parish Church of 
Crail, the said mills should be lawfully redeemed. St. Andrews, 17th 
October, 1560. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of Margaret Robertson, daughter 
of the deceased William Robertson, in a tenement on the south side 
of the Nethergate of the burgh of Crail, given by William Annan, 
one of the bailies of the said burgh, on her resignation of the same in 
his hands. 25th February, 1560. 

Instrument of Seisin, in favour of Andrew Bickerton, burgess of 
Crail, in a particate of land lying in the West Green of the burgh 
of Crail, given by James Lumsdaine, one of the bailies of the said 
burgh, on the resignation of John Corstorphine, burgess of Crail, 
with consent of Christian Lumsden, his spouse. 17th November, 

Charter by George Learmonth, of Balcomy, with consent of Grizell 
Meldrum, his mother, to Sir David Bowman and the otehr prebends 
of the Collegiate Church of Crail, of an annual rent of 20 merks money 
of Scotland, payable furth of his lands, to be holden for payment of a 
penny yearly, if asked. Crail, 26th May, 1562. 


Decreet by the Lords of Council, bearing that summons had been 
raised at the instance of Mr. John Spence of Condie, and Robert 
Chrichton, our Sovereign Lady's Advocates, and the Bailies of the 
burgh of Crail, against Andrew Earl of Rothes, Sheriff-Principal of 
the County of Fife, and his deputes, touching a decreet pronounced 
by the said Earl and his deputies at the burgh of Cupar, against 
John Lumsdain, burgess of the burgh of Crail, decerning him to 
restore a five-year-old horse, alleged stolen by him from George 
Stewart, of Balmadyside, and which had been apprehended in his 
possession, and concluding that the said George Stewart be decerned 
by their Lordships to deliver certain wheat-bread and cloaths to the 
avail of £10, taken by him from the said John Lumsdain, under 
colour of the said sentence of the Sheriff, and to have it found that 
the said Sheriff had done wrong in usurping the jurisdiction of the 
said bailies of Crail, the said John Lumsden's "neighbours ordinair." 
The said Lords of Council having heard parties' procurators, and 
having duly considered their several allegations, do thereupon annul 
the said sentence and all that has followed, or competent to follow, 
thereon. Edinburgh, 26th March, 1563. 

Precept of Clare Constat, by David Earl of Crawford, to Robert 
Lundy of Balgony, his brother, for infefting him in an annual rent 
of £5 money of Scotland, payable from the King's Customs of the 
burgh of Crail, Jl7^m regia. Edinburgh, 4th December, 1563. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of John Digvail, Burgess of the Burgh 
of Crail, in an annual rent of £3 money of Scotland, payable from^a 
tenement in the Nethergate of said Burgh, given by Edward Bain, 
one of the Bailies of Crail, on the resignation of John Vdhou, indweller 
in Crail, with consent of Helen Lawson, his spouse. 4th October 

Instrunient of seisii"! in favour of Andrew Morris and Isabel 1 
Farmer, his spouse, in the t\^o common mills of the Burgh of Crail, 
they paying yearly to the Bailies and community of the said Burgh', 
the sum of 21 merks money of Scotland, in favour of the said Andrew 
Farmer, given by Mr John Arnot, one of the Bailies of the said Burgh, 
on the resignation of the said Andrew. 11 th November, 1564. 

Charter by Alexander Cunningham, Fiar of Westbarns, with 
consent of William Cunningham of AYestbarns, his father, to William 
Beanston, Burgess of Crail, and Eupham Mories, his spouse, of 2 and 
a- half acres of land, of the arable lands of Westbarns. To be holden 
for payment yearly of 2 bolls of sufficient barley for each acre. Crail 
19th December, 1564. 

Discharge by Luke Wilson, Burgess of Edinburgh, as having com- 
mission, for that effect to the Bailies of Crail, of the sum of lOCi merks 
money of Scotland, being the stent imposed upon the Burgh of Crail 
for the present raid. 4th September, 1564. 

Letters of horning at the instance of the Bailies of the Burgh of 
Crail, against the inhabitants of the said Burgh, for payment of their 
respective proportions of the sum of 100 merks money of Scotland, 
as the stent imposed upon the said burgh for license granted to them 


to remain at home from the Queen's last raid, which was ordained to 
liave couveened at the day of August last by past, with 15 

days provisions conform to proclamation. Edinburgh, 5th Sept., 15(!5. 

Charter by Mr. John Arnot, John Ehynd, and Patrick Geddy, 
Bailies of the Burgh of Crail, with consent of the Council and com- 
munity of the said Burgh, to Edward Bain, Burgess of Crail, of an 
annual rent of 27 mei-ks money of Scotland, payable furth of the two 
mills of Crail, and 21 merks and G merks furth of the small customs 
within the said Burgh of Crail. 30th September, 15G5. 

Obligation by Mr. John Arnot and other Bailies of the Burgh of 
Crail, by which they oblige themselves to implement and fulfil the 
above mentioned charter, and that under the penalty of doubling the 
said annual rents to him should they act on the contrary. Crail, 3Uth 
September, 15 05. 

Letter of reversion by Edward Bain, Burgess of Crail, to Mr. John 
Arnot, and others mentioned in the above charter, bearing that they 
had granted to him certain annual rents payable from the rents of the 
mills of Crail, but declaring, nevertheless, that how soon they the said 
John Arnot and others should make payment to him of 300 merks 
money of Scotland within the i)arish kirk of Crail, that then, and 
immediately thereafter, he should renounce his right and title thereto, 
and declare the same lawfully redeemed. Crail. 28th Sejjtember, 15G5. 

Letters of horning bearing that by divers Acts of Parliament it had 
been statute, and appointed that all merchants taking goods furth of 
the realm, and in bringing bullion therefor, should be chargeable for 
certain duties in silver, for the respective goods therein mentioned, 
but which statutes had been evaded, therefore charging the said 
merchants and all others henceforth to make payment of said duties. 
Edinburgh, 16th October, 1565. 

Letter of reversion by David Kay, Burgess of the Burgh of Crail, 
to Edward Bain, John Beid, William Bowsy, and William Mackay, 
Bailies of the said burgh, bearing that they had granted to him a 
charter of an annual rent of £10 money of this realme, payable furth 
of the small customs of Crail, yet declaring, nevertheless, that how 
soon they should make payment to him of the sum of £1 00 like money, 
that then, and immediately thereafter, he should renounce all right 
and title to the said annual rent, and declare the same lawfully 
redeemed. Crail, 21st October, 1565. 

License by Queen Mary to Alexander Cunningham, Fiar of West- 
barns, and William Cunningham, his father, possessor thereof, to let 
out in feu-farm their lands of Westbarns and Gallowside, lying in the 
constabulary of Crail, to such persons and for such periods as they shall 
think fitting. Edinburgh, 2Cth January, 1565. 

Charter by William Cunningham of Westbarns, to William Bowsy, 
of four acres of arable laud in the sea field, being part of the lordship 
of Westbarns. To be holden feu of the said William Cunningham 
and his heirs for payment yeai'ly of 2 bolls sufficient barley for each 
acre of said lands and duties at the entry of heirs therein mentioned. 
Crail, 21st December, 1566. 


Precept Ijy Queen Mary for passing a charter under the Great Seal 
in favour of the bailies, council, and community of the Burgh of Crail,' 
of all and sundry lands, tenements, houses, kirks, chapels, acres, crofts, 
annual rents, fruits, duties, and others whatsoever pertaining to them 
or to all and whatsoever chaplaiuries, altarages, or prebendaries, or of 
any kirk or college founded within the liberties of the said burgh, by 
whatsoever patron, excepting the lands, houses, yards, annual rents, 
farms, and teinds, which pertained to the Abbey of Haddington, and 
parsonage of Crail, in times by past, and having consideration of the 
great frauds " used be ane large nowmer of the saidis prebendaris and 
chapellaris of wha hes sen the alteratioun of religioun, dispoint analeit, 
and put away in the handis of particular men the landis annual rentis 
and tenementi admortiz at to thair chapellanreis and prebendareis, and 
lykwis, that divers of the lieges hais acclaraathe richt of certain landis 
tenementis and annual rentis admortizat by thair predecessoux-is, &c., 
who of befoir ha,d dotit the samyn, to the kirk quhilk has procedit, 
pairtlie be our sicht of the ofiiciaris of the said burgh, and pairtlie be 
collusioun betwixt the saidis chapellaius and prebendaries." . . 

Account of duties rendered in Exchequer by the bailies of Crail, 
amounting to £11, paid by Thomas Bayne, one of the said bailies. 
1st August, 1568. 

Charter of John Ramsay, one of the bailies of the burgh of Crail, 
to Mr. George Meldrum, burgess of the said burgh, of a barn with 
the house ai\d yard pertaining thereto, and kiln situate of the north 
side of the East Green of Crail. Crail, 9th April, 1569. 

Account rendered in Exchequer by George Meldrum, in behalf of 
the bailies of the burgh of Crail, of the dues payable therein by the 
said burgh, extending to £1\, money of Scotland. Edinburgh, 22nd 
July, 1569. 

Discharge by Robert Lundy, of Balgony, to the bailies of the town 
of Crail of the sum of £5 as the annual rent payable to him and his 
predecessors, which they had been in use and accustomed to receive. 

Summons at the instance of Mr. Patrick Myi'toun, treasurer of 
Aberdeen, and Provost of the College Kirk of Crail, Mr. George 
Meldrum, William Crail, John Douglas, and John Reid, burgesses of 
the burgh of Crail, and bailies and community of the said burgh, 
patrons of the prebends of the College Kirk thereof, and all others 
having interest, against Janet Beugis and Elizabeth Lumsdain, 
sisters and heirs of the deceased Thomas Lumsdain of Ardre, and 
their respective husbands for their interests, and James Lumsdain, 
son of John Lumsdain, of Blanerne, to compear before the Lords of 
Council, touching the prodviction of a pretended renunciation, alleged 
to have been granted by the pi-ebencls of the Collegiate Church of 
Crail of certain annual rents payable from the lands of Ardre and 
Sypsies, a tenement in Crail, and croft lying within the liberty of the 
said burgh. Edinburgh, 11th February, 1569. 

Discharge by Robert Lundy, of Balgony, to William A mot, bailie 
of the town of Crail, of the sum of £5, money of Scotland, as his 


annual rent of tlie then instant year, 1571. Balgony, 8tli December, 

Instrument of seisin in favour of George Seton, son of the deceased 
David Seton, burgess of Crail, in an annual rent of 2 1 merkf , payable 
from the mills of the burgh of Crail, given by John Reid, one of the 
bailies of the said burgh, under the reservation of 9 merks yearly to 
Janet Greig, his mother, during her lifetime. 19th December, 1571. 
Instrument of seisin in favour of Thomas Bain, burgess of the 
burgh of Crail, in an acre of land in the lordship of Westbarns, given 
by William Cunningham, of Westbarns, on the resignation of the 
said Thomas Bain, elder. 19th June, 1571. 

Note. — Both this and former seisin are scarcely legible. 
Precept by Patrick, Lord Lindsay of the Byres, Sheriff Principal of 
Fife, at the instance of Mr. Alexander Wood, of the Grange, against 
Andrew Strachan, and others, inhabitants of Earlsferry, bearing that 
the commendator and convent of Culross had been in use past 
memory of man to receive yeaily from the profits of the ferry of 
Earlsferry the sum of £10 Scots, and which duty they had upon 
the 21st of May last by past transferred and made over to the said 
Mr. Alexander Wood, and that the said Andrew Strachan, and others, 
had withheld the said duties, &c., therefore charging them to compear 
within the tolbooth of Cupar upon the 12th December then next, to 
answer thereanent, &c. Coupar, penult, November, 1572. 

Account rendered in Exchequer by John Ramsay, in behalf of the 
magistrates of the burgh of Crail, of the dues payable therein, by the 
said burgh. Edinburgh, 10th July, 1572. 

Summons of wakening at the instance of Mr. Patrick Myrton, 
treasurer of Aberdeen, Mr. George Meldrurn, William Craig, John 
Douglas, John Reid, burgesses of the burgh of Crail, and council and 
community thereof, against Janet Beigis and Elizabeth Lumsdaine, in 
terms of former summons, charging them to compear before the Lords 
of Council upon 3rd April then next, to answer, ike. Edinburgh, 
penult, February, 1572. 

Discharge by Robert Lundy, of Balgony, to the bailies, council, 
and community of the burgh of Crail, of the sum of £10, money of 
Scotland, as the duty owing to him fui-th of the common good of the 
said burgh for the years 1572 and 1573. Balgony, 29th October, 1572. 
Letters of Advocation at the instance of the provost, bailies, and 
community of the burgh of Crail, and the bailies of the bui-gh of 
Earlsfeny, bearing that the said burgh of Crail had been created into 
a free bui-gh, and that the said Earlsferry, with the port thereof, was 
part and pendicle of the said burgh of Crail, yet nevertheless Mr. 
Alexander Wood, of Grange, in December last bypast, alleged him- 
self to be infeft by the said bailies in the Earlsferry port and anchor- 
ages thereof, and in an annual r^nt of £10 Scots, payable therefrom, 
alleged payable yearly to the abbey of Culross, and that the inhabitants 
of Earlsferry had refused to make payment to him thereof, and that 
he had thereupon raised summons against them before the Sheriff of 
Fife, upon the 17th April then last, &c. Therefore charging the said 


sheriff and his deputes, to desist and cease from further proceeding in 
the said matter. Edinburgh, 14th January, 1573. 

Charter by King James VI., confirming charter by Thomas 
Lumsdain, of Ardre, and others, Bailies of the Eurgh of Crail, to 
Andrew Farmer, senior, burgess of the said burgh, and Margaret 
Fisher, his spouse, of tlie two mills of the said Burgh of Crail. Con- 
firmation dated Holyrood House, 6th October, 1575, 

Obligation by Mr. George Meldrum, John Reid, and other bailies 
of Crail, by the faith and truth of their bodies, to restore Andrew 
Morris, feuar of the mills of CraU, to the freedom of the said burgh, 
and to delete an Act made thereupon, and that they shall never 
trouble him in the possession of his kailyard, debateable between him 
and Arthur Gray, and with privilege to him to pursue such persons 
as shall abstract his multures. Edinburgh, 3rd February, 1575. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of Janet Lumsdain, as heir to 
Thomas Lumsdain, of Ardre, her broth er-german, in the croft of land 
called Balcomies Croft, lying on the east side of the town of Crail, 
proceeding upon precept of Clare Constat, by Robert Bishop of Caith- 
ness, Commendator of the Monastery of St. Andrews, dated 22nd 
March, 1572. 20th February, 1575. 

Presentation under the Privy Seal to Mr. Patrick Myrtoun to the 
Provostry of Crail, in the diocese of St. Andrews, then vacant through 
the non-compearance of Mr. Patrick Myrtoun, last Provost thereof, 
to have given confession of his faith and his oath of allegiance. Dal- 
keith, 6th April, 1576. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of William Arnot, burgess of Crail, 
son and heir of Mr. John Arnot, in a particate of land adjacent to the 
mills of Crail, pertaining formerly to his said father. Given by John 
Reid, one of the Bailies of Crail, 4th May, 1576. 

Letter of Reversion by Thomas Bain, elder burgess of the Burgh of 
Crail, and Thomas Bain, his son, bearing that they were infeft by 
Bailies, Council, and community of Crail, in an annual rent of 5 
nierks, payable furth of the customs of the west side of the burne of 
the town of Anstruther, but declaring, nevertheless, that how soon 
the Bailies and Council should make payment to him of £30 money 
of Scotland, that then, and immediately thereafter, he should renounce 
all right and title to the said annual rent, and declare the same law- 
fully redeemed. Crail, 18th February, 1576. 

Contract between Martin Corstorphine, Margaret Bell, his spouse, 
Margaret Farmer, his mother, and others, proprietors of the lands of 
Byre or Boar hills, lying in the regality of St. Andrews, bearing that 
the said lands then lay in runrig, and on that account they sustained 
great loss and inconvenience, therefore agreeing that the same should 
be divided into the three parcels or shares, according to their respective 
interests, and binding themselves not to come in the contrary of said 
division. 22nd August, 1577. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of Thomas Bain, son of Thomas 
burgess of the Burgh of Crail, and Elizabeth Geddie, his spouse, in 
a croft on the east side of the south street of Crail given by William 


Bowsie, one of tlie Bailies of Crail, on the resignation of the said 
Thomas Bain, senior. 16th June, 1578. 

Procui-atoiy by Janet Lumsdain, sister of the deceased Thomas 
Lumsdaine, of Ardrie, to James Lyall, and others, for resigning 
in the hands of Robert, Bishop of Caithness, of a croft called Bal- 
cornie's Croft, at the east end of the Burgh of Crail, in favour and 
for new infeftment to be granted by him to John Lumsdain, burgess 
of said burgh. 14th October, 1578. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of John Lumsdain, burgess of Crail, 
in the croft mentioned in the foregoing procuratory of resignation. 
16th October, 1578. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of Alexander Stables, in a particate 
of land on the south side of the Nether-gate of the Burgh of Crail, 
o-iven by Thomas Martin, one of the bailies of the said burgh. 15th 
July, 1579. 

Contract and agreement between Mr. Geoi'ge INIeldrum, and others, 
the Bailies, Council, and community of the Burgh of Crail, on the 
one part, and Mr. Thomas Beanstone, and others, the Bailies and 
Council of the Burgh of Pittenweem, on the other part, bearing that 
there was then depending a process, at the instance of the said Bailies 
and Council of Crail, against the Council of Pittenweem, before the 
Lords of Council and Session, touching the payment of certain duties 
payable by the latter, and vice versa, that a like process was dei)ending, 
as said is, against the iuhabitants of Crail, at the instance of the 
Council of Pittenweem, therefor, and for the avoiding of the expenses 
that will be incurred therethrough, the said parties agree to withdraw 
both of said actions ; also, to grant liberty to each other to trade at 
their respective ports, the packing and peiling of fish and herring only 
excepted. Crail, penult. May, 1580. 

Charter by William Corstorphine, and others, prebends of the 
Collegiate Church of Crail, to John Lawson, baker and citizen of St. 
Andrews, of a tenement on the east side of the New-close of St. 
Andrews, to be holden for payment, yearly, of 20 shillings money of 
Scotland. Crail, 8th October, 1580. 

Letter of Reversion by David Forret, burgess of Pittenweem, and 
Helen Johnstone, his spouse, to Andrew Farmer, burgess of the burgh 
of Crail, bearing that he stood infeft by the said Andrew Farmer in 
a croft called Lyle's croft, lying within the burrow roods of Crail, 
but declaring, nevertheless, that upon payment being made to them 
of the sum of £100 money of Scotland, within the Parish Chui-ch of 
Pittenweem, that then, and immediately thereafter, they should re- 
nounce all right and title to the said croft, and declare the same law- 
fully redeemed. Pittenweem, 9th September, 1584. 

Charter by King James YL confirming charter by Mr. Patrick 
Myrtoun, Provost of the Provostry of Crail, to William Myrtoun of 
Cambo, and Elizabeth Spence, his spouse, of 4 butts of land lying on 
the north side of the Church of Crail, the same being in consideration 
of a certain sum of money paid by them to the said Mr. Patrick 
Myrtoun, and the other prebends of the Collegiate Church of Crail. 
Dated Cambo, 4th May, 1571. 


Lettei'S as follows, viz., ''James be the Grace of God King of 
" Scottis to our louittis David Grundisou ..... 

" messengeris, our Sherifis in that pairt, conjunctlie and severallie, 
" speciallie constitut, grating. Our will is, and we charge you straitlie 
*' and command, that incontinent this our letter's sene ze pas, and in 
^' our name and authoritie, Relax Johne Ramsay, messenger (and 
*" others), burgesses and inhabitants of the Burgh of Crail, ffra the 
" process of our home, led against them, be verteu of our other letteris 
" purchest by Johne Anstruther, of that Ilk, for not entei'ingof thair 
" personis inward in our castell of Blacknes, &c., and receive them to 
" our peax (peace), and gif to them the wand thereof in time coming, 
" Becaus our saidis vther letteris, and all vtheris our letteris direct 
" for electing of the said Johne Anstruther in the office of Provostrie 
" of the said Burgh wer baillie be ane ordinance and deliverance of 
" the Lordis of our Privie Consall annullit and dischairgit. The 
" quhilk to do, &c." Holyrood House, 17th January, 1584, 
Note. — The above letters are signed by the King. 

Procuratory by John Lumsden, Burgess of the Burgh of Crail, to 
John Blyth, to compear in presence of Robert, Commendator of the 
Prioiy of St. Andrews, and to resign in his hands a croft of arable 
land called Balcomie's Croft, lying on the east side of the Burgh of 
Crail, in favors, and for new infeftment to be granted by the said 
commendator to David Meldrum, Burgess of the said burgh. 17th 
February, 1585. 

Charter by John Reid, Alexander Farmer, and Thomas Martin, 
Bailies of the Burgh of Crail, to David Meldrum, Bui^gess of the said 
burgh, of a particate of land called the Balcomie's Croft, lying as above 
mentioned, being part of the common lands the said Burgh. Crail, 
22nd February, 1585. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of the said David Meldrum, in the 
croft of land called Balcomie's Croft, as mentioned in the foregoing 
chai-ter. 22nd February, 1585. 

Instrument of seisin as aforesaid in the said ci'oft, given proprijs 
manibus by John Lumsdain, proprietor thereof, with consent of 
Margaret Lumsdain, his spouse. 26th February, 1585. 

Chax-terby King James VI. to the Bailies, Council, and community 
of the Burgh of Crail, to the prebendaries, chaplainiies, altarages, and 
colleges of Crail, with the fruits, rents, and emoluments pertaining 
thereto, of which the said Bailies, Council, and community wei*e 
patrons. Edinburgh, 20th February, 1586. 

Note. — Great part of the seal still remains. 

Precept of seisin by Robert, Bishop and Commendator of the Priory 
of St. Andrews, for infefting David Meldrum, Burgess of the Burgh 
of Crail, in the croft of land called Balcomie's Croft. St. Andrews, 
1st August, 1586. 

Charter by Robert, Earl of March, and Commendator of the Priory 
of St. Andrews, to John Lumsdain, Burgess of the Burgh of Crail, of 
the croft called Balcomie's Croft, on the east side of the Burgh of 
Crail. St. Andrews, 12th August, 158C. 


Instrument of Seisin in favor of John Lumsdain, Burgess of Crail 
in the above croft, proceeding upon precept contained in the foregoing 
charter. 15th August, 1586. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of David Meldrum, in the foresaid 
croft, proceeding upon precept by the Commendator of the Priory of 
St. Andrews, dated 1st August, 1586. 15th August, 1586. 

Obligation by John Lumsdain, Burgess of the Burgh of Crail,* 
bearing that he had disponed to David Mehh-um, burgess of the said 
Burgh, the croft called Balcomie's Croft, conform to the rights thereof, 
at which time he, the said John Lumsdain, stood at our Sovereign 
Lord's horn, and was denounced rebel at the instance of William 
Napier, Burgess of Edinburgh, therefore obliging himself to warrant 
to the said David Meldrum the said croft against all dangers and 
inconveniences he may incur therethrough. IDth August, 1586. 

Insti'ument of Seisin in favour of Henry Morris, son of Andrew 
Morris, Burgess of the Burgh of Crail, in the two mills belonging to 
the said Burgh, given by Alexander Farmer, one of the Bailies of 
Crail, on the resignation of the said Andrew Morris. 9th September, 

Charter by King James VI. to David Meldrum, Thomas Davidson, 
Andrew Farmer, and James Addy, present bailies of the Burgh of 
Crail, and Council and community of said Bui-gh (for the upholding 
of the church and hospital) of the College Church of Crail, Provostiy 
thereof, and their patronages whatsoever. Holy rood House, 10th 
May, 1587. 

Precept of seisin for infeftment in favour of the Bailies, Council, 
and community of the Burgh of Crail in the above-mentioned 
Collegiate Church of Crail. 10th May, 1857. 

Gift under the Privy Seal in favour of Thomas Myrtoun, of Cambo, 
of sundry anniial rents payable furth of his lands of Cambo, to the 
Provost and Prebends of the Collegiate Church of Crail, founded by 
the deceased Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lathrisk, and ratifying 
and approving former grants of the same by him in his minority. 
Falkland, 30th July, 1587. 

Summons at the instance of David Maxwell, Master of the 
Grammar School of Crail, and prebend of the Holy Cross service, 
formed within the Collegiate Church of Crail, against David 
Moncrieff, and others, for payment to him of certain duties and farms 
payable to the said Prebendary of Holy Cross. 1st April, 1588. 

Instrument of Seisin in favours of Andrew Watson and Janet 
Goodlet, his spouse, in a tenement on the east side of the Castle yai-d 
of Crail, given by Farmer, one of the Bailies of Crail, on the 
resignation of Isabel Goodlet. 10th April, 1590. 

Note. — The above seisin scarcely legible. 

Instrument of Seisin in favours of Henry Morris, son of Andrew 
Morris, burgess of the burgh of Crail, in the two Mills of Crail, 
given by Thomas Bowsie, one of the Bailies of Crail, on the resigna- 
tion of the said Andrew Morris. 16th October, 1590. 


Decreet by the Bailies of the Burgh of Crail, at the instance of 
Mr. David Maxwell, Master of the Grammar School of Crail, and 
Prebend of the Holy Cross within the Collegiate Church of Crail 
against Margaret Lindsay, Elspeth Ramsay, relict of Alexander 
Wilson and John Bainstone, decerning the foresaid parties to make 
payment of the duties pertaining to him, due from parts of the burrow- 
roods of Crail, and others therein mentioned. Crail, 27 October, 1590. 

Charter by Andrew Gilchrist, burgess of the Burgh of Crail, with 
consent of Margaret Walker, his Spouse, to Robert Laing in Fallside, 
of a Tenement and Garden on the north side of the Nethergate of the 
Burgh of Crail. To be h olden of the Bailies of Crail for payment of 
the Burgage dues used and wont. Crail, 10th December, 1590. 
Note. — This Charter is nearly illegible, and much decayed. 

Discharge by Henry Charteris, Burgess of Edinburgh, collector of 
the Taxations for the 30 tons of wine furnished to the King's 
Majesty m the year 1588, to the Bailies of the Burgh of Crail of the 
sum of £4: money, being their proportions of said taxation for said 
year. Edinburgh, 15th March, 1590. 

Instrument of Seisin, in favours of John Beanstoun and Helen 
Young, his Spouse, in a hall, under chamber, stable, half of yard, and 
half of croft in the south side of the ISTethergate of the Burgh of Crail, 
given by John Bowsie, one of the bailies of Crail, on the designation 
of the said John Beanstoun, in terms of Marriage contract between 
him and the said Helen Young. 3rd December, 1590. 

Discharge and Renunciation by John Mackessan, common clerk of 
the Burgh of Crail, and Catherine Philips, his Spouse, to the bailies 
and council of the said Burgh, of the common Mills of the Burgh of 
Crail, called the Kings Mills, and if the sum of £80 money of Scotland, 
for which the same had been wadset to the said John Mackessan and 
spouse. Crail, 10th June, 1591. 

Compt. of the bailies of Crail, rendered by George Douglas, at 
Edinburgh, in name of the said bailies; also his receipt and expenses 
of the burgage dues of the said Burgh, since 5th, 1591. 10th 
July, 1591. 

Summons by Robert Maulde, Licentiate in the Laws, at tlie instance 
of David Maxwell, Master of the Grammar School of the Burgh of 
Crail, against John Borthwick of Gordonshall, for the payment of 
certain duties to the said Mr. David Maxwell, as Prebend of the 
Altar of St. Michael within the Collegiate Church of St. Salvador, 
within the city of St. Andrew's, before the said Robert Maulde^ 
commissary thereof. St. Andrew's, 2nd June, 1594. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of George Davidson, as heir to 
Davidson, burgess of Crail, his father, in a tenement, yard, and croftj 
lying on the north side of the Nethergate of the Burgh of Crail, pro' 
ceediug on cognition by the bailies of Crail. 7th June, 1594. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of John Alison, burgess of Crail, 
and Margaret Simpson, his spouse, in a tenement and yard lying on 
the north side of the Nethergate of the Burgh of Ciail, given by James 
Annan, one of the bailies of the said burgh, ou the resignation of 


Ninian Wood, burgess of Crail, and Helen Cunningham, his spouse. 
29th January, 1594. 

Instrument of Premonition, by Andrew Farmer, bui'gess of Crail, 
Avithin the Pai'ish Church of Pittenweem, bearing that the deceased 
David Forret, burgess of Pittenweem, and Helen Jamieson, his sj)ouse, 
had advanced to him the sum of £100 money of this realm, and that 
in secixrity thereof he had infeft them in the croft called Lubie's Croft, 
lying in the Burrow-roods of Urail. and thereupon premonishing the 
heirs of the said David Fon-et to compear within the said parish 
church, upon 14th May then next, to receive from him the said sum. 
Pittenweem, 27th March, 1595. 

Note. — There is a duplicate of this put up along with it. Lubies, 
or Ly-baws, croft lies on the south side of the high road leading 
to Balcomie, near Langhouse-green. 

Discharge and renunciation by Robert Horsburgh, Portioner of 
Byrehills, to the assignee of John Lawson, Baxter and citizen of St. 
Andrews, of a tenement on the east side of the New-close of St. 
Andrews, and of the sum of £100, for which the said tenement had 
been wadset by the said John Lawson to the said Eobert Horsburgh, 
10th November, 1595. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of David Farmer, brother-natural of 
William Farmer, burgess of the Burgh of Ci-ail, and Elizabeth Clephan, 
spouse of the said David Farmer, in a croft of land called Lubies 
Croft, lying in the burrow-roode of Crail, given by John Douglas, 
one of the bailies of Crail, on the resignation of the said William 
Fanner. 19th October, 1596. 

Instrument of Consignation by the said David Farmer, as having 
right, in manner above-mentioned, in the hands of David Myrtoun, 
fiar of Randerstoun, of the sum of £100 money of Scotland, for be- 
hoof of the heirs of David Forret, burgess of Pittenweem, for redemp- 
tion of the croft land called Lubies Croft, wadset by Andrew Farmer, 
father of the Said Da"vid Farmer, the said parties having been lawfully 
premonished to compear within the Parish Church of Pittenweem, 
upon 14th May then last, to receive the said sum, but failed to do so, 
14th May, 1597. 

Procuratory by Henry Morris, Skipper, indweller in Crail, with 
consent of Alison Camrell, his spouse, bearing that there had been 
a contract entered into between him and Thomas Farmer, portioner 
of Kingsbarns, and Agnes Hunter, his spouse, on the one and other 
parts, by which, in consideration of the sum of £100 money of Scot- 
land, paid to them by the said Thomas, therefore granting power and 
authority to . . .to compear before the Provost, or 

one of the bailies of the Burgh of Crail, and resign in their hands an 
annual rent of £100 money foresaid, payable furth of the two mills 
of Crail, in favour and for new infeftment to be granted to the said 
Thomas Farmer. Crail, 25th January, 1599. 

Disposition by Henry Morris and Alison Camrell, his spouse, with 
consent of William Morris, his brother, and Thomas Farmer, portioner 


of Kingsbams, to James Monypenny of Pifcmilly, and Enpliam Colvill, 
liis spouse, of the two mills lying within the Burgh of Crail, excepting 
a piece of ground on the north side of the northwest tenement thereof. 
Crail, 13th September, 1600. 

Charter by the said Henry Morris, with consent above-mentioned, 
to the said James Monypenny and Eupham Colville his spouse, of 
the two Mills of Crail, under the exception of the said piece of 
ground. To be holden for payment yearly to the Council and 
Community of the Burgh of Crail, of 21 merks money of Scotland, 
and that the said James Monypenny and his heirs and successors, 
shall keep the said Mills in complete repair. Crail, 30th, 1600. 

Procuratory of Resignation, by the said Henry Morris, for 
resigning the said two Mills in the hands of the Bailies of Crail, 
in favor and for new infeftment in terms of Disposition. Crail, 
12th October, 1600. 

Instrument of Seisin in favors of James Monypenny of Pitmilly 
and Eupham Colville his spouse, of the two Mills of Crail, pro- 
ceeding ujDon Precept by Henry Morris, proprietor of said Mills, 
contained in Charter by him. 26th November, 1600. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of Allan Cunningham, burgess of 
Crail, in an annual rent of 21 merks money of Scotland, payable 
furth of the two common mills of Crail, given on a Procuratory 
of Eesignation, by G-eorge Bain, burgess of Crail, dated June, 1601. 
21st September, 1601. 

Charter by William Earmer, burgess of Crail, and Beatrix 
Clephan his spouse, to David Earmer, his brother natural, and 
Elizabeth Cook his spouse, of a Croft of land called Lubies Croft, 
lying on the east side of the Nethergate of the Burgh of Crail, and 
Tenement of land with the half of a yard lying as said is, To be 
holden for payment yearly to the bailies of Crail of 1 shilling and 
6 pence money of Scotland, for the said Croft and Tenement 
respectively. Crail, 21th September, 1601. 

Letters of Susjiension at the instance of the bailies of the Burgh of 
Crail, in the action then depending, ]-aised by the Oificers of State 
against the said bailies, for the payment of the sum of £11 Sterling 
yearly of Exchequer duties payable by the said burgh as therein 
alleged, in respect they were only in use to pay £11 Scots for the said 
duties, conform to the Exchequer rolls. Edinburgh, 25th July, ] 602. 

Charter by David Meldrum, burgess in Crail, to David Farmer, in 
Rires, and Betsy Cook, his spouse, of a yard, burn, kiln, killhouse, and 
croft of land on the west side of the vennel leading from the Market- 
gate to the Nethergate of the Burgh of Crail. To be holden for 
payment yearly of the duties used and wont. Crail, 21th January, 1 604. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of the before mentioned David 
Farmer, in the yard, barn, and others contained in the foregoing- 
charter, given by the Bailies of the Burgh of Crail on the resignation 
of David Meldrum, burgess of Crail. 25th January, 1604. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour as said in given proprij us mariibus by 
. David Meldrum. 25th January, 1604. 


Act of the Pai-liainent held at Edinburgh in 1607, ratifying and 
approving the ancient liberties, freedom, and privileges granted by 
our Sovereign Lord or his predecessors, to and in favours of the Burgh 
of Crail, and bailies, council, burgesses, and community thereof, and 
that as the weekly market was formerly held within the said Burgh 
ou Sunday, which is now hereby discharged, therefore appointing the 
same to be held upon Friday in all time coming, and in all respect the 
yeai-ly fair, which was held upon the 14th September or Ruid day, 
by reason of its falling in harvest, was unprofitable to the inhabitants, 
therefore appointing the same to be held upon the 10th March, and 
to endure for the space of 8 days next thereafter. Edinburgh, 11th 
August, 1G07. 

Discharge by James Spence of Wolmerstone, I^rovost, Andrew Daw 
and others, bailies, and Council of the Burgh of Crail, to their friend, 
Mr "William Scott of Elie, by which, in consideration of the great 
pains and trouble taken by him in Parliament for the weill and 
common cause of the said Burgh, they discharge him of the contract 
and bond dated penult March, lo87, entered into between the deceased 
Mr. Thomas Dishington of Airdrie, and the Bailies and Council of 
Crail for the time, granting to the said bailies an yearly duty of 40 
shillings, to be uplifted furth of the burgh, port, and harl^our of Elie, 
but reserving their right of frequenting the said port of Elie with 
their ships, boats, and crears. Elie, 19th November, 1607. 

Contract between William Bowsie, Andrew Daw, and others, bailies, 
council, and community of the Burgh of Crail on the one part, and 
Thomas Watson, John Alexander, and others, bailies, council, and 
community of the Burgh of Anstruther on the other part, bearing that 
there had been an action depending before the Lords of Council and 
Session, at the instance of the Burgh of Crail, against the Burgh of 
Anstruther, for the payment of certain customs and other duties due 
by them, and which is yet depending and undecided, therefore agreeing 
the said parties to withdraw the action, and to live " together in peace 
and contentment as neighbours and members as it wer of ane bodie." 
19th April, 1608. 

Contract between Alexander Cunningham of Barns, and John 
INIyrtoun, son of Thomas Myrtoun of Cambo, Titulars of the teind 
fishes of the parochin of Crail on the one part, and Allan and Thomas 
Cunningham and others. Fishermen and Skippers of the said Burgh 
on the other part, bearing that there had not hitherto been any 
a])pointment made between the said parties as to the manner of paying 
the duties due to the said Alexander Cunningham, &c., thereupon the _ 
said parties agree that for every boat going to the summer fishing 
upon the Scotch seas (two boats being joined in company) there shall 
be paid to said titulars, one deal of which shall be caught by them, 
and certain other duties therein mentioned, dated at Crail, 10th May, 
1607. Registered at Edinburgh, 2nd November, 1608. 

Tack by Mr Patrick Myrtoun, Provost of the Church of Crail, to 
Alexander Cunningham of Westbarns, of the teinds fishes, of herrings, 
kielling, or cod, colmoss, turbot, and all others whatsoever, taken in ■ 


whatsoever seas, brought into the port of Crail, or any other port 
within the parish, and that for the space and term of three 19 years, 
lie paying therefor, yearly to the said Provost, the sum of £20 money 
of Scotland as the usual terms. King Street, May 1st, 1610. 

Charter by King James YI., under the Priory Seal, confirnung the 
foregoing tack by Mr. Patrick Myrtoun to the said Alexander Cun- 
nigham of Westbarns, of the teind fishes of the parish of Crail. 
Edinburgh, 24th July, 1610. 

Tack by Robert Lord Lindsay, tacksman of the teinds of the Church 
of Crail, of the half of the teind fishes taken by the inhabitants of the 
parish of Crail, and during the space and term of 19 years, for payment 
yearly of £100 money of Scotland, 5 dozen ling, and 5 dozen kielling, 
and a barrel of North Isles herring. Crail, 12th September, 1610. 

Procuratory of Resignation by David Meldrum, Burgess of Crail, 
to for resigning in the hands of Ludovick, Duke of 

Lennox, &c., Commendator of the Priory of St. Andrews, the croft of 
land called Balcomie's Croft, lying on the east end of Crail. In favours 
and for new infeftment to be granted by him to David Farmer, burgess 
of the said Burgh, and Bessie Cook, his spouse. Crail, 24th November, 

Chai-ter by Ludovick, Duke of Lennox, &c., commendator of St. 
Andrew's, verbatim, confirming charter, by David Meldrum, burgess 
of Crail, to David Fai-mer, and Bessie Cook, his spouse, of the yard, 
barn, kill, killhouse, and othei's therein mentioned, dated, 24th 
January, 1604. Confirmation, dated St. Andrew's, and Royston 
in England December, 1613. 

Act of the Bailies and Council of the Burgh of Crail, stating that 
they had considered the state of the action depending at their instance 
before the Sheriff, against the Laii'd of Newhall and John Eadie, also 
the Interlocutor pronounced therein upon the . , . day of 
January then last, and found the same to be " weill proceidit," and 
in respect that certain sums had been disbursed on their account in 
said action. Herefore obliging themselves to pay the same and what 
future expenses may be incurred. 5th February, 1616. 

Decreet by the Lords of Council and Session, in the action pursued 
by David Lundie, of Newhall, and John Adie, Burgess of the Burgh 
of Crail, as to the duties and impositions levied ui)on the fishings at 
the port of Randerstoun, by the said David Lundie, in respect that 
by charter by Robert King of Scots erecting the said Burgh of Crail 
into a free Burgh, with all the privileges pertaining thereto, and also 
^chai-ter by Queen Mary, confirming the said charter, they had good 
and i^ndoubted right to the said duties to the exclusion of all others, 
therefore the said Lords decern the said David Lundie and John 
Adie, to desist and cease therefrom in all time coming, also to make 
payment to the said bailies and coixncil of the sum of £20 money of 
Scotland, as the expenses incurred by them in said action. Edinburgh, 
24th February, 1616. 

Letters of Publication charging parties to produce their rights and 
•'infiftments before the Lords of Council and Session, regarding their 


rights of Packing and peiling of herrings at the port of Crail in 
reference to the foregoing decreet. Edinburgh, 20th July, 161G. 

Contract between the bailies and council of the Burgh of Crail, and 
the bailies and council of Anstriither Easter, bearing that there had 
been a contract formerly entered into between them, and that in the 
prosecution of the action therein mentioned, certain expenses had been 
incurred, to defray which, it is agreed, that during the time of drave 
a duty of 4 shillings shall be imposed upon every last of herrings, 
which shall be brought into their respective ports, until the same be 
discharged. Crail and An struther Easter, 22nd and 23rd Oct., 1616. 
Renunciation by Agnes Hamilton, relict of Walter Hay, of 

, and Mai'garet Hamilton, spouse of Peter Oliphant, burgess of 
Crail, bearing that they stood infeft in the piece of ground called the 
Walkhill, lying within the Burgh roods of the Burgh of Crail, and 
that they had received by the hands of Allan Millar, present 
Treasurer of the said Burgh, the sum of £300 money of Scotland ; 
they therefore renounce in favour of the bailies and Council of the 
said Burgh, the aforesaid piece of ground with all right and title which 
they had thereto, and declare the same lawfully redeemed. Crail, 
28th May, 1618. 

Letters of Suspension at the instance of the Bailies of the Burgh of 
Crail, bearing that Ludovick, Duke of Lennox, Prior of S. Andrew's, 
had procured a grant erecting the Lordship of St. Andrew's into a 
temporal Lordship, and had thereupon raised a process against the 
said bailies, for the payment of certain duties for the King's Mills of 
Crail, therefore suspending the same in respect, it is alleged by the 
said bailies that they held the said JMills of our Sovereign Lord, and 
never at any time of the Priory of St. Andrews, and were in use to 
pay for the Burgh of Crail £11 money of Scotland conform to their 
rights and infeftments. Edinburgh penult, July, 1618. 

Testimonial by the Bailies and Council of the Burgh of Lanark 
(to whose custody the stone weight of this realm was committed of 
old) of their having given out to Thomas Bushell, Burgess of Crail, 
in name and behalf of the bailies and council of the said Burgh, of a 
just stone weight in brass, weighing 16 pounds Troy, conform to Act 
of Parliament made on 28th June, 1617. Lanark, 13th November, 

Note. — The al)ovc contains a full description of the weight as to 
the devices and other figures and words thereon. 

Testimonial by the Provost bailies and council of the burgh of 
Stirling (to whose custody the jug and stoup of this realm was of old 
committed) of their having given out to ... . burgess of the 
Burgh of .... in name and behalf of the bailies and council 
of said Burgh. Stirling, 10th January, 1619. 

Cognition by the bailies and council of said burgh of Crail, in 
favors of Helen and Barbara Melville, as heirs to the deceased Joliu 
Melville, burgess of the said Burgh, deceased, their father. Crail, 
17th February, 161!). 


Testimonial by the Provost, bailies, and council of the Buvgh of 
Linlithgow (to whose custody, ttc.) of their having given forth to tlie 
Burgh of Crail two measures of foilett measure, with peck, half peck, 
fourth part peck, &c. Linlithgow, 24th March, 1619. 

Testimonial of Mr. John Hay, common clerk of the Burgh of 
Edinburgh, of his having given to Thomas Buchil, burgess of the 
burgh of Crail, by the hands of the Dean of Guild of Edinburgh, a 
standard elne measure, and that in name and behalf of the bailies 
and council of the said Burgh of Crail. Edinburgh, 25th March, 1619. 

Discharge by Andrew Hay, to William Carmichael, Treasurer, of 
the sum of £10, being the yearly rent, payable from the Kings 
Mill, also, 40 shillings for repaii'ing the knock alias Town Clock. 
Crail, 6th December, 1620. 

Extract submission and Decree Arbitral entered into between 
David Beaton of Balfour, Alexander Cunningham of Westbarns, Mr. 
John Dykes, minister of Kilrinnie, Mr, John Fairfoull, minister at 
Anstruther-Wester, the bailies and council of the Burgh of Crail, all 
Tacksmen and titulars of the vicarages of Silverdykes, Kilrinnie, 
Anstruther-Easter and "Wester, and Ci'ail, and by Robert Richardson, 
and "William Dairsie, burgesses of Anstruther-Westei-, and John 
Dingwall, burgess of Crail, Arbiters, chosen by William Ged and 
others. Fishermen burgesses of Crail, Andrew Cooper and others, 
Fishermen burgesses of Anstruther-Easter, and Robert Lugton and 
others, seafaring men and bui'gesses of Anstruther-Wester, anent the 
actions pui'sued and intented, at the instance of the said Tacksmen 
and titulars against the said persons for the payment of the half teind 
fishes alleged payable by them, specially of the herrings and other 
fishes taken in winter in the Lewis, North Isles, and other places, 
which said Arbitei-s having accepted after various consultations, 
decerned the said Fishermen and seafaring men to make payment of 
the said Teinds to the said respective Tacksmen and titulars of the 
sum of 20 shillings for eveiy cast of herrings brought into the ports 
of the foresaid places, conditions to be performed by them as therein- 
mentioned. Submission dated 15th, and Decree dated 22d March, 
1619. Registered at Edinburgh, 24th January, 1621. 

Discharge by Mr. William Kilgour, Servitor to John Loi'd Lind- 
say, to William Carmichael in behalf of the Burgh of Crail, the sum 
of £100 money of Scotland, 5 dozen of ling and other fishes. Cupar, 
26th March, 1621. 

Discharge by Andrew MoncriefF and others, bailies of the Burgh 
of Crail, to George Hamilton and others, bailies of the Burgh of 
Anstruther Easter, of the suui of 240 merks money of Scotland, in 
part of 3000 merks like money disbursed in pleading of the liberties 
of the said Burgh of Crail for the packing and peiling of herrings, the 
same being the proceeds of 40 shillings money foresaid upon every 
cast of herrings caught and brought into the port of Anstruther 
Easter. Crail, 7th August, 162L 

Note. — In the Decreet Arbitral referi-ed to, the duty is there 
stated to be 20 shillings instead of 40, as above. 


Discharge by David Maxwell to William Carmichael, Treasurer of 
the Burgh of Cniil, of the sum of £80 money that was upou the 
Kingsmill of Crail, together with complete payment of the whole 
bygains thereof, and thereupon obliges himself to grant a complete 
renunciation of his right to said mill in favour of the bailies and council 
of the said Burgh. Crail, IGth August, 1621. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of John Farmer, son of David 
Farmer, burgess of Crail, and of Bessie Cook, his spouse, in the croft 
of land called Lubie's Croft, lying in the Bui-gh roods of Crail, given 
by Andrew Moncrieff, one of the bailies of the said Burgh, on the 
resignation of the said David Fai-mer. 22nd August, 1621. 

Discharge by William Kilgour, servitor to John Lord Lindsay, to 
William Carmichael, Treasurer of the Burgh of Crail. Struthers, 4th 
Novembei', 162L 

Discharge by Andrew Kay, burgess of the burgh of Crail, to the 
said William Carmichael, of the sum of £10 yearly rent payable to 
him furth of the Over Kingsmill ; also, of 40 shillings for repairing 
the knock yearly. Crail, 20th November, 1G21. 

Instrument of seisin in favour of John Farmer, son of David 
Farmer, burgess of Crail, and of Bessie Cook, his spouse, in the croft 
of land called Lubie's Croft, given to him 'proprms manibus by the 
said David Farmer. 3rd September, 1622. 

Receipt by Mr. Robert Winraham, agent for the burrows, to the 
Commissioner of the Burgh of Crail of the said burghs, part of £500 
Scots, granted by the burrows to the Burgh of Dumfries for the 
reparation of their bridge; also, their proportion of £210 owing to 
himself at last convention, their proportion in like manner of £lOO 
due to Patrick Hamilton, agent for the burrows at Court, and their 
proportion of the clerks, agents, and Mr. M'Cartney's fees. Dundee, 
2nd July, 1623. 

Declaration by James Learmouth, fiar of Balcomie, that his intro- 
missions and uplifting of the petty customs from the country people 
resorting to Fifeness during the present drave by the tolerance of the 
bailies and community of the Burgh of Crail to whom the said petty 
customs pertain, shall be taken by him as modified by their tack to 
the Laird of Randerstoun, in so far as respects the bounds of the 
heritages belonging to the said James Learmouth, and in consideration 
of a Tack of the said petty customs to be granted to him by the said 
bailies of Crail. Crail, 11th August, 1623. 

Disposition by Thomas Bain, burgess of the Burgh of Crail, to 
Andrew Moncrieff and others, bailies and council of the said Burgh, 
of the croft of land called the Prior's Croft, and aci'e of land lying 
among the feu acres of Westbarns, in warrandice of the said Prior's 
Croft. Crail, 11th March, 1625. 

Discharge by Simon Smith, Master of the School of Anstruther 
Easter, to Andrew Moncrieff and others, bailies of the Burgh of Crail, 
of 25 merks money of Scotland as part of 1 00 merks like money, for 
teaching in the said school, and that for the Martinmas term, 1621, 
item £10 like money for " taking up the psalm in the kirk of Crail " 


for said year, likewise £4 like money as the expenses of a decreet 
obtained by him against the said bailies, before the Commissaiy of St. 
Andrews, upon 4th April, 1624. Crail, 18th March, 1625. 

Discharge by Thomas Bain, indweller in Crail, to the bailies of the 
Burgh of Crail, of the sum of 420 merks money of Scotland, as the 
purchase money of the croft of land called the Prior's Croft, and acre 
of land befoi-e mentioned. Crail, June 16th, 1625. 

Account delivered in Exchequer by John Mackesson, clerk of the 
Burgh of Crail, of the duties payable therein for the said burgh, 
amounting to £11, by which he charges himself witli said sum, and 
produces vouchers of his having paid £5 to the Laird of Balgonie, 
and £6 to Henry Wardlaw of Pitrevie. Edinburgh, penult July, 

Renunciation by Andrew Key, son and heir of the deceased David 
Key, burgess of the Burgh of Crail, in favour of the Bailies and 
Council of the said bui'gh, of the Over mill of the two mills of Crail 
called the King's Mills, and that upon his having received from them 
the Slim of £100 money of Scotland, for which the same had been 
wadset by them to the said David Key, conform to charter in his 
favour made thereupon. Crail, 29th September, 1625. 

Note. — In this, as in many other instances, the progress and 
infeftnaents cannot be traced, from the jjapers being lost. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of William Cromarty, baker, burgess 
of the Burgh of Crail, and Helen Lumsden, his sjDOuse, in two crofts 
of land lying on the south side of the ISTethergate of the said burgh, 
given by William Ker, one of the bailies of Crail, on the resignation 
of John Crombie in Pittenweem. 7th October, 1625. 

Discharge by Norman Lindsay, chamberlain of John Lord Lindsay, 
to Patrick Hunter, one of the Bailies of the Burgh of Cr"ail, of the 
sum of £100 of silver duty, £30 as the price of 5 dozen ling, £17 10s 
as the price of 5 dozen killing, and £10 as the price of a barrel of 
Herrings, in terms of agreement. St. Andx'ews, 30th November, 

Execution of Letters of Inhibition at the instance of the bailies of 
the Burgh of Crail against Sir James Spence. 13th and 21st July, 

Note. — The executions mention nothing respecting who Sir 
James Spence was, nor of the nature of the inhibition. 

Discharge by Norman Lindsay, chamberlain to John Lord Lindsay, 
to the Magistrates and Treasurer of the Burgh of Crail, in nearly 
similar terms as in a former Discharge. Wilmerston, 20th September, 

Discharge by John Zair, servitor to Mr. John Hay, Collector 
Depute, appointed by Robert Earl of Nithsdale, Collector General of 
the Taxations granted to his Majesty by the Estates in October 1625, 
to Alexander Cunningham, in behalf of the Provost and Bailies of 
Crail, of the sum of £133 6s 2d money of this realm being their 
proportion of said Taxation. Edinburgh, 20th October, 1626. 

Precept by the Earl of Linlithgow to the bailies of Crail, charging 


tliem to bring to Edinburgh, upon tlie 6th March instant, furth of 
their tolbooth, Thomas Lindsay, incarcerated therein by order of the 
Privy Council, that he may answer for his contemptuous meddling 
with and away-taking of a wast (wrecked) ship, which he brought 
into their harboui's, as accords of the law. Edinburgh, 2nd March, 

Pi-ecept by the Earl of Linlithgow addressed to the said Bailies of 
Crail, for the liberation of the before mentioned Thomas Lindsay. 
Edinburgh, 6th March, 1G27. 

Letters of Suspension at the instance of David Maxwell, burgess of 
the Burgh of Crail, of Decreet pronounced by John Dingwall and 
others, bailies of the Burgh of Crail aforesaid, decerning him to pro- 
duce before them, as patrons of the prebendaries of the Collegiate 
Church of Crail, his Gift of presentation and admission to certain of 
the said prebendai"ies, and other writs and evidents, upon which they 
had raised Letters for fulfilling said Decreet, and had laid him, the 
said Maxwell, within the Tolbooth of Crail ; therefore suspending the 
said Letters and haill effects thereof. 

Note.- — The letters do not mention the matters in dispute. 

Commission by the Lords of Council and Session to Sir Robert 
Spottiswoode of Newabby, and Sir James Learmouth of Balcomie, 
Knights, two of their number, appointing them to hold a court at the 
Burgh of Crail, in the action brought by the bailies of said burgh 
against Arthur Myrtoun, one of their number, for the payment of £6, 
imposed upon him, as burgess of said burgh, as his proportion of the 
taxation, confonn to the Stent Boll of the Burgh, and against which 
action he obtained suspension from said Lords, which suspension being 
called before them, they, in consideration of the discontentments 
thereon prevailing, and of the tumults likely to arise in the said 
burgh, appoint the said persons as aforesaid, and to settle and deter- 
mine all questions and differences amongst them. Edinburgh, penul- 
timo July, 1628. 

Instrument of Resignation by John Lord Lindsay of Struthers, in 
the hands of the Barons of Exchequer of the Provostrie of the Col- 
legiate Church of Crail, rights of patronage, and orchards, yards, 
mauses, gates, houses, land rents, profits, and emoluments thereof 
whatsoever, lying within the County of Fife, in favours and for new 
infeftment to be granted by the said barons to the bailies, Council, 
and community of the Burgh of Crail. Holyrood-house, in His Ma- 
jesty's Chamber and in his presence, 23d January, 1630. 

Letters of poinding and ari-estment at the instance of the bailies of 
the Burgh of Crail, beaiing that George Dishington, fiar of Ardross, 
granted a charter in favour of Sir William Myrtoun, Vicar of Lath- 
risk, of a certain annual rent payable from the lands of Cullenach, to 
which the said Bailies and Council now had right as patrons thereof, 
and that they had presented Mr. William Haigie, Schoolmaster of 
Crail, to the chaplainries and prebendaries of the College Church of 
Crail during his lifetime, and that the said Bailies and Council had 
obtained a Decreet against Gavin Hamilton of Raploch and others, 


present proprietors of Cullenach, for payment of said annual rent to 
the aforesaid Mr. William Higie, therefore charging, &c. Edinburgh 
6th February, 1630. ^ ' 

Execution of Letters of Inhibition discharging the inhabitants of 
the parish of Crail from payment of the teind iishes of the Kirk of 
Crail, in terms of letters of Inhibition to which thev refer 
21st Feb., 1630, ^ 

Note. — The Letters of Inhibition do not appear, nor is there 
notice taken of the nature of them in the Execution. 
Tack by George Meldrura and others, the bailies and council of 
the Burgh of Crail, to Sir James Learmouth of Balcomie, Knight, of 
the small or petty custom of the said Burgh, teind fishes, and "others 
of such as shall frequent the harbour of Crail, to the extent of the 
half of the said teind fishes, the inhabitants of Crail, Kingsbarns and 
Belsches, being excepted therefrom, and that for the space and term 
of nine years from his entry thereto, he paying therefor yearly to 
the said bailies and council as follows, viz.:— £3 6s. 8d. money of 
this realm for the said petty customs, and £6 8s. 4d. like money for 
the half of said Teind fishes. August, 1631. 

Discharge by George Hay of Kirkland, Depute of George, Viscount 
Kinnoul, to Henry Walker, in name of the bailies and council of the 
Burgh of Crail, of the sum of £41 6s. 8d. as the first term's ordinary 
taxation of the Provostry of the college church of Crail. Holyrood 
house, 4th February, 1631. 

Eeport of Sir John Hay, late Commissioner of His Majesty, in 
terms of instructions committed to him by the Commission convened 
at Perth, on 23rd September, 1631, relative to the patent granted to 
the burrows as to ships, goods, customs. Burghs of Barony and their 
encroachments upon free burrows, patent procured by Robert 
Buchanan of the fishing of j^earl in Scotland, and means to be tried 
for having the same recalled; anent maltmen ; barley, malt, &c.; 
the office of Constables ; information respecting certain patents 
applied for, for the manufacture of cloth and stufis, and prejudice to 
be sustained by the burrows thereby; the improvement of the 
fisheries. Edinburgh, 12th October, 1632. 

Note.— Every part of the contents of the above are stated in 
general terms, and unless the proceedings of the convention 
were consulted, it is not easy to make anything of it; it seems 
to be a draft, as it is not signed. 
Printed Proclamation, in terms of Act of Parliament, for advancing 
the Salaries of the Lords of Session, charging the Council of the 
Burgh of Crail to convene and to appoint Stentmasters for the collec- 
tion of certain duties therein-mentioned for said purpose, and to 
make up a Stent-roll, &c. Edinburgh, 28th June, 1633. 

Ptatification and Disposition by John, Lord Lindsay of Strutliers, 
confirming Charter (No. 74), and all and sundry rights and iufeft- 
ments granted therethrough in favour of himself, and his authors 
and predecessors, and also in favours of the ProVost, bailies, and com- 
munity of the Burgh of Crail, and disposition in favours of the afore- 


said bailies and community of the Provostry of the Collegiate Church 
of Crail and others. Crail. 5, 9, 20, and 25 days of January and 
February, 1630. Registered 4th December, 1634. 

JS'oTE. — It may be here remarked that the papers set down in 

this Inventoiy are strictly in the order of time ; but as the 

above is but an Extract of a very recent period, probably 

about the year 1720 or 1730, and on that account having no 

specific date of Exti-action, it is therefore set down at the 

period to which it refers. 

Instrument of Seisin in fiivor of James Forbes, brother of Robert 

Forbes of Rires, in 4 butts of land on the north side of the church 

of Crail, given on the resignation (in the hands of the bailies of 

Crail) of Mr. Patrick Myrtoun, son and heir of the deceased William 

Myrtoun of Cambo. 4th July, 1634. 

Ratification by Mr. Patrick Myrtoun, Provost of the College 
Church of Crail, of Charter by King James VI., to David Meldrum 
and others, of the Collegiate Church of Crail, with the Provostry and 
patronage thereof, dated 10th May, lo87. Charter by King Charles 
I. confirming the last-mentioned Chai'ter (dated 6th February, 1630.) 
Item, Letters of Ratification and Disposition above-mentioned, by 
John, Lord Lindsay of Struther. Item, Infeftment granted by 
Robert, Lord Lindsay, his son, of the patronage and provostry and 

Chaplainries of the Collegiate Church of Crail, dated 

and containing procuratory for coinpearing before our Sovereign 
Lords Commissioner having power to receive resignations, &c. In 
favours and for new Infeftment of the said Collegiate Church and 
others, to be granted by them to the said bailies, Council and Com- 
munity of the Burgh of Crail. Westminster and Crail, last January 
and 14th March, 1632. Registered 4th December, 1634. 

Act by the Lords of Exchequer bearing that John M'Kisson, 
Town- Clerk of the Burgh of Crail, having presented a Signature 
subscribed by His Majesty, for granting to the said Burgh confirma- 
tion of their old Infeftments ; and of new giving to them the Coal- 
heughes within the haill Muir of Crail, and that Sir John Scott of 
Scotstarvet having opposed the same, by reason of his own rights 
and Infeftments, the said Lords having considered the same, find that 
the said Signature can confer no right in favour of the said Burgh to 
said Muir than lies to the north of the said Sir John's lands, as they 
formerly possessed the same, and which signature, so modified, the 
said John M'Kisson accepted. Edinburgh, 22nd June, 1635. 

Letters of bearing that certain persons, residing 

within the Burgh of Crail and other landward villages, had been in 
the practice of bringing in their goods and selling them within the 
said Burgh, to the great hurt and prejudice of the free burgesses 
thereof. Therefore, in future, charging all such to desist and cease 
from bringing in their said goods under pain of Escheat. 3rd June, 

Summons at the instance of the bailies and council of the Burgh of 
Crail, against James Monypenny, of Pitmilly, Sir James Monypenny, 


Knight, his Grrandson and heir, Henry Morris, Burgess of the said 
Burgh, and .... Farmer, son and heir of David Farmer, to 
compear befoi'e the Lords of Council and Session upon 21st July, then 
next, and to produce their pretended rights and infeftments of the 
Mills of Crail in the action of reduction instituted against them by 
the said Bailies and Council. Edinburgh, 7th June, 1636. 

Disposition by John Farmer, burgess of Crail, and Margaret White, 
his spouse, to Anna Melville, relict of Alexander Black, burgess of 
Anstruther Easter, of a tenement of land with the barn, yard and 
pertinents thereof, on the south side of the Overgate of the Burgh of 
Crail, &c., croft of land on the east end of said Burgh redeemable 
always the said subjects upon payment of the sum of 1000 merks 
money of Scotland, for which the same are wadset. Crail and 
Anstruther, 28th February, 1639. 

Charter by the said John Farmer, burgess of Crail, to the said 
Anna Melville, of the subjects contained in the foregoing disposition. 
Crail, 28th February, 1639. 

Letters of Inhibition by the said Anna Melville, bearing that she 
had right to the tenement of land and others mentioned in the 
foregoing Disposition and charter in virtue thereof, and that she had 
let the same to the above-mentioned John Farmer, and his spouse, 
and in the meantime the said Anna Melville understanding &c., 
therefore inhibiting the said John Farmer from dis23oning his lands 
and heritages. Edinburgh, 1st March, 1641. 

Instrument of Resignation by the above-mentioned John Farmer, 
burgess of Crail, in the hands of the bailies and council of said Burgh 
of the Croft of land called Lubies Croft, lying within the burgh roods 
of the Burgh of Crail, 21st November, 1642. 

Instrument of Ptesignation by the said John Farmer, in favour as 
above-mentioned, of a barn, barn yard, kiln, and kiln house, and 
pertinents thereof, lying at the east end of the Bui-gh of Crail. 21st 
November, 1642. e 

Renunciation by Anna Melville, relict of Alexander Black, burgess 
of Anstruther Easter, in favour of John Farmer, burgess of Crail, of 
the Tenement of land, with the bani. yard, and others mentioned in 
Disposition, dated 28th February, 1639, and of the sum of 1000 
merks affecting the said subjects, the same having been paid to her by 
the said John Farmer. St. Andrews, 24th ISovember, 1642. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of John Farmer, as heir to David 
Farmer, some time burgess of the Burgh of Crail, his father, in a 
garden, barn, kiln, and kiln house, on the east side of the Burgh of 
Crail, on cognition by the bailies of the said Burgh. 24th Nov., 1 642. 

Claim of Sir James Monypenny, ofPitmillie, for serving of Brieve 
from chancery directed to the bailies of the Burgh of Crail, for serving 
him heir in general to James Monypenny, of Pitmilly, his grandfather, 
in certain Tenements, lying within the said Burgh. Crail, 15th 
February, 1643. 

Precept from Chancery for infefting John Farmer, as heir to David 
Farmer, burgess of Crail, his father, in a croft of arable land, lying on 


the east side of the Burgh of Crail, ou the east side of the vennel 
leading by the market gates to the Nethergate of said Burgh. 
Edinburgh, 20th February, 1643. 

Instrument of Seisin in favour of the above-mentioned John 
Farmer, proceeding on the above precept from Chancery. 8th 
May, 1643. 

Submission entered into between Sir James Monypenny, of Pitmilly, 
Knight, and the bailies and council of the Burgh of Crail, on the one 
and other parts referring to the judgment and final sentence to be 
pronounced by Alexander Gibson of Durie, Knight, on behalf of the 
said Sir James Monypenny, and Sir James Larmouth of Balcomie, 
Knight (both senators of the College of Justice), on behalf of the said 
bailies and Council as to the rights and interests of the said Sir 
James Monypenny, in the two Corn Mills of Crail, and certain 
tenements, yards, and others lying within the aforesaid Burgh, without 
date, but the commission granted by the bailies and council to two 
commissioners to enter into submission. Dated, 16th June, 1C43. 

Precept of Clare Constat, by John and Andrew Daw and others, 
the Bailies of the Burgh of Crail, for infefting Sir James Monypenny 
of Pitmilly, as heir to James Monypenny of Pitmilly, his grandfather, 
in the two mills lying within the Burgh of Crail. To be holden for 
payment yearl}' of the sum of 20 merks money of Scotland, and 13 
shillings and 4 pence in augmentation of the rental. Crail, 9th July, 

Instrument of Seisiii in favour of Sir James Monypenny, of Pitmilly, 
Knight, as heii- to James Monypenny of Pitmilly, his grandfather, in 
the two mills mentioned in the foregoing precept of Clare Constat, 
and proceeding thereon. 9th July, 1643. 

Certificate by Nathaniel Moncrieff", that he did quarter in the town 
of Crail 2 companies of men of my Lord Elcho's Regiment, to the 
number of 80 men, with their complete ofiicers, officers' horses, and 
baggage horses, for the space of three days, and which quartering 
extends to £114 6s. Crail, 15th October, 'l644. 

Discharge by William Bain, son and heir of the deceased William 
Bain, burgess of Crail, bearing that the bailies and council of the 
Bui'gh of Crail had obtained the gift of the Escheat of Eupham Henry, 
son of his mother, and had thereupon uplifted and intromitted with 
certain sums pertaining to her in satisfaction of charges disbursed by 
them on her account, and in obtaining the said Gift of Escheat, and 
in respect of their having assigned and made over to him the said 
Gift, he discharges them thereby of their said intromission. Crail, 
15th March, 1544. 

Discharge of John Galson, Treasui^er for the Burgh of Anstruther 
Easter, to the bailies of the Burgh of Crail, of several sums, extending 
ill whole to £199 15s 4d. 22nd April, 1652. 

Order by the Commissioners for confiscated Estates in Scotland, on 
consideration of the Petition of the Magisti'ates of Crail, Anstruther, 
and Kilrennie, relative to the teind and half-teind fishing in the 
Forth, that the Admiral Depute on the south side of the Forth suffer 


the said Magistrates to enjoy the whole teind that is due to them for 
the said towns, for what their boats shall fish on the north side of the 
Forth ; and if they happen to fish on the south side thereof he shall 
take only half teind for the use of the state. Leith, 12th August, 

Instrument of Seisin in favours of John, Andrew, Margaret and 
Janet Gillespie, children of the deceased John Gillespie in Balcomie 
m the lands and barony of Balcomie and Kilminning, with the mills 
thereof lying within the parish of Crail, in security of an amendment 
of £40 money of Scotland proceeding upon Bond of Corporation by 
Sir James Learmouth of Balcomie, Knight. 11th May, 1654. 

Discharge by Robert Wood and others, skippers, burgesses of the 
Burgh of Crail, and keeper of the seamen's box of the said burcrh to 
Andrew Moncriefi' and others, Bailies and CouncUlors of th? said 
burgh of 2700 merks, and £432 money of Scotland, contained in 
Bond by the deceased Mr. Arthur Myrtoun, and others, BaHies and 
Councillors of CraH for the time, to the then keepers of said box 
dated 7th November, 1645, and Bond by them, dated 22nd October' 
1647. Crail, 24th May, 1654. ' 

Discharge by James Moncriefi", burgess of Crail, to the Treasurer 
of the said Burgh, of the sum of £80 as the annual rent of 2000 
merks from Whitsunday 1654, to the like term, 1655. Crail Gth 
October, 1655, ' 

Account rendered in Exchequer by Alexander Leslie, W S in 
behalf of the magistrates of the Burgh of Crail, for the burgh mails 
of the said burgh for twelve years, from Whitsunday 1644 to Whit 
Sunday last, 1656, at £11 Scots, extending to £132, conform to the 
Reddendo in their charter, produced and compared with their last 
Eque made in 1644, and stating his disbursements to be £22 paid to 
the sub-commissioners for sequestrations in Fife, and £110 paid to 
the Receiver General, conform to present Discharge, and bearin<v 
memorandum that James Kinniumouth and David Balfour of Ballock 
are to be accomptable for the small impost of wine vended within the 
said Burgh and liberties thereof. Edinburgh, 13th January, 1656. 

Decreet by the Commissioners for administration of Justice to the 
people of Scotland, at the instance of the bailies of the Bur<.h of Crail 
agamst the bailies of the Burgh of Pittenweem, for the non-payment 
of £4 money of Scotland, from the year 1640 to the present, conform 
to contract entered into between the said burgh, dated penult May 
1589. ^Edinburgh, December, 1656. ^' 

KoTE.— This paper seems incomplete, having only the first sheet 
thereof ; it probably formerly consisted of two sheets. 
Decreet by said Commissioners, at the instance of the said bailies 
of the Burgh of Crail, against the Bailies of the Burgh of Anstruther- 
Easter, for the non-payment of 5 merks money of Scotland, from the 
year 1641 to the present year, conform to contract entered into be- 
tween tlie said respective Burghs, dated 19 April, 1608. Edinbur-h 
l?th December, 1656. ^ ' 

Account rendered in Exchequer by Robert Adamson, clerk of the 


Burgh of Crail, for tlie year from Whitsunday 1656 to said term 1657, 
extending to £11 Scots, conform to their charter. Edinburgh, 17th 
July, 1657. 

Letters of Poinding and arrestment at the instance of the said 

bailies of the burgh of Crail against the heritors and proprietors of 

the lands of Cullenach, for payment of an annual rent of 18 merks 

money of Scotland, payable to the prebends of the Collegiate Church 

of Crail, dated 21st February, 1630. Edinburgh, 18th August, 1657. 

Bond and Disposition by Ninian Hamilton and others, bailies and 

council of the Burgh of Crail, to Allan Millar, one of their number, 

and Marion Moncrieff, his spouse, of the four mills of said Burgh, in 

security of 3500 merks money of Scotland, without date, but from 

indorsation on the back, it appears to have been dated 4th April, 1657. 

j^OTE. — The above Bond has only the first sheet I'emaining. 

Account rendered in Exchequer by Robei't Adamson, Clerk for the 

Magistrates of the Burgh of Crail, and containing memoradum as 

formerly. Edinburgh, 7th July, 1659. 

Discharge by James Moncrieff to Peter Young, in behalf of Mr. 
James Sharpe, of the sum of £1 1 6s 5d, as the price of 2 bolls here of 
crops 1657 and 1658. Crail, 14th July, 1659. 

Account and Dischai-ge by James Thomson for his Journey to 
Edinburgh, at the meeting of the commissioners of Excise and of the 
burrows, amounting to £20, discharged by the Burgh of Crail. Crail, 
26th November, 1660. 

Account rendered in Exchequer by William Thomson, W.S., in 
name of the Bailies of the Burgh of Crail, extending to £11 yearly, 
for the years 1657, 1658, and 1659. Edinburgh, 20th July, 1661. 

Letter addressed " ffor the Right honV^ the Pro vest, bailies, and 
" Counsell of Crail, these pay the post. Right honb'^ and o' loveing 
" friends and nighberis. These are to signitie to you that -we had 
" noe assuerance of the Sitting Parlia'' till this last post gave us notice, 
" q"" hes occassioned ane delay so long in wry ting to you thairanent, 
" heirfoir we thoght fitt to acquaint you theirwith, and to requyre 
" you (conforme to severall Acts of burrowis) to send your commis- 
" sioners sufficientlie instructit and commissionat, both for the melting 
" of Parlia' and burrowis, and if possible to meit twa dayis befoir the 
" down sitting of the Parlia*^' to the effect our awin affairis may be 
*' taken to consideratioun, and good correspondence may be keepit 
" among our selvis, as likewayis that you wold send with your com- 
" missioner the dewis I'esting be yo'' brugh both to clerk and agent, 
" and the last yeir missive dewis, and here in we expect you will not 
" be wanting, as our trust is in you, and we bid you fair weill, and 
" restis yo'' affectionat friends, &c., .... the Provest, Bailies, 
" and Counsell of Ed''- Subscryving be Sir William Thomsone, o^ com- 
*' mon clerk at command. (Signed) W. Thomsone. Ed''- this last 
" dayof Apryll, 1662." 

Account rendered in Exchequer by James Moncrieff, one of the 
bailies of the Burgh of Crail, for the year Whitsunday 1661 to 1662, 
in terms of No. 369. Edinburgh, 23rd July, 1662. 


Letters of Lawborows at the instance of James Moncrieflf and 
others, the bailies and council of the Burgh of Crail, against David 
Cuper in Ardrie, Thos. Scouler in Cotrie, and others, as disturbing 
the said bailies and council in their lands and possessions by breaking 
down their fences, destroying their corns and grass, and digging of 
coal in the common muir of Crail pertaining to them. Edinburgh, 
5th August, 1662. 

Act of Parliament bearing that by Petition given in by James 
MoncriefF and others, the bailies and council of the Burgh of Crail, 
btabing the inhabitants of their said burgh prociired their means of 
subsistence chiefly by what they " purchased in the seas," and having 
fitted out a ship to go to Ireland, and other vessels to Orkney and 
Shetland, in prosecution of the fisheries of herrings and other fishes, 
and that in times past they had been much discouraged by Ham- 
burghers, Lubeckers, and other strangers resorting to those places 
who were prefeiTed to them in the purchase of fishes ; Therefore, His 
Majesty and the Estates being willing to encourage and promote the 
interests of the said fisheries, charge the inhabitants of such places to 
dispose of their fish at the same rate to the inhabitants of Crad, &c., 
as to foreigners, and that the said persons be supplied before such 
foreigners. Edinburgh, 22nd March, 1663. 

Account rendered in Excheqiier by Thomas Adamson, Clerk of 
the Burgh of Crail, for the year 1662-1663. Edinburgh, 23rd July, 

Discharge by Mr William Skinner, Schoolmaster of Crail, to the 
Magistrates and Council of the Burgh of Crail, of the sum of £100, 
also £13 13s 4d for the year preceding Lammas 1661, the like sum 
for said term 1662, and the like sum for said term 1663. Crail, 28th 
May, 1664. 

Letter by the Earl of Bothes, addressed to the Provost and Bailies 
of Crail, bearing that the Council having considered the List of Sea- 
men sent from the Burgh of Crail, thereupon charging the said bailies 
to send 5 seamen or sea fishermen to Leith against the 15th March 
then next, under pain of 500 merks for every seaman that shall be 
deficient of said number. Edinburgh, IStli February, 1665. 

Discharge by Fergus Wilson, in name of Quarter-Master John 
Dundas, for quartering of Guards. Anstruther, 17th November, 1666. 

Discharge by William Hamilton of Wishaw, Collector-General for 
the Taxation, granted to the King in August, 1665, to John Daw 
and others, bailies of the Burgh of Ci-ail, of the sum of £244 9s. 
money of Scotland, as the first term's payment of said taxation, 
dated 9th July, 1666 ; also, Discharge by the Collector for William, 
Duke of Hamilton, Collector-General, as said is, to Thomas Adamson 
and others, the bailies aforesaid, of the like sum for the second term's 
taxation. Anstruther Easter, 19th June, 1667. 

Discharge by the Inhabitants of the Burgh of Crail to Robei't 
Chaplain, Treasurer of said Burgh, of all that was due to them 
through the quartering of Captain Leith and his Company among 
them. Crail, 9th April, 1668. 


Order by George Philip to Robert Copland, to pay to John 
MoncriefF £10 Scots, for quarter of two of the above Company. 
Crail, 23rd May, 1668. 

Letters of Publication at the instance of the Bailies and Council 
of the Burgh of Crail, bearing that the said Bailies and Council 
were by their ancient rights and infeftments, entitled to the 
privileges of packing and peiling of herring, within their boundaries, 
between the mid water of Leven and the water of Putikin, and 
within which bounds is situated the port of Randerston, and that 
these, their said rights, had been further established conform to 
certain Decreets in their favours, by the Lords of CouncU and Session, 
therein mentioned. Notwithstanding of which rights certain persons 
at the said port of Randerston are known to act in the contrary of 
said rights to the hurt and prejudice of the said bailies and council, 
therefore charging all such persons to produce and publish their 
pretended rights, &c. Edinburgh, 27th January, 1699. 

Receipt by Humphrey Loudoun, Writer in Edinburgh, in the 
name of the Laird of Lundin, bearing his ha^dng borrowed up from 
the Magistrates of Crail a Decreet at the instance of the Town of 
Crail, against David Lundin, of Newhall, dated 24th February, 1616. 

Contract between the said Town and the Town of Anstruther 
Easter. 19th April, 1608. 

Contract between the said two Towns, dated 22nd and 23rd 
October, 1616, to produce in a process at Largo's instance against 
Lundin, anent the Customs of the Burnmouth of Largo ; and 
containing another receipt by him. Dated, 29th Nov., 1704, for 
charter by Queen Mary to the Town of Crail, charter by King 
James VI, and charter of confirmation by Queen Mary, in favour of 
the said Town, dated 1553, and extract of the first mentioned 
Decreet. 31st May, 1704. 

Submission and Decree Arbitral between the Bailies and Council 
of the Burgh of Crail and Anstruther, bearing that there had been 
two contracts entered into between them, dated 19th April, 1608, 
and 22nd and 23rd October, 1616, anent certain liberties and 
privileges therein contained, and that on account of difterences 
likely to ensue between them as to Anstruther, claiming right to be 
free of customs and anchorages within the ports and landing places 
of Eifeness, referring the said difference to the amicable composition 
of David Scott of Scottstarvet, and Mr. John Lindsay of Morristone, 
Commissary Commissioner of St. Andrews on the part of CraO, and 
to Sir Robert Anstruther of Balcaskie, and John Lumsdain, W.S., 
on the part of Anstruther, and the said Arbiters having accepted, 
ordain the said Bailies of Crail to grant liberty, &c., and the said 
Bailies and inhabitants of Anstruther to make payment to them 
yearly of the sum of 5 merks Scots yearly for said privilege, dated 
29th May, 1704, and registered in the Burgh Court Books of Crail, 
Sth August, 1704. 

Contract between the Bailies of the Burgh of Crail, and the 
Bailies of the Burgh of Anstruther, narrating the import of the former 


contracts entered into between them, and also the foregoing snb- 
mission and Decreet, arbitral and agreeing to abide by the same. 
Crail and Anstruther Easter, 3rd and 10th August, 1704. 

Extract from the Council Books of the Burgh of Crail, by the 
Magistrates and Council of said Burgh, of which copies are to be 
sent to the Burghs of Edinburgh, Dundee, Aberdeen, and Montrose, 
bearing that there had been a communing between the said Magis- 
trates and Council, and the Merchants of the foresaid places, for 
ending of the debates between them, which had ended amicably, 
and therefore the said Magistrates and Council have made an Act, 
by which in future no more shall be exacted from the inhabitants 
of said places resorting to Crail to take herrings than 1-Os. Scots 
per last, in name of stellage and that they shall be free of shore 
dues, &c. Dated 8th September, 1705, registered said 8th Sept., 

Eenunciation by James Cunningham of Barns, as heir of the 
deceased John Cunningham of AVest Barns, his father, in favour of 
William Crawford and others, bailies of the Burgh of Crail, of a 
piece of ground within the Sandhaugh of the said Burgh, called 
" the King's Castle Yard," and two tenements and yards on both 
sides of the Vennel leading to the harbour thereof, and that on 
account of their having made application to him by reason of the 
inhabitants having petitioned them, the said bailies for a piece of 
waste ground lying within the Castle Wall, for the purpose of build- 
ing thereon, and that the same was useless to him, and would thereby 
" decore" the High Street of the Burgh. 9th October, 1706, regis- 
tered 29th October, 1706. 

Letter addressed to the Magistrates of Crail by Sir Wm. Hope, 
relative to the anchorage of the North Country boats, furnished 
out by the townspeople of Crail. Dated Balcomie, 21st April, 

Note op Libel. — Charles and Grilbert Sheriffs, Merchants in 
Prestonpans, against William Crawford, one of the bailies of the 
Burgh of Crail, and Greorge Drummond, Treasurer thereof, for 
abstracting 2 barrels of cured herrings out of their workhouse at 
Crail, for the payment of certain alleged duties illegally imposed by 
them, named stellage. 23rd December, 1709. 

Summons at the instance of David Dieshly and others, the Bailies 
and community of the Burgh of Crail, against Sir William Hope of 
Balcomie, for disturbing them in the peaceable possession of their 
rights of levying the petty customs, anchorages, teind herrings, and 
other duties, therefore summoning him to compear before the Lords 
of Council and Session, upon the day of , then next, and 


Note. — The above seems to be a draft copy of the summons. 

Act of the Bailies and Council of the Burgh of Crail, in reference 
to the election of the Magistracy, enacting that no Magistrate shall 
in future be elected for longer than one year, nor be permitted to 
remain in office more than two years. Crail, 22nd Sept., 1712. 


Act of the Convention of the Royal Burrows, on the Petition from 
the Burgesses of Crail, praying for liberty to set a Tack of their 
petty Customs, by which they remitted to the Commissioners of St. 
Andrews and Kirkcaldy, and confer to meet with parties concerned 
therein, and allows the Commissioners for Anstruther Easter to be 
present, to treat concerning the adjusting of said Tack, and other 
matters. Edinburgh, 10th July, 1713. 

Summons at the instance of Her Majesty's Advocate against John 
Beaton and others, the Bailies of the Burgh of Crail, to compear 
before the High Court of Admiralty at Edinburgh, for granting 
passports to ships and vessels trading with foreign nations, as con- 
trary to the privileges of the Lord High Admiral. i7th August, 
1713. ^ ^ .,. 

Tack between George Moncrieflf of Sauchop and others, the Bailies 
and Council of the Burgh of Crail, and John Cunningham of Barns, 
on the one and other parts, mentioning Decreet obtained by him 
against the said Bailies and Council upon 11th December, 1693, 
relative to agreement between them and Alexander Cunningham of 
Barns, entered into on Uth January, 1636, as to Vicarage and other 
Teinds of the Provostry of Crail, the common muir and coal heughs 
thereof, whether their rights thereto flowed from the Kuig, the 
Provostry aforesaid, or from John, Lord Lindsay, in which agreement 
the said Alexander Cunningham consented to the said Bailies, passing 
a Signature as to the said coal heughs tack by Robert, Lord Lindsay, 
to the said Alexander Cunningham of the Teind fishes, and rent of 
£100, payable therefor to the said Bailies and Council, agreeing the 
charge for digging and searching for said coal, to be borne by the said 
John Cunningham, either of said parties to have a servant attending 
on said coal, or a coal grieve mutually between them, as may be 
agreed on ; that no injury be done to their crops and Lands under 
the penalty of £500, next mentioning a comprising led by the 
deceased John Lun, Burgess of Crail, on 12th Feb., 1654, against 
Laurence Cunningham, as heir to John Cunningham of Barns, his 
father, in the half of the Teind fishes of said Burgh, and others. 
Tack dated Crail, 4th and 5th June, 1694. Registered 20th December, 

Bond by the Magistrates of the Burgh of Crail, obliging themselves 
to make payment to the masters of the Crail Sea Box Society, of the 
sum of 1000 merks Scots, accumulated on £248 like money contained 
in Bond by the then bailies and council of Orail, to the then keepers 
of said box. Crail, 20th March, 1719. 

Disposition and Assignation by George Dick, Cooper, Burgess of 
the Burgh of Crail, son and heir of the deceased Robert Dick, 
Treasurer of the Burgh of Crail, in favour of John Adamson, 
skipper, Burgess of the said Burgh, of the 4 common mills of 
Crail, and annual rent eff"eiring to 300 merks. Crail, 1st March, 

Cognition by the Bailies of the Burgh of Crail, in favour of the above 
mentioned George Dick, as heir to the said Robert Dick, his father, 


in the above mills and annual rent payable therefrom. Crail, Ist 
March, 1720. 

Discharge by John Cossar to Robert Logan, Bailie of the Burgh of 
Orail, of the sum of £20 Scots, in part of a greater sum due by the 
Town of Crail to the sea box. Crail, 30th June, 1729. 

Discharge by Henry Crawford and John Moncrieff, members of the 
sea box of Crail, of the sum of £126 Scots, in terms of the foregoing 
Discharge. Crail, 4th November, 1729. 

Renunciation by William Millar, Hammerman, Bvirgess of the 
Burgh of Crail, son and heir of the deceased William Millar, Deacon 
of the Hammermen of said Burgh, in favours of the Bailies of Crail, 
of the corn mills of said Burgh, and of 200 merks Scots affecting the 
same in which his said father stood infeft. Crail, 9th October, 

Discharge as above for the sum of £32 9s. Crail, 10th October, 

Bond and Obligation by Robert Logan and others, the Bailies and 
Council of the Bui-gh of Crail, to Mr. Robert Fairweather, Minister 
of Crail, in security of the sum of £800 Scots, and obliging them- 
selves to make payment thereof between and the term of Whitsunday, 
1736. Crail, 13th October, 1735. 

Discharge by James Kingo, Weaver in Crail, as Postmaster to the 
said Thomas Dick, of £ 1 6 Scots, as a years salary from Martinmas 
1738 to 1739. Crail, 22nd November, 1739. 

Discharge by Mr. Patrick Coldstream, Master of the Grammar 
School of Crail, to Thomas Dick, Treasurer, of the sum of £62 
Scots, of which £50 was as payment of his Lammas and Whit- 
sunday's quarterly salaries, and £12 as a year's payment of his 
additional salary preceding Whitsunday last. Crail, 23 rd November, 

Discharge by Mr. Patrick Glas, Minister of Crail, to the said 
Thomas Dick, of £10 Scots as a year's Grassmail. Crail, 21st 
November, 1739. 

Discharge by John Bowman, Town Officer of Crail, to the said 
Thomas Dick, of £12 Scots as a year's salary. Crail, 22nd November, 

Discharge by William Coldstream, Usher of the Gi-ammar School 
of Crail, to Thomas Dick, Town Treasurer there, of the sum of £12 
Scots as a year's salary. Crail, 13th November, 1739. _ 

Discharge by John Matthewson, clock smith in Anstruther, to John 
Oliphant, Treasurer of the Burgh of Crail, of the sum of £5 10s Scots 
as a year's salary for keeping the town clock. Crail, 7th April, 

Discharge by William Don, School-master of Crail, to John Oli- 
phant, Maltster, present Treasurer of said Burgh, of the sum oi 
£105 Scots as a year's salary. Crail, 22nd November, 1755. 

Discharge by John Mathieson to the above John Oliphant, of the 
sum of £2 Scots for the striking work of the Town Clock. Crail, 
13th November, 1755. 


Discharge by John Eamsay to the said John Oliphant, of the sum 
of £12 Scots as a year's salary as Town Officer. Crail, 22nd 
November, 1755. 

Discharge by G-eorge Simmers to the above John Oliphant, of the 
sum of £2 2s sterling, as 3 year's salary as Town Carrier. Crail, 
10th June, 1755. 

Order by Andrew Jamieson, Bailie to the said John Oliphant, to 
pay to David Duncan, Is sterling, as an object of Charity. Crail, 
26th June, 1755. 


Burgh Seal, An&truther Eastc: . 

has rather a pleasiwg ap 

Anstruthek-Easter is a small Parish, 
Royal Bui-gh, and seaport in the county 
and Synod of Fife, and Presbytery of 
St. Andrews, bounded on the south by 
the Frith of Forth, on the east by 
Kilrenny, from which Parish it was 
disjoined in 1636, and on the west by 
Anstruther-Wester, from which it is 
separated by the Dreele Burn, which 
falls into the sea west of the harbour. 
The entire parish is of no great extent, 
either in length or breadth. It may 
be said to consist entirely of the burgh 
or seaport, which is pleasantly situated 
in a hollow, and when viewed from the 

pearance. The two towns of East and West Anstruther-, and the 
fishing village of Cellardyke, seem as forming one town alono- 
the shore. The harbour of East 
Anstruther, at least the west pier 
thereof, was chiefly built in 1753. 
The principal street of the town lies 
along the harbour, with a tine southern 
exposure, and exhibits several anti- 
quated old houses in good condition. 
The other parts of the burgh consist 
of a few narrow streets and lanes. 
Anstruther, considering both as one 
town, is 35| miles from Edinburgh, 10 
from St. Andrews, and about 17 from 
Cupar-Fife, the county town. Anstru- ^"'"'^'^ '^^'''^' ^'ireimy. 

ther- Easter, was erected into a royal biu-gh by James VI . in 1 583, and it. 
continued, with its neighbour, a place of considerable shipping repute and 
trade until the Union, which may be said to have swamped all the Fife 
seaports, with the exception of Kirkcaldy, and concentrated the trade 
in particular places and ports, which are now populous and yearly 
increasing in mercantile importance. From the Union to the passing 
of the Burgh Reform Act the two Anstruthers, both royal burghs, 
were scarcely heard of except on electioneering occasions. Tliat 
burgh out of the five, which happened to be the returning one for 
the time, was generally the scene of great excitement and conviviality 
during the canvass. Several curious stories are told of those elec- 


tioneering times, which the Reform Act annihilated, about tlie 
abduction of obstinate councillors, and the polite attentions of the 
candidates to the wives of the burgh functionaries, not to mention 
the amazing quantities of liquors of all kinds consumed. East 
An.struther, or Anst'er as it is commonly called by the people of the 
district, with the other burghs, is now united with Cupar-Fife and 
St. Andrews in Parliamentary representation, and contained a con- 
stituency in 1868 of 195. It is governed by a Pi'ovost, two Bailies, 
Treasurer, and live Councillors. The town is noted as the place 
where Robertson and "Wilson were apprehended for robbing the 
collector at Pittenweem in 1736, the extraordinary circumstances of 
which, connected with the escape of the former and the execution of 
the latter, caused the famovis Porteous mob at Edinburgh, so admir- 
ably detailed in the " Heart of Mid- Lothian." 

It may here be mentioned, on the authority of a lady almost a 
century old (in 1839), mother of the late Captain James Black, R.N., 
that the person who broke open the shop near the head of the West 
Bow, and took from it the rope to bang Porteous, for which a guinea 
was left on the counter, was a man of the name of Bruce, who sub- 
sequently returned to Anstruther after a time, and followed the less 
daring avocation of a barber. This man was well known to the 
venerable informant of the present writer. 

The Parish Church was built in the year 1634, and exactly two 
hundred years afterwards, viz., in 1834, was repaired, and is now one 
of the most neat and comfortable country churches anywhere to be 
seen. The spire was built in 1644, and within it is hung a bell of 
admirable tone, with an inscription on it, bearing that it was the gift 
of Andi-ew Strang, shipmaster. The Manse of Anstruther-Easter is one 
of the oldest and most singular ecclesiastical buildings in the country. 

Houses are not now-a-days built on arches, with corbelled walls 
and crow-step gables, and people examine curiously such old-world 
architecture ; but with all these there is an interest deeper and 
grander still about this old manse. Built 278 ;years ago by that 
celebrated Scots worthy, James Melville, how many hallowed associa- 
tions gather round this time-honoured roof-tree on that very account. 
Few houses, indeed, within the length and breadth of the land have 
a history of their origin like the following. We quote the words of 
James Melville himself, as entered in his famous diary. In order, 
however, to make the extract more intelligible to the general reader, 
we have adopted the modern orthography. After alluding to the 
liberality of his parishioners in increasing his stipend, he says con- 
cerning the old manse : — 

" And they (the people) further obliged themselves to build me a 
house, upon a piece of ground which the Laird of Anstruther gave 
free to that effect. This was undertaken and begun at Whitsunday, 
in anno 1590, but would never have been perfected if the bountiful 
hand of my God had not made me to take the work in hand myself, 
and furnished strangely to my consideration all things needful, so 
that never a week passed but all sorts of workmen were well paid; 


never a day's intermission from the beginning to tlie completing of 
it, never a sore finger during the whole labour. In June begun, 
and in the month of March after, I was resident therein. It exceeds 
in expense the sum of 3500 merks, and of all I had nothing of the 
parish but about 3000 sledges of stones, and 14 or 15 chalders of 
lime, the stones from the town (of East Anstruther), and the lime 
from the landward (part of the parish of Kilrenny), scarcely the 
half of the materials lime and stone, and therefore justly I may call 
it a spectacle of Grod's liberality." 

The old manse, — apart from a more modern west wing, which, by 
the way, has somewhat spoiled the picturesque effect if it has added 


to the conveniences of the main building, — is very much the same as 
when the old divine was wont to go in and out of its threshold. It 
stands in an elevated but somewhat secluded situation, in the 
rearward part of the burgh, which also embraces the parish within 
its bounds. The most salient feature in the manse itself is a large 
square tower, which gives a sort of castellated look to it, while, like 
old houses in general, it is rather narrow over the walls, and notably 
steep in the roof There are nine apartments — two public and 
seven bedrooms — on the first and second floors, the ground storey 
being devoted to the kitchen, and the wine and other cellarage ; these 
conveniences in the old building being arched over with solid 
masonry. To conclude our description, the ancient house stands 
some distance within a large and beautiful garden, the rose-trees and 
vendure of which look so soft and sweet around the grey old walls, 
standing there so unchanged amongst the countless changes which 
have come and gone since it was the consecrated homestead of the 
old Eeformer. 

High up on the front of the tower, some hand has chiselled 


deeply the words " watch tower," iu consequence of the little room 
at the top of the tower having been used by Melville as a place of 
study, and from which he is said to have been in the habit of gazing 
on his parish, in order that he might be stimulated thereby into 
greater zeal for the good of his people. It is commonly but erro- 
neously believed that Melville was still minister of the united 
parishes of Kilrenny, Anstruther Wester, Pitteuweem, and 
Abercrombie, when he built his house. That our readers may be 
more correctly informed on this point, we submit the following items 
of information: — 

In 1586, six years after his appointment as Professor of Oriental 
Languages in St. Mary's College, St. Andrews, and three years after 
his marriage with his first wife, James Melville accejjted a call 
from West Anstruther, with which the parishes just named were 
at the time united. The cause originally of this union was the 
want of a sufficient number of qualified ministers to take the charge 
of separate parishes, and in this way Mr. William Clark was ap- 
pointed to the spiritual oversight of the district. The successor of 
this godly man was Robert Wood, who obtained the united benefices 
through the patronage of Archbishop Adamson of St. Andrews. 
This settlement, however, was so unacceptable to the people that on 
regaining its legitimate authority the Presbytery set aside the pre- 
sentation. On entering on the charge thus vacated, Mellville, 
greatly to his honour and to the credit of his religious principles, 
instead of continuing in the nominal care of four large parishes, at 
once set himself to obtain separate pastors to each. Persevering in 
this noble and disinterested endeavour, that respectable minister 
Robert Dury was appointed to West Anstruther 1588, and Nicol 
Dalgleish was also through his influence settled in Pitteuweem about 
the same time. He seems to have been less successful in the case of 
Abercrombie, which continued vacant for a long period after his 
resignation. The Reformer after this betook himself exclusively to 
the charge of the parish of Kilrenny, which then included the town 
of East Anstruther. The kirk session of Anstruther Wester thus 
forcibly record their regret at his departure — " Mr. James Melvill 
took his gude nicht of this congregation, the said month of October 
1590 years, and took him to Kylryune to be their minister, Grod 
forgif him that did so, for I know and saw him promise that he 
should never leave us for any worldly respect so long as he lived, 
except he were forced by the Kirk and his Majesty, but never being 
forced either by the Kirk or his Majesty left us." 

The career of this eminent person is hereafter so identified with 
the struggles of the Church of Scotland, as to be more or less 
familiar to every one acquainted with the history of that stormy 
period. We are induced, however, as an illustration of the simple 
and affectionate character of the man, also to show the kind and 
sunny memories which belong to the old manse, to give this one other 
extract from the diary : — 

"In the month of March 27, 1595, being Furisdv, about eleven 


liours of the nic-ht, in place of a seerie lass that never smiled, God 
gave me of my wife dearly beloved, a pleasant boy, who during his 
infancy being of a fine sanguine complexion, was a pastime and 
pleasure, not only to my whole family, but almost through all the 
town wherever he was carried. So it is a good thing to take in 
patience with whatever Grod sends." 

For the information of the curious we add a few ^particulars regard- 
ing the subsequent history of the old manse. 

About 1637 the house described as lying between Baxter's Barn 
on the west, and the arable land on the east, was sold by Melville's 
eldest son Ephraim, sometime minister of Pittenweem, to the Laird 
of Anstruther, for a manor house, owing probably to the old castle 
of Dreele ha^qng become incommodious as a family residence. After 
Anstruther Hall or "The Place" had been built, the house seems to 
have been occupied by the dowager ladies, and other relatives of 
succeeding Lairds until 1713, when under the name of "Lady 
Melrose's House" it passed into the hands of the Town Council of 
East Anstruther, Sir John Anstruther excambed it with the burgh 
for an old tenement in the Pend Wynd, which had hitherto served 
as a manse for the ministers of the new parish of East Anstruther. 
Since that time or for the last 155 years this venerable house has 
continued to be the property of the burgh, and has been successively 
occupied as a manse by the ministers of the parish. Notwithstand- 
ing its high antiquity it is still a comfortable and commodious 
residence, and as every care is taken to keep it in thorough repair, 
it is likely to remain for many generations to come as an interesting 
memorial of the remarkable man by whom, and the far away times 
in which, it was erected. The present occupant of the manse is the 
Eev. Andrew Cameron, the much respected minister of the parish. 

An incident occurred about this time, which shews the troubled 
and unsettled state of the times. A vessel belonging to Anstruther, 
a sort of lighter or barque with one mast, returning from England, 
was attacked by an English pirate, pillaged, and one of her crew, an 
honest burgess, murdered, and the same piratical vessel shortly 
afterwards came to the Frith, lay off Pittenweem, plundered another 
barque there, and maltreated the men. Such proceedings could not 
be allowed to pass unheeded, lest, as the narrative states, " our ships 
and men should become a common prey to sic limmers," meaning 
"thieves and scoundrels." Accordingly, a number of the most 
wealthy and respectable men of Anstruther purchased a commission, 
rigged out a, flee boat or swift sailing vessel, and put to sea in search 
of the pirates. They fell in with them on the coast of Suffolk, 
captured them and their vessel, and carried off half-a-dozen of them 
as prisoners, brought them to Anstruther, hanged two of them at 
the end of the East Pier, and sent the rest to St. Andrews to be 
dealt with as law directs. 

In connection with the name of James Melville, an interesting 
story is told in reference to the Spanish Armada. The fate of the 
Armada is well-known, and need not be detailed. Continual disas- 


ters pursued tlie fleet, and a succession of storms and battles destroyed 
it. After having been driven out of the English Channel, they were 
forced to steer their course homeward round the coast of Scotland, 
and many of them suiFered shipwreck on our bold and rugged shores. 
Those who reached the land were treated with the greatest kindness. 
One of these vessels containing " threttin score," described in Mel- 
ville's diary as " for the maist pairt young, beardless men, trauchled 
and hungry," was cast ashore on the Fair Islands, and afterwards 
made its way to the harbour of Anstruther, of which town James 
Melville had now become minister. As the overthrow of the Spanish 
fleet was yet unknown in Scotland, the appearance of 260 fighting 
men at first excited some alarm. But their helpless condition soon 
manifested the true state of matters. The Magistrates and Town 
Council convened on the occasion, and agreed to admit the com- 
mander to an audience. As their minister was the only one in the 
neighbourhood who understood the Spanish language, he was sent 
for to communicate the sentiments of the Magistrates. They met 
in the Town Hall. The commander is described as having been a 
venerable old man, of large stature and martial countenance. On 
entering the hall, he made a profound bow, and said his name " was 
Jon G-omez de Medina ;" he was commander of twenty vessels, being 
part of the grand fleet which his master, Philip, King of Spain, had 
fitted out to avenge the insufferable insults which he had received 
from the English nation ; but the Almighty, on account of their sins, 
had fought against them, and dispersed them by a tremendous storm ; 
the vessels under his command had been separated from the main 
fleet driven on the north coast of Scotland, and shipwrecked on the 
Eair Isle ; and after escaping the dangers of the rocks and waves, 
and enduring unspeakable hardships from cold and hunger, he and 
such of his men as had been preserved had made their way in their 
only remaining bark to seek the assistance from their good friends 
and confederates, the Scots, (making another profound bow), from 
whom he expected relief, succour, and comfort to himself, his oflicers, 
and poor men, whose condition was most pitiable. To this James 
Melville replied : That on the score of confederacy, or of the cause 
on which they were embarked, the Spaniards had no claim on them ; 
that the King of Spain was a sworn vassal of the Bishop of Eorne, 
and on that groiind the Scots and their king defied them ; and with 
regard to England, the Scots were indissolubly leagued with that 
kingdom, and hence they regarded an attack on England the same 
as an attack upon Scotland. But although such was the case, the 
Town Council and inhabitants of the burgh looked upon them, in 
their present destitute circumstances, as men and fellow-creatures 
labouring under privations and sufferings to which they were them- 
selves liable, and they rejoiced at this opportunity being aff'orded 
them of testifying how superior the Protestant religion was to that 
of their enemies ; and he instanced the case of many Scotsmen, who 
having occasion to resort to Spain for the purpose of trade and 
commerce, had been thrown into prison as heretics, their property 


confiscated, and their bodies committed to the flames ; but so far 
from retaliating such cruelties on those before them, they would 
^dve them every kind of relief and comfort in their power, leaving it 
to Almighty Grod to work such a change ujJon their hearts and minds 
respecting true religion as he pleased. 

After this interesting conference, to the honour of the town of 
Anstruther be it spoken, the commander and his officers were im- 
mediately provided with lodgings, and kindly treated by the magis- 
trates and neighbouring gentry, while the sailors, we are told, were 
fed on "kail, porridge, and fishe," until they obtained permission 
of our Grovernment to return to Spain. 

It must also be mentioned, however, as no less honourable to the 
Spanish character, that when, at an after period, a vessel, belonging 
to Anstruther, was detained in a Spanish port, Don Jon Gromez de 
Medina repaired to the King, and successfully pleaded the humanity 
of the inhabitants of Anstruther, to himself and his shipwrecked 
seamen, as a reason for their release. After having obtained the 
liberation of the vessel, the grateful old man invited the whole ship's 
company to his house, entertained them nobly, inquired earnestly 
after the good people of Anstruther, and sent his warmest respects 
and best wishes to the magistrates, minister, and the rest of his old 
friends and benefactors. The mind feels relieved in turning from 
the battle of the warrior, with its confused noise and garments rolled 
in blood, to contemplate the image of Him who is " strength to the 
poor, a strength to the needy in his distress, a shadow from the heat, 
a refuge from the storm, when the blast of the terrible is as a storm 
against the wall." It is pleasing to perceive that the ardent zeal 
of our ancestors against Komanism did not interfere, in this case, 
with the calls of humanity and charity; and it is consolatory to find 
that, even in Spain, a country which we have been accustomed to 
regard as a favourite abode of superstition, there have not been want- 
ing noble examples of generosity and grateful feeling. Anecdotes 
like these are so very honourable to poor fallen human nature, that 
they ought to be imprinted on the historic page with imperishable 
letters of gold. 

More than a hundred years after this event, Scotland was still a 
separate kingdom ; and although the King had removed himself and 
his Court to London, still Scotland was governed by its own Parlia- 
ment at Edinburgh, and its own laws. The King was represented 
in the Scottish Parliament by a Commissioner, as the Sovereign still 
is in the Greneral Assembly of the Church of Scotland ; and not 
only every shire, but every royal burgh was privileged to send a 
Member to represent it in the Parliament of Scotland ; and here 
allow me to narrate an incident which occurred in Anstruther, 
tending to show the great change which has taken place in reference 
to Parliamentary representation since the days of our forefathers. 
At present, it is well known that wherever there is a probability of 
dividing the constituency of a county or district or burgh with suc- 
cess, there are always two or more candidates for the membership, 


aud no pains are spared, no love or money awanting to carry the 
election. How dilt'erently things were managed in the days of our 
ancestors may be learned from the minutes of a meeting of the 
Magistrates and Town Council of Anstruther-Easter, of which the 
follomng is a copy : — 

" Anstruther, Blst August, 1686. — The Bailies and Council taking 
to their consideration the heavie burdens this burgh lyeth under, 
and that thereby theburgh isnot able to send and keep a Commissioner 
to attend the Parliament ; They have thought tit to send a blank 
commission to His Majesty's Commissioner, to fill up what person he 
pleaseth, for the good of his Majesty's service, and of this burgh ; 
And ordain a commission to be drawn and sent over with a burgess 
bill, both in favours of a blank person. '' 

Thus you see that in place of the candidate seeking the elector 
for the office of Member, the elector had to seek the candidate to 
accept it, and that not always successfully ; and moreover, the 
Burgh was obliged to pay the Member (it is said) , six shillings and 
eigbtpence per day, during the Session, for his maintenance; and, as 
some of the Members were not over well clad, the burghs had also 
to furnish them with a large cloak wherewith they might sit in 
Parliament, and which covered all infirmities in reference to 

In former times a Pair was annually held on a piece of ground 
called Anster Loan, on the north side of the town, near the turnpike 
road leading to St. Andrews. This Pair is celebrated in Professor 
Tennant's well-known poem called "Anster Pair." The famous 
Maggie Lauder, the heroine of song, is said to have been a real 
personage. She resided in what is called the East Green of Anstru- 
ther, a green now only in name, for it is a narrow, low-lying street, 
connecting the town with the fishing village of Cellardyke. Here 
some pretend to show the remains of Maggie's domicile, which must 
have been of the hovel description. 

James V. visited Anstruther during one of his tours through Pile 
incognito, and while passing along the east coast, disguised as a piper, 
he came to Anster Burn, which he found he could not cross, the 
stream being much flooded, without wetting his hose, which he was 
loth to do. The disguised Monarch stood wondering how he should 
proceed, when a stout gaberlunzie woman came up, and offered to 
carry him across on her back. The King accepted the ofier, and 
was ferried dry shod across the Burn, after which he passed some 
time with the beggar, to whom, in parting, he gave his purse, receiv- 
ing in return her grateful acknowledgment for his courtesy. 

The old Castle of Dreele, an ancient seat of the Anstruther family, 
stood on the East Anstruther side of that burn at its entrance into 
the sea. Several curious traditions are in circulation respecting this 
old baronial residence and its proprietors. The castle has entirely 
disappeared, and its site is now partly occupied by a large cooperage, 
and partly by an antiquated tenement called Wightman's house, at 
the foot of a narrow lane called Wightman's Wynd. 


The family of Anstrutlier is reported by tradition still current in 
the East of Fife, to have owed its arms and motto to the following 
singular occurrence at Dreele Castle : — 

William, Baron of Anstruther, being invited by Sir Niel Cun- 
ningham of Barns to visit him in his castle on the sea-side, near 
Crail, was repairing thither, when he was met by a very venerable- 
looking man, who entreated him in the most earnest manner to 
return, affirming that the Laird of Barns had a design on his life. 
Anstruther was prevailed upon, and went back. Next day he sent 
an apology for not appearing, and invited Sir Niel, in his turn, to 
dinner, at his house on the water of Dreele, commonly called Castle 
Dreele. Barns appeared at the appointed hour ; but no sooner were 
the gates of Castle Dreele closed on him, than he was slain by the 
stroke of a battle-axe inflicted by the hand of Anstruther, who 
exclaimed, as he gave the blow, " Perussem ni periissem," an expres- 
sion which to this hour remains the motto of his descendants. After 
this the Laird of Anstruther fled to the Bass, where he remained 
until a pardon was procured for him through the interest of his 

In connection with the ancient Family of Anstruther we may 
also here record the following anecdote : — 

" Sir James Anstruther, the father of the Knight, of whom we are 
now to speak, was much connected with the Court of Queen Mary. 
He was master of the household and heritable carver, and received 
the honour of Knighthood. His son. Sir William, was therefore 
born in a Court atmosphere, and naturally became attached to his 
Sovereign, King James, who was about his own age. It is said that 
on one occasion. Sir William Anstruther, on entering the Royal 
presence, observed a smile on the faces of the courtiers, which he 
Avas convinced had some connection with his own entry. After 
paying his duty to his Sovereign, he took his place in the circle, and 
by and bye inquiring into the cause of the signs of mirth Avhich he 
had observed. ' Why, Sir William,' said the Lord to whom he ad- 
dressed himself, ' we heard your footsteps as you came along the 
gallery, and His Majesty — .' ' Ay, man,' interrupted King James, 
who had overheard the question, ' His Majesty said that it could be 
none other than the burly Laird of Anster that was at the door, for 
nane o' them a' had sae heavy a tread as you.' ' Weel may I tread 
heavy,' said Sir William, kneeling before the King, ' when I carry 
the haill lands of Anstruther on my back. But a boon, my liege, a 
boon,' added he, while a twinkle of irrepressible drollery lurked 
about the corner of his eyes. ' On, ay,' said the good-natured 
monarch, ' yer just like the lave o' them, it's aye a boon, a boon. 
I'm thinking if Solomon had my place he wadna hae said that the 
horse leech had but twa daughters for there are half-a-hundred 
about me daily crying, give, give. But let's hear your request,' 
said he, perceiving that there was a mixture of jest and earnest 
in his manner which betokened some amusement, and King 
James dearly loved a laugh. ' Sire,' said the Knight, ' I carry, as I 


said, the hail lands of Anstruther on my back, and my supplication 
is that I may have leave to wear them as long as they will stick to 
me.' ' Troth, man,' said the King, ' I kenna precisely what ye 
mean ; but rise up, rise up, Sir William, let's hae a look at 
ye. Odds, man, I begin to hae some glimmer o' your purpose. 
Saw ye ever sic raiment?' said he, looking round to the smiling 
courtiers, as he examined a suit made of the richest foreign 
velvet, and adorued with every costly extravagance of the tailoring 
art. ' Waefu wastry, waefu wastry,' said the monarch, ' are ye no 
ashamed of such folly. It'll no be lang that the lauds of Anster will 
stick to ye if ye carry on at this rate.' ' Sire,' said Sir William, 
again bending before his sovereign, 'the haill lands of Anstruther 
are now on my back, what honours my master's court I count not 
wastry. Give me but what T ask, that my lands shall cleave to me 
as lang as I can wear them.' The petition was gi-anted ; the knight 
returned home ; the superb court-dress was doffed, and the king was 
by and bye told that as Sir William was to keep his lands as long 
as he could wear his coat, he was determined not to be in any haste 
to wear it out. The velvet suit was preserved for many generations 
as an heirloom in the family, and was at last cut into shreds by an 
old lady whose propensities for tui'ning to account all odds and ends 
out-weighed her venei'ation for the ancient garment and the ancient 
story. Family history throws some light on the narrative, for we 
find that Sir William Anstruther was obliged to mortgage the barony 
of Anstruther to Pati-ick Black, master tailor to His Highness the 
Prince, who actually entered into possession and issued charters to 
the vassals, and from whom the knight succeeded in recovering the 
lands by some means which do not clearly appear, but which might 
very probably be the exei-cise of the royal favour." 

The castle of Dreele mainly consisted of a massive square tower, the 
basement storey of which continued to stand up to a period within the 
memory of old persons still alive. The walls were of great thickness 
and strength, and its situation also favourable for defence. The 
castle^ before the introduction of artillery, might be regarded as 
impregnable, so much so indeed was it considered by the burghers of 
Anstruther, and even the neighbouring proprietors, that they are 
said to have used it as a safe deposit for their plate and other 
valuables when the town was attacked, as was frequently the case by 
English ships. After having continued for about five centuries as 
the residence of the Anstruthers, the castle, according to tradition, 
was abandoned through the following incident : — In the middle of 
February, 1651, Charles the Second for reasons of policy, shortly 
after his coronation at Scone, made a tour through Fife, when after 
being entertained by the Magistrates of Pittenweem, he lodged for a 
night in Anstruther. Sir Philip Anstruther, the then proprietor, 
was one of the staunchest Royalists of those times, and of course on 
this occasion exerted himself to the utmost to gratify the King. At 
the conclusion of a sumptuous repast, Charles jocularly remarked to 
Sir Philip, refeiring to the height and limited accommodation of the 


Castle, *' Eh, what a fine suppei- I've gotten in a craw's nest." The 
sensitive Knight was so much stung by the fioyal remark and the 
loud laugh of the courtiers which followed it, that he resolved to 
erect a new mansion more in accordance with the altered state of the 
times. This intention he carried into effect as soon as the E,estoi'ation 
had taken place, and the civil wars were over, when, in 1633, he 
commenced to build the place which Sibbald describes as "a goodly 
hcnise overlooking the town " 


The original contract for this house, made with Alexander Nesbit, 
deacon of the masons in Edinburgh, provides that it shall be 76 feet 
by 24 feet within the walls, and of four storey, and the walls four 
feet thick. The hall and dining-room were on the second storey, and 
the windows in the former were to be " as large and complete as those 
in the hall of Kellie.'' There was a large rustic entry -gate on the west 
side "conform to the principal gate of Belcarres," and "sufiicient 
square docote of the quantity of Sir James Lumsdaines', of Innergellie, 
his docate." The price, including a stable and a bake and a brew 
house, was fixed at 2200 merks, and 16 bolls of oatmeal, besides the 
joiner work, for which was paid 200 merks, 4 bolls oatmeal, 4 bolls 
pease, and 2 bolls here : and the iron work, the payment of which 
was £200, and 2 bolls of meal. The ''place" was only occupied by 
the proprietors for about a hundred years, when they took up their 
residence in Elie House. The Anstruther mansion was then allowed 
to be tenanted by old servants of the family; and, in 1811, when the 
present turnpike was formed, it was razed to the ground. It was 
believed that some relics of the old building would have been turned 
up through the operations connected with the building of the new 
Clydesdale Bank, or in trenching the garden attached ; but, with the 
exception of the foundation of a range of buildings — probably the 


brake and brew houses above alluded to — no vestige of relics was dis- 

A conspicuous object in the shore street, at the foot of the New 
Road, is the domus urbi or Tolbooth. The appearance of this building 
is as plain and commonplace as may be. The upper floor of the build- 
ing forms the Council Chamber and Common Hall, and an inscription 
on the west gable tells us that it -was repaired in ISOG. The edifice 
itself is probably as old as the royalty of the burgh — that is, nearly 
three centuries old. The old Hall can still be seen (now degraded 
into a store for manure) in which the old burghers and the neigh- 
bouring " Bonnet Lairds" went, one by one, after nightfall, lest their 
zeal should displease Sir William Anstruther, to sign the first Solemn 
League and Covenant ; and it was from the same room, but a few 
years later, that the " saxty and three leal and true men frae East 
Anster," as the old chronicle calls the patriotic burghers " marched 
forth, accoutred with steel caps and pikes," to join that ill-starred 
army which, ut Kilsyth, so vainly battled to the death with the 
forces of Montrose. It was also within these rude walls that 
Lord Chancellor Loughborough and the still greater Lord Erskine, 
as the ablest young lawyers of their day, met in hottest rivalry, to 
conduct one of the keenest Parliamentary election contests that, per- 
haps, ever took place in Scotland, and which, for the time, made the 
East of Fife Burghs notorious over the length and breadth of the land. 

Although every vestige of the Castle of Dreele, or Anstruther, as we 
have already said, has almost for two generations been entirely swept 
away, there are still sundry indications in the neighbourhood that, *'in 
the olden time," this was the fashionable quarter of the town. This is 
seen at the first glance, in the exceptionally straight line of ancient 
weather-beaten three-storeyed tenements, which, under the rather 
dignified name of Castle Street, fronts the shore between the Castle 
I'ock and the new road. Notwithstanding that these venerable houses 
have withstood Pun and wind since the time that Charles II. paid the 
last royal visit to Anstruther, they still retain a certain air of gentility, 
so that you can easily suppose, what is the fact, that in bygone days 
they were the winter residences of the neighbouring lairds or land- 
owners, who, in their day and generation, were perhaps more con- 
tented with a house in the Burgh Town than modern proprietors are 
with a mansion in Edinburgh or London. 

The ancient Castle building was founded over six centuries ago, 
and, seen in the times of Oliver Cromwell, it was considered a place 
of so much strength and security that when his soldiers took posses- 
sion of the Town after the victory near North Queensferry, the 
town's-people deposited their papers and valuables secured in casks 
within its walls. Wlien the Castle surrendered to the English 
troops, which it did at the first summons, the title deeds and valuables 
fell an easy prey into their hands. The documents were all carefully 
collected together, and sent to Dunbar for shipment to England, but 
the vessel which was freighted for the piu-pose was wrecked on the 
voyage, and all the papers, many of them of great value, were entirely 


lost amongst other parcliinents and clocuineiits. From Austruther were 
several belonging to the Sea Box Society of that Burgh, and this is 
the reason why so few old records belong to the town. 

Some eminent individuals were born in East Anstruther, among 
whom may be mentioned the Rev. Dr. Chalmei's, Professor Godsir, 
and Professor Tennant. The house in which Dr. Chalmers was born 
is situate in a close off the High Street, on the south side, four 
doors east from the National Bank. To reach this house from the 
floyal Hotel the visitor has only to cross the New Road, and turn to 
the first little opening on his left hand, when he sees the quaint old 
tenement straight in front of him. It is just such a house as one 
might expect to see in every street in every old burgh town in Scot- 
land. It is what is called a wide single house of two storeys, having 
a large cellar beneath, with an abutment, in the form of a pent-house 


fronting the road. The Doctor is said to have been born in the little 
bed-room off the parlour on the lower floor. The house has stood 
just as it is for the last two hundred years or so, but it is still in 
tolei-able repair and inhabited by three families. During the short 
time it was occupied by Bailie Chalmers it was the property of a 
Mr. Gray, from whom it passed into the hands of Charles Robb's 
family, in whose hands it remained, until, at the death of the Rev. 
John Murdoch, about a year ago, ii was sold to Mr. Robert Greig. 

Besides the house in which Dr. Chalmers was born in Gray's close, 
there is another house that deserves to be mentioned, as being the 
birth-place of a distinguished British officer, viz.. Colonel Paton of 
Kinaldy, whose name is honourably mentioned in our supplement, 
l)age 82, and who, amongst other high officers, held the appointment of 
Governor of St. Helena. 

By many the Royal Hotel, Anstruther, will be regarded with 


interest, from the fact that it was within this building that Dr. 
Thomas Griithrie was first led to the design of the Edinburgh Ragged 
School — that crowning glory of his eminently useful career. I)r. 
Guthrie, according to his own statement, had been drawn with a 
companion to Anstruther, as the birth-place of his illustrious 
leader. Dr. Chalmers. He and his friends had walked about the 
streets and lanes of the town, otherwise so dull and uninteresting 
that, to use the words of the eloquent Mackgill Crichton, as " the 
place where Mehdlle laboured and Chalmers was born," until they 
were hungry and weary, when they went into the inn for refresh- 
ments. These were being partaken of when the Doctor's eye fell 
upon a picture on the wall of the room. The picture was but a 
trashy print ; but no artist could have a nobler subject. It was 
John Pounds, the Portsmouth cobbler, teaching the poor and 
uncared-for children. " That man was a true hero, and deserves 
the tallest monument on our shores," exclaimed the Doctor, as he 
still gazed upon the picture, his cheek at the same time glowing mth 
intensest emotion. His friends assented, but thought no more about 
the matter. Not so Dr. Gruthrie, however, upon whom the picture 
of the heroic cobbler made so deep an impression, that he determined 
to devote all his strength to a similar enterprise, which ere long 
ripened into the noble movement so successful to reform the desti- 
tute children of Edinburgh. 

This picture, we may state, is still in the possession of a daughter 
of the innkeeper of that time, Mrs. James Brown, Commercial Bank 

A little to the west of the inn, and on the opposite side of the 
street, is the post office, which, although very much modernised in 
appearance, formed at one time the business premises of Dr. 
Chalmers' father. It is gratifying to note that, not-withstanding the 
utilitarian nature of the service to which this building is now devoted, 
its worthy master is in feeling and sentiment every way identified 
with the locality and the venerable associations which cling to it. 

Immediately to the west is a dingy and dilapidated range, which 
formed the thread manufactory of Bailie Chalmers and his brother- 
in-law, Mr. Hall. The building still retains much that is indicative 
of their former use, and an open space in front of them is stiU 
popularly designated " the stenters." There is a tradition which is 
somewhat countenanced by the armorial bearings of West Anstru- 
ther, that salmon frequented the Dreele Burn, but that these noble 
fish were driven away by the dye and refuse from the thread work. 
In its present condition nobody can believe that the bed of the 
stream could be a salmon resort, but previous to the erection of the 
present bridge in 1796, the brook was here and there crossed by 
ledges of rocks which formed pools, where at times the fish may have 
been occasionally found. 

In the rear of these old buildings is the house in which Dr. 
Chalmers passed his earlier years, and in which his father and mother 
resided until their death. 


Every time the Doctor visited Anstruther long after the " old roof 
tree" had come into the hands of strangers, he would visit the 
house and with pious care would pass from room to room, recalling 
with mingled pain and pleasure the various remembrances which 
belonged to each. Even the garret stair would not be forgotten. 
" Ah !" he would say, " I never can forget this place ; well do I 
remember it was my prison house for a whole afternoon, while all 
my sisters and brothers were romping at play, because I whistled 
when my uncle was saying a grace longer than usual at dinner 
time." We looked the other day into the garden, but all the 
old memorials on which this good and great man was wont to muse 
and ponder have been swept away, and we suppose it is the same 
with the old house, where recent alterations have left little if any- 
thing that Dr. Chalmers could identify. 

In the Cunzieburn Street, or " Backgate," as it was formerly 
called, there is an old property, now partially rebuilt and occupied 
as a joiner's shop, which was used as a guard-house by the English 
soldiers, who, by the orders of Oliver Cromwell, were stationed, 
after the victory of North Queensferry, in all the burgh towns in 
Eife. It is said that the Pittenweem authorities often incurred 
penalties by disregarding orders of " the Lord Protector ;" but, on 
the whole, the good folks of Anstruther got on better under their 
English masters, in consequence of acting on the prudent advice of 
Mr. Colin Adam, then minister of the church of East Anstruther, 
who always tried to conciliate the English officers and the leading 
men of the town. The favourite maxim, and the one he always 
acted on, was " that it was aye best to jouk and let the jaw gang 

There is another house, not far from Cromwell's guard-room, 
which is worthy of notice. It is situated on the west side of James 
Melville's manse, on the site of a property of old called " Baxter's 
Barn," and is the birth-place of that distinguished philosopher and 
anatomist John Groodsir. In this elevated domicile the talented 
professor, and liis eminent brother Henry, pursued with much ardour 
those favourite studies which gave them a foremost place in their 
profession, and enabled them to acquire a Euroj^ean fame. 

Unlike his illustrious townsmen, Thomas Chalmers and William 
Tennant, whose early boyhood gave no indication of the brilliant 
genius which slumbered within them, John Goodsir, almost from 
infancy, showed an instinctive predilection for his favourite science. 
In his case, " the boy was eminently the father of the man," for. 
when attending the Burgh School, instead of amusing himself, like 
the other urchins, in drawing ships or horses, or any other of the 
thousand and one conceits of the youthful fancy, young Groodsir's 
great employment was anatomical delineation, by which he gained 
as much applause in school as in after life he gained at College. 
The room in wliich these talented brothers pursued their investiga- 
tions under the parental roof, was the upper apartment of a small 
house which still forms a wing of the main building. In order that 


tliey might not be disturbed by idle, if not iucouveuieut curiosity, 
the regular entrance was barricaded up, and the room could only 
be reached by a trap-door from below. Long after the house had 
passed into the possession of others, this apartment continued to 
bear many a trace of the dissecting room. The ceiling, in particular, 
was covered with drawings of skeletons and death's heads, beneath 
one of which the youthful anatomist had written, while in a moral- 
ising mood, " Behold our lot." Old Dr. Groodsir, as the father of 
this talented family was commonly called, was a native of Largo, 
but while yet a young man, in 1811, he Avas induced to settle in 
Anstruther, where, by his professional skill and aftable maimers, he 
soon acquired an extensive practice. 

The modern aiDpearance of Anstruther from the sea is picturesque 
and even striking. At full sea, the houses so closely skirt the little 
crescent-shaped bay, which here breaks the line of the coast, that they 
seem to rise out of the azure watei's, so bright and beautiful in the 
summer light. Rising everywhere beyond and above the town are 
broad-stretching fields, fenced with hedges, and sheltered with woods, 
with many a well-plenished farm-stead and tree-embosomed seat 
nestling pleasantly on the fair hill-side. The town itself is exceedingly 
irregular, but this only increases the interest of the j)rospect, which 
gains in variety what it loses in uniformity, without, how ever, any- 
thing offensive or disagreeable being obtruded on the eye. Anstruther, 
in fact, is one of the best specimens of an old Scottish burgh, in which 
the hand of modern improvements has just begun to be busy. Here 
you see quaint edifices standing side by side with the elegant villa 
residence of to-day, or the handsome place of business decked out on 
the most approved principle of taste and convenience. The ancient 
fortalice and stately old Baronial Hall are not now to be seen, but 
the dark Gothic tower of the little clnu'ch in the green churchyard, 
by the Dreele rivulet, has served as a landmark since the days of 
Wallace and Bruce, whilst, farther east, another grey old Parish 
Church lifts its steeple proudly above the campaniles and ornamental 
gables of the Chapels and Meeting Houses of these dissenting times. 

Nor is it only blocks of buildings, capped, as the case may be, with 
tile-roof or slate- roof, that meets the eye, for, here and there, patches 
of trees and verdant gardens peep out, and contrast as pleasantly with 
the stone and brickwork around them as the green leaves about a 

Conspicuous in the foreground of this interesting and animated 
picture is the New Harbour, with its long piers extending out to the 
sea, like two friendly arms about to receive in their protecting embrace 
the storm-beaten and weary. 

From its contiguity to Cellardyke, Anstruther is one of the first 
fishing villages in Scotland, and fish-curing is the staple trade of the 
district, upwards of 50,000 barrels of herrings being caught in 1860, 
all of which were either cured on the spot, or despatched by cart, rail, 
or steam to inland towns. A large quantity of cod, ling, haddock, 
Ac, are also brought into the harbour during the season, and are either 


salted or despatched in a fresh state to inland districts. The number 
of fishing boats are not only twice the size, but they are tripled in 
number, during the last thirty years ; and the want of harbour 
accommodation, especially during the herring fishing, has been severely 

felt for a series of years. To remedy that evil, the burghs of East 
and West_ Austruther and Cellardyke have united their efforts to 
obtain, with Government assistance, a Union Harbour, at a cost 



estimated at about £35,000, and which, -with the present harbour, 
will give a space of about 13| acres, and will accommodate 500 fishing 
boats, and admit vessels of 500 tons at half tide. The trade, in 
addition to fish-curing, is chiefly of a domestic character, but there is 
a considerable portion of business done in the export of grain, pota- 
toes, &c. Several coasters belong to the port, and a steamboat plies 
three times a week to Leith, and a railway train proceeds three times 
a day to Edinburgh, conveying goods and passengers. 

Anstruther-Wester Anstruther-Wester is a town of great anti- 
quity. There is a stone sarcophagus, pretty- 
entire, in the churchyard, which tradition reports 
to be the coffin of Bishop Adrian, slain by Danish 
agressors in the Isle of May (situated in this 
parish) in 870, whence it was brought. The 
earliest form in which the name Anstruther is 
written, is " Kinstrother," and it occurs in a 
passage taken from a lawsuit between the Church 
of Kilrenthy (or Kilrenny) and the monks of 
May. It bears date 1225, and is contained in 
the chartulary of Dryburgh, folio 56. It is as follows: — " Dicunt 
" Abbas et conventus Dribrugh, quod cum navis et navicelle piscarie 
" applicantes in rivulo illo (the Dreel burn) qui est medius terminus 
" inter parochiam de Kilrenthy ex una parte el parochiane de 
" 'Kinstrother' ex altera," &c. Anstruther-Wester was created a 
bui-gh of Barony in 1554, and a Royal burgh, by Charter granted 
by James VI. in 1587, and an Act of Parliament ratifying and con- 
firming its privileges as a free Royal burgh was passfed by the Scottish 
Legislature in 1592. 

The following extracts from the record of the Kirk-Session of 
Anstruther-Wester convey curious information, both as to the cus- 
toms of the times and as to the zeal with which the education of the 
youth was urged : — 

"October 26, 1595. — Anent the complent given in by Henerie 
Cunyngham, doctor in the schooll, the session thinks meit, that all 
the yowth in the toun be caused com to the school to be teached. 
And that sic as are puir, shall be furnished vpon the comone expenses ; 
and gif ony puir refuisis to com to schooll, help of sic thing as they 
neid and requir shall be refused to them. And as for sic as are able 
to sustein theii- bairnes at the schooll, and do their dewtie to the 
teacher for them, thay sail be commandit to put them to the schooll, 
that thay may be brocht vp in the feir of God and vertu. Quhilk if 
thay refuse to do thay sail be callit before the session and admonished 
of ther dewtie ; and if, efter admonishion, they mend not, then farther 
ordour shall be taken wt them at the discretion of the session. And 


the magisrates and counsall shall be desp-ed to tak fra them the 
quarter payments for their child, and ane dewtie, eftir ther discretion 
for the dayes meat, as it shall co abovt vnto them, whidder thay put 
ther bairnes to the schooll or not. 18th of November. — Anent the 
puire, it is thocht meit that a visitation shall be ; and that sic help 
shall be maid te them that ar altogether vnable, that may not travell 
to seik to themselfis. And the young shall get na almess bot on 
condition that thay cum to the schooll, quhilk sa mony as does shall 
be helpit ; and the manner of ther help shall be — thay shall half 
thrie hours granted to them everie day throw the toun to seik ther 
meit, ane hour in the morning fra nyn to ten, at mid-day fra twell 
to ane, and at nycht fra six hours furth ; and the peiple are to be 
desyred to be helpful to sic as will giv themself to any vertue, and as 
for others to deall lyardly with them, to dryve them to seik efter 
vertue. April 18, 1596. — Everie man within the toun that hes 
bairnes suld put his bairnes to the schoolle, and for everie bairne suld 
give ten sh. in the qiiai-ter, and be freid of given meat bot at yr. 
owning plesure. September 7, 1600. — Item anent the schooll. — 
Agreid with Henerie Cunyngham, that the pure of the toun shall be 
put to the (school), and sa many of them as has ingyne, and he taks 
paines upone them, sail giv fyv sh. in the quarter, quhilk the session 
sail pay. He sail try out the bairnes. They sail be broght befoir 
the session be the elders of the quarter ; the session sail enter them 
to the scule, and try ther perfiting ; and sa cans recompens according 
to his pains, and ther perfiting. And as for vther yt are not able to 
perfit, yt thay may reid or wret, whidder it be for want of ingyn or 
tym to await on, sic shall be caused to lern the Lordis prayer, the 
comandes, and belev, the heads of the catechisme that are demanded 
on the examinatioun to the communion, quhilk travell also the session 
will acknowledge and recompense : and as for the standing yearlie 
dewetie, refers that to the counsel of the toun to tak ordovir wt." 

In 1598 the Duke of Holstein, brother of the Queen of James YL, 
paid a visit to Edinburgh and thence made a progress by Kirkcaldy, 
Dysart, Pittenweem, and Anstruther, to St. Andrews, and was 
hospitably entei-tained and banqiieted by the way; and a few years 
afterwai'ds preparations were begun to be made for the reception of 
the Eing himself, who was expected to visit Scotland in 1617. A 
proclamation was accordingly made that fat beasts should be provided 
in every place. To this Anstruther- Wester replied as follows : — 
" Our town is a very mean town, yea, of all the bui-ghs of this realm 
" the meanest ; neither is there ane flesher in our town nor any other 
" person that is accustomet with feeding of beef, we being all seafar- 
" ing men and fishers." Nevertheless, the two Bailies send word that 
they had dealt with some honest men of their neighbours to feed 
beef, and have enjoined them to have in readiness " the number of 
" four fed nolt against the time of His Majesty's here-coming, whilk 
" may be lookd for in our town." 

In 1626 the Rev. John Fairfoul, Minister of Anstruther-Wester, 
died in the 80th year of his age. He was translated to this parish 


from Aberdeen, One of his sons, Andrew Fairfoul, became Arch- 
bishop of Glasgow in 1662 ; and the other, Norman, was member for 
West Anstruther in the Scottish Parliament. 

In 1645 the town of Ansti'uther-Wester, and many others on the 
Fife coast, suffered much in the civil wars both by sea and land. In 
the battle of Kilsyth three whole regiments from Fifeshire perished 
almost to a man. The inhabitants of both burghs, Anstruther- Easter 
and Wester, in common with the people of the district, — the prin- 
cipal traders and shipmasters with their seamen^ besides a number 
of people of all classes, — were zealous covenanters, and entered the 
covenanting army against the Marquis of Montrose, but they were 
completely cured of their military tendencies by the loss sustained at 
Kilsyth ; not a man belonging to West Anstruther would become a 
soldier for two or three generations. 

In the year 1670, Anstruther- Wester shared the fate of its neigh- 
bours by an inundation of the sea, which destroyed and choked up the 
harbour, washed away the bulwarks, and damaged many of the houses, 
and about a century later nearly a third of the burgh was washed away 
by the advancing Firth. In this submersion the fore street or shore 
was destroyed. Were the loss of property so great as tradition haa 
represented by the floods of the sea, and the loss of human life so gi'eat 
as has been stated by the floods of war, and we see no reason to doubt 
it, then the decayed bearing of Anstruther Wester can easily be 
accounted for. 

In 1689, on account of the great degree of suffering to which the 
burgh had been subjected, West Anstruther had been thirteen years 
without magistrates, and were eased of a considerable portion of the 
public burdens affecting royal burghs, on condition that they elected 
a council. The town also petitioned for a portion of the bygone 
stipend to repair the church, which was granted. The church appears 
to be a very ancient building, from having had a large choir, and the 
gothic structure of the steeple. It is known to have undergone 
repairs three times at least, and each time has been reduced in size, 
owing to the decrease of the population. 

One or two other short extracts from the session records, in addition 
to those already given, may be interesting. It would appear from 
some items mentioned at this time (1651), that the town had had a 
rather unceremonious visit from the " Inglis." Under date, 16th 
September, 1C51, it is said "paid for ane, to hold ye sand-glass, ye ould 
being plundered by ye ' Inglis ;' " and again, on the 7th October 
following, it is said " paid to Matt Thomson for drying ye ould Bybell 
which was cast in ye sea be ye ' Inglis ' yn the town was plundered." 

5 September, 1689. — The whilk day Mr. Thomas Auchinleck, 
minister of Anstruther Wester, was discharged by the Lords of yr 
Majesty's Privy Council from exercising the office of the ministry in 
this congregation, for not reading the proclamation, and for not 
praying for King William and Queen Mary, and the church was 
declared vacant by ane sent from the presbytery of St. Andrews and 
Cupar to that effect. 


8tli September, 1689. — Mr. Jolin Law, a presbyterian minister, 
preached in the kirk, and intimated the proclamation. 

15 April, 1591. — Mr. Hardie preached. Finding no objections 
against seventeen elders, admitted them. [If it required seventeen 
elders to discharge the parochial duties at this time, what must have 
been the amount of the population ?] 

1 May, 1700. — "The session appoints aney three elders to clear 
accounts with the schoolmaster, and pay what is due to him by the 
session against Whitsunday next ; and likevvays informe him that 
they have no design to keep aney schul master nor precentor, both 
upon account of the indisposition of the minister and the poverty of 
the place ;" and on the 29th of the same month, it is said — "This day 
Mr. David Ballingall, schoolmaster, precentor, and session -clerk, did 
dimit.'' It is strange that the Kirk Session of 1700 should have 
resolved to defeat the good offices of their predecessors in 1595, and 
to oppose the pious endeavours of their ancestors to promote the 
interests of education 9,nd of true religion within the burgh. The 
schoolmaster's salary is stated at this time to be J^IQ 13s. Scots, or 
£1 7s. 9d. str. 

1 Feby., 1701. — Mr. Wm. Hardie, minister of Crail, preached. 
Collected for Andrew Simson, skipper in Dysert, and his company, 
who are slaves in Algiers, £16 Scots, or £1 6s. 8d. str. 

It would appear that West Anstruther, as beseems a pertinent of 
Pittenweem Abbey, was walled and entered by a port. The entrance 
to the railway station is at this place, called the West Fort. Before 
you enter the town, you will observe a sort of mound or large hillock 
supposed to be partly artificial. It and the land about it extending 
to about ten acres, is called " Chester Hill," and is the property of 
Mr. Conolly, the writer. The name means Castle Hill, which is 
strengthened by the circumstance of a well of fine water being formerly 
within the enclosure, and by some skeletons having been dug up there 
enclosed in large slabs placed loosely in oblong square receptacles. 
Probably these might be some Danish invaders who fell in the east of 
Fife. Indeed, Fife and other parts of Scotland were sarcastically 
known as the " Danes' burying-ground," till at length, as Buchanan 
relates, the Norsemen bound themselves by an oath (jure jurando 
sanxisse ferunt) never to return thither. 

Immediately to the westward of some villas on the sea-shore, is the 
West Haven or Hyne, where you detect, at ebb tide, the vestiges of 
a landing place. Long ago, it is said, a Dutch Company leased some 
neighbouring coal-jnts, and built this harbour for their export tirade. 

The afiairs of the Burgh are conducted by a Council of nine persons, 
including two Bailies and a Treasurer, with a Town Clerk. The 
burgh property consists of about thirty imperial acres of land, tiends 
of white fish and herriugs, and other articles. 

The Burgh Revenue, in 1868, was - - £137 17 4 

The Expenditure, - - - - - 168 19 3 

The population, in 1861, ----- 443 

Parliamentary constituency, 1868, - - - 85 


The Rev. Hew Scott, D.D., is tlie minister of the Paiish, and the 
author of the celebrated work entitled " Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae ; 
or the Succession of Ministers in the Church of Scotland from the 
Reformation to the present time." The Magistrates and Minister 
have the presentation of a Bursar to the United College of St. 

In the rivulet which divides the two Anstruthers, it is said, there 
was once a considerable salmon fishery, whence the Arms of the Town, 
bearing three salmon crossed, are supposed to be derived ; and it was 
to settle the disputes anent this rivulet, between the Church of Kil- 
renny, on the one side of the burn, and the Monks of May, on the 
other side, that the lawsuit recorded in the chartulaiy of Dryburgh 
was raised and instituted. — See page 1st of this Article. 

From the extent of the rock-measures laid bare by the sea at West- 
Anstruther shores, a very excellent field is afibrded to the oryctologist. 
Indeed, to few points of the country could the student repair with 
greater advantage. Here he might observe the progressive develop- 
ment and changes which have taken place in the animal and vegetable 
economy during the carboniferous era. The following is a list of a 
few of the more remarkable fossil organisms, animal and vegetable : — 

Fish scales, teeth, and coprolites. 

Fioles of the Ganoida and Placoida race have been discovered. 

Shells of the Unio Mytelas Anadonia, &c. 

Encrinites, and various corallines. 

Shells and other marine exuvite not yet desciibed. 


Stigmarise, numerous, very fine varieties. 
Sigillarise, plentiful, very fine varieties. 
Cycadefe, several, very fine varieties. 

-p, . , ',. \ These, or species resembling these more than the 

n 1 T.-' ( Stigmarise. 
Euphorbia, ; * 

Lepidodendra, numerous. 

Ulodendra, frequent. 

Calamites, numerous gigantic specimens. 

Equiseta, exceedingly plentiful. 

Sphenopoteres, exceedingly plentiful. 

Cyllopteres, very beautiful and rare varieties. 

Meviropteres, very beautiful and rare varieties. 

Lycopodites, plentiful. 

Sphenophylla, plentiful. 

Carpothylites, several have been discovered. 

Cannophyllites, exceedingly abundant. 

Graminiae, exceedingly abundant. 


Many other species occur, and all in excellent preservation, owing 
to the ferruginous nature of the rocks. They are easily freed from the 
matrix, and are every way worthy of the attention of the fossil col- 

The rocks which compose the district being wholly sedimentary, 
the parish presents no field for the mineralogist. The simple ingre- 
dients of sandstone, fireclay, and coal, are too well known to require 
individual description. 


{Written at Mr. ConoUy's request,) 

B ^^ ID ^^ ^^ I ID cook:. 

Pittenwftein Burgh Seal. 

The East Neuk of Fife was pro- 
bably colonized at a very early 
period in the history of Scotland. 
The'gi-eat Celtic wave, which, long 
before the Christian era, rolled 
westward over the continent of 
Europe, and gradually peopled it, 
would first touch this island on 
its eastern shores, and settlements 
would naturally be planted near 
the mouths of the great rivers 
and estuaries which open into 
the German Ocean. A long 
period would doubtless elapse 
before towns were built ; but it 
seems probable that communities, larger or smaller, would, from the 
first, fix their headquarters in the neighbourhood of those natural 
havens and creeks, which in course of time became the harbours of 

At Pittenweem, a race of new settlers must have found many natural 
advantages. Its capacious cave would give them shelter, the creeks 
which now form its harbours would protect their vessels, the prolific 
Traith would yield them an ample supply offish, the Cunninghar a sup- 
ply of flesh, and abundance of good water would be found everywhere. 
In the Muckross or Boarchase, which extended from Largo to the 
East Neuk, they had a famous hunting-ground. If they were 
skilled in husbandry, they would have the benefit of a most fertile 
soil ; if they were caj^able of building stone houses, they would 
gather the necessary materials almost without labour at their feet, and 
if they knew the use of coals, they would find them out-cropping from 
the adjacent clifis. 

]n Koman history we obtain a glimpse of the early inhabitants of 
They were called the Horestii, and were formed into communi- 


ties of considerable si^e on the northern shores of the Frith of Forth. 
In the 1st century, Agricola, the Roman commander, explored their 


coasts with his fleet, and made war on them by sea and land. It has 
been supposed that Chester Hill, Mr. Conollj's property, at West 
Anstruther, derived its name from a portion of the Roman army 
having encamped there. 

Some of the mediaeval legends of the Roman Catholic Church refer 
to events in the East Neuk. One of them professes to account in the 
following absurd way for the excellence of the fisheries at the mouth 
of the Frith of Forth :— St. Thenew, the mother of St. Mungo, the 
Great Apostle of Strathclyde, having offended her father, was con- 
demned by him to be placed in a little coracle and cast adrift on the 
ocean. Out of pity for her sad fate, the fishes which then abounded 
in Aberlady Bay, the place from which she took her departure, followed 
her down the Frith until they roachod tlie neighbourhood of the Island 


of May, when a friendly breeze having sprung up, which wafted St. 
Thenew to the shores of Fife, the fishes took leave of her and settled 
in the neighbourhood of that island, where they have ever since 

A more reliable legend associates Pittenweem with the 7th century. 
According to Camerarius, there was then a monastery or abbey at 
Pittenweem, presided over by an abbot of the name of Fillan, who is 
said to have died in the year 649. One of his employments was the 
copying of holy scripture for the use of the simple and ignorant people 
among whom he lived. Thus far we may credit the narrative, although 
we refuse to believe that his left arm was so luminous, that in the 
dark he had sufficient light from it for his work. We are told by 
antiquarians that the small well or basin in the inner cave at Pitten- 
weem is called St, Fillan's Well, and that the upper chamber was his 


Two centuries more bring St. Adrian into view. Tlie traditions 
coiicarning hiin are better authenticated, and seem to be more gene- 
rally believed than that relating to St. Fillan. St. Adrian was the 
chief of a band of Christian missionaries who came to Scotland from 
Hungary, (according to ancient tradition), or from Ireland, (according 
to modern supposition): and established themselves in the east of Fife, 
leading holy lives and devoting themselves with great earnestness to 
the conversion of the people. The caves of Caiplie, which still bear 
numerous incised crosses on their walls, are supposed to have been 
tluiir place of abode when resident on the mainland. They had also 
a monastery on the Island of May to which they resorted, sometimes 
to escape persecution, at other times for solitary meditation and 
prayer, and " in order that being free from the tumults of the world 
and the strife of tongues, they might hide themselves in the presence 
of God," and receive fresh strength and grace for the discharge of 
their arduous labours. While there, on a Holy Thursday, in the 
year 872, they were attacked by the Danes, and barbai'ously mur- 
dered, and their monastery was consigned to the flames. 

St. Adrian has been regarded as the patron Saint of Pittenweem. 
His figure is emblazoned on the Town's Arms. The Priory of 
Pittenweem and a Chapel on the Island of May, were consecrated to 
Lis memory. A stone coffin, part of which is still within the ruins of 



the May Chapel, is said to ha\^e contained his remains, the other part 
we have been asked to believe, floated across the Prith of Forth, and 
was placed in the church of West Anstruther, where it still remains. 
Although a large amount of fiction enters into all these Legends, 
there is no reason to doubt the fact that Christianity was introduced 
into the East of Fife at an early period. It is well known that an 
immense host of Evangelists proceeded from lona and elsewhere, in 
the 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9Lh centuries^ preaching the Gospel, teaching 
the young, and founding churches and monasteries throughout the 
country. So numerous were they, that they were compared to "hives 
of bees and a spreading flood." ^' From the nest of Columba," it was 


said, these sacred doves took their flight to all quarters, not confining 
themselves to Britain, but spreading over the continent of Europe." 
If there were villages and towns in the East of Fife at that early time, 
they would not be left unvisited. 

There is no positive evidence of there having been a Culdee estab- 
lishment at Pittenweem, but there are strong probabilities in favour 
of the supposition. The subsequent existence of a Roman Catholic 
Priory, of the original foundation of which no record has come down tons, 
can be best accounted for on the hypothesis that the Culdees had settled 
here, and that as elsewhere they had been displaced by one of the 
Roman monastic orders, or had voluntarily and gradually adopted its 
rules. Such evidence as names supply — and it is not insignificant — 
favours this assumption. Thus, the prefix Kil, which, anterior to 
the introduction of Romanism, was commonly used to designate a 
Culdee cell or church, is found twice in Pittenweem names, viz : 
in Kilheugh and Kilgreen. Mr. Wood, in his History of the East 
Neuk, observes that "by the end of the 13th century, the Romish 
Clergy had completely excluded the Culdees from their ancient 
establishments, several of which were in the East of Fife. They may 
generally be known by the prefix Kil, to which is added the name of 
the founder of the cell or church," The fact that the name Abbey has 
been always used to designate the old ecclesiastical establishment at 
Pittenweem, also supports this idea, and confirms the tradition that 
Pittenweem had at one time an Abbey presided over by an Abbot, 
which afterwards became a Romish Priory. It is difl&cult to change 
the names of places, and if the inhabitants had been used in Culdee 
times to call their monastery an Abbey, they would continue to do so 
after its conversion into a Priory. It is not easy to account otherwise 
for the constant misapplication of this word. 

We find the same names occurring at St. Andrews, and from its 
well authenticated history, we learn whence they were derived. The 
Kirhheugh at that place was undoubtedly the church of the Culdees ; 
and the A bbey there was at one time the seat of a Culdee Abbot, 
and never of a Roman Catholic Abbot. One of the early churches 
of the Culdees at St. Andrews was btiilt on a rock, now covered 
by the sea ; and in like manner the name Caiplie {Capella) or 
chapel Craig, which was formerly given to a rock at Pittenweem, now 
within sea-mark, indicates that at a remote period a place of worship 
had stood there. Moreover, as at St. Andrews, the heads or chiefs of 
the Culdees were at first called Abbots, afterwards Priors, and 
ultimately Provosts, so we shall immediately find the same succession 
of titles at Pittenweem, — A bbot, Prior, Provost, anterior to the first 
mention of the Roman Catholic Priory of Canons Regular. 

The earliest authentic notice of Pittenweem, and it is a very brief 
one, occurs in the reign of David I. (1124-52). That monarch, who 
set himself with fervent zeal to remodel the church, gifted many of 
the Culdee possessions to the Roman Catholic monastic orders. He 
respected, however, as a modern would, the "vested interests" of the 
old Culdee incumbents, and if he failed to induce them to join the 


new institute, he frequently secured them in the liferent of part at 
least of their possessions. It was probably in pursuance of this plan 
that he granted two charters of Pittenweem (Petneweme) to the 
Benedictine Monastery on the Island of May. 

In the reign of William the Lion (1165-1213) reference is made to 
the Harbour of Pittenweem. It was then frequented by ships whose 
size is indicated by their being described as " having four hawsers," 
and by boats whose distinction it was to have "fixed helms." King's 
duties were then levied at this port, and a collector seems to have 
been stationed here for that purpose. From these notices we infer 
the existence of a town with some trade at this tirne. 

In the year 1177 reference is made to tlie Church of Anstruther, 
that is of West Anstruther, in which Parish Pittenweem then was. 
It was called the Chui'ch of St. Nicholas. The stipend attached to 
the service of the cure was 10 merks. 

About the year 1221, we first hear of a Prior of Pittenweem, but 
all we know of him is that his name was Adam, and that he was 
witness to a charter by Henry de Candella, ancestor of the family of 
Anstruther. Another Prior of Pittenweem is mentioned in the year 
1270. Both were probably Culdee Priors. 

In the same century, John, Chaplain of Pittenweem, and Hugo, 
Provost of Pittenweem were witnesses to a charter by John, Prior of 
May. It is interesting to observe that there was a Provost of 
Pittenweem at that early time, but it must not be supposed that the 
office of which that was the title was the same then as now. In those 
days the Provost was the head, not of a Municipal Corporation, but 
of a College, Collegiate Church or other religious house. The 
establishments of Culdees were called Colleges, and latterly, the heads 
of them were called Provosts. It may therefore be safely inferred 
that Hugo was the head of the Culdee House at Pittenweem. He 
was probably the last who held the office; at all events, the title of 
Provost does not again appear, and early in the following century 
(1318; we find the monastery in the occupation of the Canons Regular 
of St. Augustine, and designated the Priory of Pittenweem and May. 

Hitherto, it has been stated by all the writers on the subject that 
the Benedictine Convent of May, in which the order of Cluny was 
observed, and the monastery of Canons Regular at Pittenweem, which 
followed the rule of St. Augustine, were originally separate and 
distinct ; and that the former, after having been founded by David I, 
was annexed by him to the Priory of Reading in Yorkshire, in which 
connection it remained until about the year 1270, when it was sold to 
the Bishop of St. Andrews, by one of whose successors it was united 
to the Priory of Pittenweem. But this statement has been recently 
called in question by Dr. Stuart, the learned Secretary of the Society 
of Antiquaries, in a volume published by that Society, entitled, 
" Records of the Priory of the Island of May." Dr. Stuart supposes 
that from the first there was but one Priory, originally called the 
Priory of May, founded on the Island by David I, and united to the 
Convent of Reading, afterwards transferred to the Bishop of St. 


Andrews, and by him affiliated to the monastery of Canons Regular at 
St. Andrews. He assumes that after that transfer, and in consequence 
of the frequent attacks made by the English upon the Island, the monks 
removed to Pittenweem, where previously they may have had an 
establishment of some sort, and that thereafter the monastery on the 
May was deserted in favovir of Pittenweem, which was less exposed to 
the excuT'sions of the English, nearer to tbeir superior house at St. 
Andrews, and could be reached without the necessity of a precarious 
passage by sea. "In this way," Dr. Stuart writes, "the new house 
at Pittenweem superseded the earlier establishment on the May, and 
usurped its name." 

It is very probable that the inonks of May had taken refuge at 
Pittenweem for the reasons assigned by Dr. Stuart, but he certainly 
goes beyond the evidence, when he asserts that in its origin, the 
religious house at Pittenweem was merely the Priory of May trans- 
ferred. The legend relating to St. Fillau, who is said to have been 
Abbot of Pittenweem five centuries before the introduction of 
Komanism into this country, the typographical evidence before 
alluded to, and the undeniable fact that there were Priors and a 
Provost of Pittenweem before the supposed transfer, seem fatal to that 
assumption, and although Dr. Stuart endeavours to get over thedifficulty 
by conjecturing that from the first, the monks of May had had an 
establishment of some sort at Pittenweem, it is more in accordance 
with the ascertained facts, and the practice of the time, to hold that 
these persons were Ihe heads of an independent Cuklee house. In 
place, therefore, of saying with Dr. Stuai"t, "that the new house at 
Pittenweem superseded the earlier establishment on the May, and 
usurped its name," there seems good warrant for alleging that the new 
Romish Priory of May usurped the occupation of the ancient Culdee 
monastery at Pittenweem, which, in consequence, came to be desig- 
nated the Priory of Pittenweem and May. 

By this union or transfer, whichever it may be called, the Priory 
at Pittenweem became enriched with many valuable possessions, the 
gifts of kings and nobles to the Church, or i-ather the price at which 
they had bought her prayers. For the pious, if somewhat selfish end, 
that nine monks being priests might be endowed to pray for the souls 
of King David I, and of his ancestors and successors, Kings of 
Scotland, that monarch had bestowed on the Convent of May, the 
manor of Pittenweem, and part of the lands of St. Monans, then called 
Inverie, and with similar intent, the lands of Pittotar, Cairnbriggs, 
Airdrie, and Lingo, being part of the great waste of Kellie, with 
many valuable possessions in Perthshire and the Lothians, had been 
conferred on them. They had also acquired right of pasturage in the 
parishes of Crail and Kilrenny, and in the forest of Clackmannan, the 
teinds of all fish caught in the neighbourhood of their island, and 
many other rights and privileges. The possession of such an amount 
of property had involved the Convent in many disputes and litigations. 
One of these has a local interest, as being the earliest lawsuit in the 
East Neuk, of which history has preserved a record. It took place 


in 1225. The Abbot and Convent of Dryburgh, to whom belonged 
the Church and lands of Kilrenny, then comprehending East 
Anstruther, complained to Pope Honorius III, that ships and 
boats mooring in the Dreel Burn (pi'obably in what now 
constitutes West Anstruther Harbour), because of the narrow 
limits of the place, sometimes cast their anchors on the Kil- 
renny side of the burn, and remained there all night; that 
when they did so, one-half of the teinds belonged by right to the 
complainers, but the monks of May carried off the whole. The Pope 
referred the case to the Abbot and Prior of Meh'ose and the Dean of 
Teviotdale, who recommended and brought about an arrangement 
between the parties, under which the Canons of Dryburgh obtained 
right to the teinds payable by fishermen who were parishioners of 
Kilrenny, while the monks of May were to receive the whole of the 
rest of the teinds, and to pay, therefor, to the Canons of Dryburgh, 
a silver merk yearly within the Parish Church of Kilrenny.* 

A more serious dispute arose in the beginning of the following 
century regarding the right to the Priory of May itself with all its 
possessions. It had been sold, as already stated, by the Abbot of 
Reading to the Bishop of St. Andrews ; but a succeeding Abbot 
disputed the validity of the sale, because his predecessor had not acted 
with the sanction of the major or wiser part of his convent. After 
sundry proceedings in Scotland, the Abbot carried his case before 
Edward I., King of England, who sent four successive summonses to 
John Baliol, King of Scotland, his alleged vassal, commanding him to 
appear in England, and to bring with him the proceedings in the Scotch 
Court. Baliol refused to obey, and the overthrow of the English at 
Bannockburn, which happened shortly afterwards, prevented the King 
of England from enforcing his attendance. 

Besides the lands which we have seen belonged to the monastery of 
May, we find the following in possession of the united or transferred 
Priory, and which may have been originally the property of the Culdee 
Abbey at Pittenweem, viz. : — Falside, Lochend, South Inch, Youngs- 
lands, Morton's Acres, Greendykes, Easter Grangemuir, and Wester 
Anstruther. Notwithstanding the number and extent of these pos- 
sessions, the whole annual revenue of the Priory was stated in the 
15th century not to exceed £100. 

Although the monastery on the May was devastated by the English, 
a chapel, of which the ruins are still to be seen, was allowed to remain, 
and service continued to be performed in it. This chapel being 
dedicated to St. Adrian, was visited by many pilgrims who went to 

* Dr. Stuart, in his preface to the "Eecords of the Island of May," and Dr. Gordon 
in " Monasticon," two works from which much information has been obtained for 
this sketch — both state that this question arose in reference to the Teinds of ships and 
boats fishing in the river. But it is difiScult to believe that sliips and boats could have 
fished in the Dreel Burn, even six centuries ago, or that there could have been such 
a valuable fishery in it, as to render the Teinds of the fish caught worth the expense of 
a litigation. The words of the complaint are naves et navicelloe piscarioe appIicantes 
in rivulo illo, and it is thought that applicantes is more correctly and literally translated 
mooring than fishing. The fish were caught in the open sea and landed in the little 
bay at the mouth of the river. 


pay their devotions at the shrine of that famous saint. Among these 
were several royal personages. Thus in 1449, the fleet of thirteen 
large vessels, which brought Mary of Gueldres, the bride of James II., 
to Scotland, anchored near the May, while the beautiful Princess, 
accompanied by the chivalry of France and Burgundy, landed on the 
island and ofi'ered their prayers in the little chapel before proceeding 
up the Frith. James IV. was likewise a frequent visitor, sometimes 
for devotion, and sometimes for pleasure, perhaps in most cases for 
both combined. The Lord High Treasurer's accounts contain inte- 
resting details of the monai-ch's expenditure on these occasions. There 
are payments to the priest of May for saying masses there, to the 
hermit of May, and drink silver to the wright of May. There are 
also offerings on the candles and on the bread, with gifts to the priests 
of Crail, Anstruther, Pittenweem, and St. Monance, to the porter of 
Pittenweem, and to Thomas Heugh, Pittenweem, who passed with his 
boat to May with the King's victuals, and again to Leith. There is 
a payment for a row boat that had the king about the isle to shoot 
fowls with a culverin. Within a fortnight of his fall on Flodden held, 
he granted a charter to Sir Andrew Wood of Largo for this service, 
that he and his heirs should accompany the King and Queen and their 
successors on their pilgrimages to the Island of May when required. 

The Prior of Pittenweem, at the time of the visits of James tV., was 
Andrew Forman, an artful, avaricious man, who afterwards attained 
great eminence and power. He was a favourite of the King, who seems 
to have visited him at the Priory. By means of his immense wealth, he 
acquired considerable influence at the Court of Rome. He obtained 
the King's licence to take and receive any number of pensions or 
benefices within the realm of England, on account of his labours in 
procuring peace between the kingdoms of England and Scotland. He 
became Bishop of Moray, Archbishop of Bourges in France, and 
ultimately Archbishop of St. Andrews and Primate of Scotland. It 
is said to be his coat of arms that is built into the east wall of the 
Episcopal Chapel at Pitten weem. 

A few years after Forman's death, John Rowle, a man of high posi- 
tion and influence, but of bad moral character, was appointed Prioi-. 
He held the office from 1526, till about 1558. His name frequently 
appears in the roll of s]uritual lords who attended the Scottish Pai'lia- 
ment. He was present in Parliament when the Court of Session was 
instituted, and he became a lord of session, one of the lords for 
discussing of domes, and one of the lords of the articles. Well informed 
of the progress of the Reformation on the continent, he seems at an 
early period to have come to the conclusion that it would extend to 
Scotland^ and to have set himself vigorously to prepare for it by 
alienating as far as he could the lands of the Priory. Mr. Wood, in 
his " History of the East JSTeuk," questions whether he should not be 
reckoned amongst those who in the East of Fife were the first to 
embrace the principles of the Reformation ; but some of his charters 
shew that he was no friend to that great movement. Thus, in disponing 
Grangemuir to Dishington of Ardross, he requires this amongst other 


services in return, that he might defend and maintain the true religion 
and liberty of the Church at that time in danger through the Lutheran 
heresies then springing up and increasing on evexy side, against all 
those who strove to overturn and destroy them. In like manner he 
assigns as a i-eason for confirming the erection of Pittenweem into a 
burgh, that the liberty of the Church might be maintained against 
those who were endeavouring to overthrow it. The lands of the 
Priory had been erected into a barony, and the town into a burgh of 
barony by James III., and Rowle obtained renewals of these grants, 
partly with the view of enabling him to increase and continue the 
religious services in the monastery, and partly in reimbursement of his 
expenses at the Court of France on the business of the nation. 

Many of Howie's charters of alienation have been preserved. They 
are well written, bear the signatures of the Prior and Canons, and had 
originally the Prioiy seal attached, although in most instances it is 
now wanting. He feued out the lands in 
the neighbourhood of Pittenweem to the 
inhabitants, in small patches, as they are 
still held, for trifling feu-duties, but no 
doubt for large grassums, although these 
are not stated. The lands of Rynd in 
Perthshire, an ancient possession of the 
Priory of May, he feued to the tenants, 
because they had been put to great expense 
through the inundations of the Tay and 
Earn. A curious combination of pretexts 
was assigned by him for disposing of the 
Island of May to Learmouth of Darsie. One 
was the increase by the feu-duty of the 
annual revenue of the monastery ; another 
(and probably the weightiest), the payment 
Pittenweem Priory Seal. of a sum of money to himself and his 

convent j a third, the desirableness of reducing barren and uncul- 
tivated wastes to cultivation, a fourth, the defence of his monas- 
tery situated on the coast, and exposed to peril by invasion from 
the English fleets ; and a fifth, that being on an island surrounded 
on all sides by a mighty sea, far from Pittenweem, often occupied and 
desolated by the English, it was of no use to the monastery. For these 
and other reasons he sold the island, which he describes as now wasted, 
having been spoiled by rabbits and desolated by the English. Along 
with it he granted the right of patronage to the chapel of May, and 
power to present a chaplain for the celebration of divine service, 
veneration of the relics and sepulchres of the saints there buried, and 
for the reception of pilgrims and their oblations. If churchmen, 
generally, had been as farsighted and unscrupulous as John Rowle 
seems to have been, the Reformers would have escaped the stigma of 
plundering the church for their own benefit, seeing that, here the 
plundering took place before their time. Rowle left four bastard sons, 
for whom he obtained letters of legitimation, and " pensions for their 


food and clothing, and for keeping them at the schools in order that 
they might become learned men. 

On John Rowle's death, James Stewart, afterwards Earl of Moray, 
and known to fame as the " Good Regent," became Commendator of 
Pittenv/eera. He had previously obtained a lease of the Priory 
buildings, described as the place and joalace and Priory of Pittenweem, 
and he appears to have occasionally resided there. During his com- 
mendatorship the Reformation took place. 

From the ruins which remain of the buildings of Pittenweem Priory, 
and the descriptions of them in writings still extant, we can easily 
form an idea of what they were in their prime. They formed a 


quadrangle. On the east was the great gateway with porter's 
lodge and offices, on the south the Prior's Hall^ being the building 
BOW occupied by the incumbent of St. John's, and adjoining it on the 
west, the nev/ Gallery. On the west side of the square were the 
Frater or Refectory, the site of which is now^ occupied by the Town 
Hall, and adjoining it a building occupied as a Dorter or Dormitory, 
chapter chamber, and vestries. This building is still standing, and since 
the Reformation, has been occupied in succession as the manse of the 
Protestant minister, a chapel for the Episcopal congregation, a 
dwelling house, and latterly a barrel store. On the north side stood 
the church and churchyard and a flower garden. In the front garden 
of the Priory, and communicating with the Prior's Hall by a subter- 
ranean passage as some say, was a small underground chamber, with 
arched stone roof supposed to have been originally a cell or oratory, 
a stair from which cut out of the rock descends to the curious double 
cave, from which Pittenweem derives its name. These buildings 
with the two or three acres of ground attached to them, were sur- 
rounded by a substantial wall, part of which still stands. At its 
North-eastern corner was a small tower, from which an arch and 



gate extended across the street, forming the east port of the town. 
Thei-e was also a hxrge arched gateway about the middle of the noii:!! 
wall, at or near the entrance to the present avenue, and at its west 
corner stood the lady chapel, a small church dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary, and from which the streets Mary Gate and Lady Wynd derived 
their names. Leading from the Mary gate is a naiTow lane, 
commonly called Rotten Row, which, by some, is supposed to have 
been the Routine or processional Row. The hospital of the Priory is 
said to have stood in one of the gardens which adjoin this lane. The 
high cross of Pittenweem stood on the height midway to Anstruther, 
and another cross is supposed to have given its name to the Corsey or 
Crossey heugh at the east shore. 

As has been already stated, the Priory was for three or four 
centuries anterior to the Reformation, the abode of a convent of 
Canons Regular, of the order of St. Augustine. These Canons hekl 
a place intermediate between the clergy on the one hand, and the 
monks on the other, their rules being more ngid than those of the 
clergy, and less rigid than those of the monks. They were first in- 
troduced into Scotland in the year 1114, and having soon become veiy 
popular, they succeeded in establishing a number of monasteries. The 
Canons, generally speaking, spent their time more profitably than the 
various oixlers of monks, and by kee[)ing schools, writing books, 
cultivating the fields, making roads and bi'idges, &c., they helped on 
the work of civilization, and promoted the cause of religion. By their 
rules they wei'e enjoined, first of all. to love God and their neighbours, 
not to incline their hearts to temporal fortunes and honours, to possess 
nothing but in common, to be grave and modest in their habits, con- 
scientious in what they sold, and faithful in what they bought. When 
they went abroad they were alw;»ys to go in couples, to keep watch 
over each other. They had to eat and v/ork in silence, and on no 
occasion were they allowed to utter idle words. They wore a white 
robe or long cassock, with a rochet of fine linen over it ; and above 
all an almuce or cloak of a black colour, sometimes made of fine skin 
brought fi-om foreign countries, and frequently lined with ermine. The 
monastic bell called them from their slumbers every morning about six 
o'clock. Soon after, a meeting or chapter of the convent was held for 
prayers and the exercise of discipline. After breakfast, they began 
their work, which was generally of a manual kind. At noon, they 
dined together in the refectory, one of their number always reading 
aloud during the meal. After dinner, and some time spent in recrea- 
tion, they returned to their work until the evening. All were requii-ed 
to be within doors by seven o'clock, and after supper and a religious 
service, they retired to bed at eight o'clock. They all slept in the one 
large apartment called the Dormitory, which had boaixled divisions, 
in which mattresses were j^laced. At midnight the bell summoned 
them to attend the devotional exercises called Matins and Lauds. 

The avaricious worldly life of Andrew Forman, and the dissolute 
manners of John Rowle, the only two Priors of Pittenweem, concerning 
whom anything is known, give us an unfavourable bias against 


the Canons over whom they presided, a bias which the general 
disrepute into which monasteries had fallen at the Reformation, 
strongly confirms. But we are not warranted in concluding' 
that they were wholly corrupt and useless. St. Augustine, the 
founder of the order, has remarked, " I dare not say that my 
house is better than the ark of Noah, where one wicked man was 
found ; nor better than Abraham's house, where, it is said, ' Cast out 
the bond-woman and her son .;' nor better than Isaac's house, con- 
cerning whose sons, it is said, ' Jacob have I loved, but Esau have 
I hated ;' so I confess that from the time I began to serve God, I have 
found that as the best of men are to be met with in monasteries, so 
they sometimes contain the worst." There is evidence that they did 
not neglect the education of the peojile of Pittenweem. The National 
Covenant _ subscribed there in 1590, just thirty years after the 
Keforraation, has the signatures of a number of the inhabitants 
who were obviously educated and accustomed to write, and who 
must have been trained in the school of the monastery. Of 78 
names appended to that interesting document, about half are in 
the writing of the parties themselves. The erection of the town 
into a burgh, with jjower to exercise all kinds of trade, to appoint 
bailies and hold weekly and yearly markets, was a privilege which 
the inhabitants also owed to their convent, and in those days of 
monopoly and restricted trade, it must have been no small boon. The 
Canons also encouraged the manufacture of salt in the burgh, and its 
export to distant places, and the coals were wrought by them. Such 
was the amount of trade carried on, that in a tax roll, dated only 15 
years after the Reformation, Pittenweem holds the twelfth place among 
the towns of Scotland, each town being ranked according to the 
amount of customs levied in it. 

In 1560 Popery was overthrown in Scotland. One of John Knox's 
early ]jreachiug tours had been along the east coast of Fife, and we 
read of his having been in Pittenweem and having sailed thence to 
Berwick. There is no record or tradition of the circumstances under 
which the suppression of the monastery was effected. It was probably 
done quietly, since the Commendator, Lord James Stewart, was 
decidedly favourable to the movement; and as the vested interests 
of the Canons had been so well protected through the foresight of 
John Rowle, it may be su])])osed that they would bear with 
becoming resignation the disendovvment and disestablishment of the 
monastery. The names of some of the last of the Canons were 
Patrick Anderson, Robert Wright, Patrick Fornian, Bartliolomew 
Forman, James Murray, Thomas Wright. 

The revenues of the Priory, now greatly reduced, remained in the 
possession of Lord James f-'tewart until 1567, when they were conferred 
on Sir James Balfour of Pittendreich as part of the price of his sur- 
rendering Edinburgh Castle to the lords of the congregation after the 
murder of Darnley, the balance of the consideration being an ample 
remission for his share in that murder. James Ilaliburton, Provost of 
Dundee, succeeded him. After him came William Stewart and his 


son, Fredericlc, who was created Lord Pittenweem, a title which died 
with him. The lands of Pittenweem, &c., which had been retained by 
the Priory when the othei'S were alienated, after passing through 
sevei'al hands, came into those of the Kellie family, from whom the 
Anstruthers of tliat ilk obtained them, and by whom they were 
afterwards sold to ]\Ir. Baird. 

About the time of the Reformation, the good town had the misfor- 
tune to become involved in a lawsuit with Crail, which lasted nearly 
twenty years. The original limits of Crail had extended from Leven 
to Kingsbarns, and Pittenweem being within these, its erection into a 
burgh was considered an infringement of the rights of Crail. The 
question was ultimately compromised by Pittenweem agi-eeing to pay 
a small sum annually to Crail, in consideration of their acquisition of 
biirglial rights. 

In consequence of the scarcity of Protestant ministers at the time 
of the Reformation, it was necessary to combine a number of parishes 
under one clergyman, who was assisted by " readers." The modern 
parishes of Kilrenny, East and West Anstruther, Pittenweem, and 
Abercrombie, were combined in that way under the pastoral charge 
of Mr. William Clark, who died in 1583. He is described as having 
been " a wise, godly, sweet man, the light and life of the place he lived 
in, much belo^^ed, and when he died, deeply regretted by all who 
knew him." He had for reader at Pittenweem, John Forman, pro- 
bably a descendant of the Prior. 

On Mr. Clark's death, the Bailies and Council applied to the 
Presbytery for a learned, qualified, and well experienced man, to serve 
at their kirk of Pittenweem, and to take the care and charge of their 
souls, education and upbringing of their youth, " being ane gi-eat con- 
gregation and mony people." 

They got a minister, of whom James Melvill says, " they liked 
nathing, whase name I spare." 

That worthy amiable man just named, James Melvill, whose 
interesting diary is so well known in the East of Fife, was the next 
minister. He was ordained in 1586, and having dealt with Pittenweem, 
he caused them to prepare an auditory and kirk of their own, in 
which for some time he taught them both on sabbath and week days, 
until they got a minister for themselves, Mr. Nicol Dalgleish. 

Mr. Dalgleish was a man of mark. Before his settlement in 
Pittenweem, he had been successively regent in St. Leonard's College, 
St. Andrews, and minister of St. Cuthbert's, Edinburgh. While 
minister of that church he was accused of holding secret communica- 
tion with some banished ministers, and sentenced to death. A 
scaffold was erected in front of his prison, but after suffering for some 
weeks the dread of execution, he was pardoned, and set at liberty. He 
was afterwards minister of Pittenweem for 20 years, and during that 
time he had the honour of being moderator of the General Assembly. 

In 1588, the town was erected into a parish, and in the same 
year, William Scott, of Abbotshall, granted to the Magistrates the 
" Great House" of the Priory, being the range of buildings on the 


west side of the square, in order that they might erect a church " raair 
kirk-like and mair commodious than their present house." Tlie 
magistrates accepted the gift, but in place of building their church 
there, they erected it where it now stands, on the site probably of the 
Popish Church, and they converted the south half of the "Great 
House" into a Grammar School. Tolbooth, &c.. and the north half 
into a manse for the miuistei'. It was first occupied by Mr. Dalgleish. 

This gift to the Magistrates and the erection of the town into a 
parish, were considered infringements of the rights of the Lords of 
Erection, who took the town into court on the subject. After half a 
century of litigation, the erection of the parish was ratified, and the 
Great House of the Priory was divided between the disputants, the 
magistrates retaining the south half, on which their town hall liad 
been erected, and giving Tip the north half to the Lords of Erection. 
The expense of these actions was very serious, and involved the town 
in an amount of debt, which remained a burden for centuries. 

The erection of Pittenweeni into a parish and free Burgh Royal, 
was confirmed in the Scottish Parliament held by Charles I, in 1633. 

Of the troubles in which the country was involved in the latter 
years of that Monarch's life, the good folks of Pittenweem had their 
share. They entered with great enthusiasm into the views of the 
covenanters, and were zealous supporters of Presbj'tery. Members of 
the Town Council were sent to all the meetings of the Estates of 
Parliament, the convention of Burghs and General Assembly, at which 
the "kirk business" was to be discussed, and their instructions uniformly 
were to oppose to the uttermost, the introduction and maintenance of 
prelacy. On the breaking out of war, successive contingents of 
town's people, trained to arms at home, were sent to the covenanting 
army ; forts were erected at difiereut places in the Burgh, and cannons 
mounted on them, and the sea-walls were made musket proof. Beacon 
lights were erected in the neighbourhood, and a nightly patrol of 
men at arms watched the town. These efibrts, and the subsequent 
events of the civil war proved fatal to the prosperity of the town. 
The cost of arming added enormously to the already heavy burden of 
debt which pressed upon them, and serious private losses were 
sustained by a number of the wealthier inhabitants, through 
the seizure and plundering of their ships, laden with valuable 
foreign cargoes, by the King's ships. The most serious loss of all, 
however, was that which they sustained in the year 1645, on the 
bloody battle-field of Kilsyth, whither nearly the whole men in the 
town able to bear arms had gone for Christ''s Grown and Covenant, and 
from which almost none returned. In that disastrous engagement, 
the Covenanters under General Jjaillie having been attacked while 
getting into position by Montrose's army of half-naked Irishmen and 
Highlanders, were thrown into confusion, and put to the sword with- 
out mercy. For fourteen miles the poor fugitives, who had thrown 
away their weapons, and sought safety in flight, were pursued with 
unrelenting rage. History relates that thi'ee whole regiments from 
Fifeshire were almost entirely annihilated, and documents preserved 


ill the Town's Archives*, testify to the hiss sustained l)y Pittcnweem. 
No fewer than forty-nine widows, and one hundred and tliirty fatlier- 
less children were left destitute by this tei'rible calamity. The mas- 
ters and entire crews of six vessels, the Thomas, the George, the 
Gift of God, the Bounty, the James, and the Unicorn, had been slain, 
and these ships, which had been the pride of the port, and had fur- 
nished the means of subsistence to many families, were sold and 
removed to other places. The fishin<5 boats in like manner lay useless 
on the beach for want of men to sail in them ; and to add to the 
wretchedness of the place, the plague broke out amongst them in the 
same year. It is not surprising to find the Town Council adopting 
about this time a form of prayer for their common use, which com- 
menced with these words — 0, dreadful and sovereign Lord, terrible in 
jtidgment ! 

The coronation of Chai'lcs II. at Scone in 1651, and his adhesion 
to the covenant, furnished the Covenanters with the prospect of better 
and more peaceful times. Six weeks after that event, his Majesty 
made a tour along the east coast of Fife, and stayed a night at 
Anstruther with Sir Philip Anstruther. The magistrates of Pitten- 
weem received him with due honour as he passed through the burgh. 
The town's colours were displayed on the bartizan of the steeple, and 
the bells were rung. The minister, along with the bailies and council 
who were in their best apparel, and other 24i men with muskets, received 
his Majesty at the west port, and brought him through the town till 
they reached the Town-Clei'k's house, where a table, covered with one 
of Loi'd Kellie's best carpets, was furnished with some great buns of 
fine flour, and other wheat bread of the best oi'der, baked with sugar, 
cinnamon, and other spices fitting ; also, sti'ong ale, canary, sack, 
rhine, tent, white and claret wines, so that his Majesty and his Court 
might eat and drink. The minister and oldest bailie were deputed to 
address His Majesty, and on his departure, 36 cannons, all shot off at 
once, closed the testimony of the town's loyalty. 

During the protectorate of Cromwell, who is uniformly styled the 
Usurper in the town's books, veiy heavy monthly assessments with 
occasional fines were wrung from the community. A troop of horse 
which was quartered on the inhabitants was very troublesome. Some 
of the soldier's called the minister to order when he was pi'eaching, and 
insisted on his disputing with them. The town was now reduced to 
such a plight, that its creditors became frightened and pressed for 
payment of their claims. For a year and a half, no one could be got to 
accept the oflice of magistrate or councillor, many persons of enterprise 
left the place, and a number of houses became ruinous. It was not 
imtil the present century that the fortunes of the town were retrieved, 
the corporation debt wiped off", and a new era of prosperity begun. 

Pittenweem has obtained an unenviable notoriety from its connec- 
tion with witchcraft. In 1643 and 1644, several persons accused of 
that crime were tried, condemned, and executed, and with a refinement 
of cruelty, the nearest relatives of the witches — sons and husbands — 
were made to pay the expenses of the execution. The Burgh Court 


records contain decrees for recovering these costs. About the beginning 
of the 18th century, there was throughout Scotland a great revival of 
the witch mania and several remarkable cases occurred in Pittenweem. 
In June, 1704, seven persons, five women, and two men, were im- 
prisoned by the bailies for witchcraft. Of these, the most notorious 
were Beatrix Laing and Janet Cornfoot. Laing had for a long period 
been i-eckoned a witcli, and for using charms and refusing to be 
reconciled to her neighbours, she had been debarred from the Lord's 
table. In the month of March of that year, she was said to have 
bewitched one Patrick Morton, a lad of 16, son of a blacksmith in 
Pittenweem, in the following manner : — Morton having been employed 
to make some nails for a ship, was busy at work in his father's smithy, 
when Beatrix Laing went in and desired him to make some nails for 
her. He modestly refused, because he was busy with the nails 
for the ship, which were urgently required. Beatrix showed a 
great deal of discontent at the refusal, and went away, threatening 
to be revenged. Her words frightened Morton, because he knew she 
was under a bad fame, and a reputed witch. The following day, 
when he was passing her house, he observed a timber vessel with some 
Avater and a fire coal in it at the door, which made him apprehend 
that it was a charm laid for him in pursuance of her threat, and 
immediately he was seized with such a weakness in his limbs that he 
could hardly stand or walk. He became unfit for work, and had to 
confine himself to bed. Physicians were employed for his recovery, 
but their prescriptions were of no service. He still grew worse, and 
having no appetite, his body became strangely emaciated. About the 
beginning of May his case altered to the worse. He had then such 
unusual fits as astonished all onlookers. His body became rigid, 
swollen, and distended, and his breathing was like the blowing of a 
bellows. At times his limbs were so infiexible, that no strength was 
suflicient to move or bend them, and his senses were benumbed, yet 
his pulse was in good order; at other times his head was turned quite 
round about on his shoulders, and could not be set back. He was fi'e- 
quently in grievous swoons. When he was telling who his tormentors 
were, his tongue was di'awn back in his throat, and when any of them 
were brought near the house, before they came within the door, he 
cried out that they were present, and named them ; and though his 
face was covered, and he was touched by a number of persons in 
succession, he at once distinguished those of them who were his 
tormentors, by the great agony which their touch inflicted. The 
magistrates, after consultation with the Presbytery and Commission 
of the General Assembly, presented a petition to the Pi-ivy Council 
setting forth these facts, and alleging that four of the persons who 
were in prison had confessed their compact with the devil, their 
renunciation of their baptism, and their guilt in tormenting Patrick 
Moi'ton, and that thex'e was abundant evidence against the other three. 
On considering the petition, the lords of the Privy Council directed 
the Lord Advocate to prosecute the accused before the High Court of 
Justiciary. His lordship, however, after personally examining into 


the matter, and probably influenced by tlie opinion of tlie Earl of 
Rothes, Sherifl'of the county, and a Privy Councillor who also went 
to Pittenweem and made investijiations, resolved not to prosecute. 
The whole of the accused, except Thomas Brown, who died in prison, 
were accordingly set at liberty. 

One of these witches, Janet Cornfoot, had a miserable end, having 
been murdered by a rabble on the streets of Pittenweem. She was 
described as a person of bad character, long reputed a witch, accustomed 
to use chai-ms, and to threaten persons who disobliged her, and such 
consequences sometimes followed as made her the terror of many. 
She was accused by Morton of being one of his tormentors, and she 
was also charged by Alexander M'Gregor, a fishemian, with having 
attempted along with some other witches to murder him when in bed. 
Some of the other accused i>ersons named her as one of those who 
attended meetings with the Devil in the loan ; and although for a time 
she hei-self maintained her innocence, and with a subtility beyond her 
education parried the questions that were put to her, yet havinf^ been 
bi'ought on one occasion to the apartment in which Morton lay, and 
having been recognised by him, notwithstanding every precaution to 
prevent it, and he having fallen into grievous fits of trouble, she was 
so stunned, that she fell a trembling and oflfered to confess all to the 
magistrates and minister. She desired the minister to pi-ay for her, 
and to desire all good people to pray for her, because she was afraid 
the devil would tear her soul out of her body for confessing. After 
prayer, she acknowledged that she was bodily present at two meetings 
with the devil and the witches, and gave a circumstantial account of 
the renunciation of her baptism, naming time, place, and inducements, 
and the shape the devil appeared to her in. She also acknowledged 
that her reason for attempting to murder M'Gregor was that he had 
refused to hu-e a house belonging to Beatrix Laing. She afterwards 
renewed her confession before the Presbytery, in presence of a number 
of country gentlemen, and also in the fiice of a large congregation on 
a Sabbath day. It has been asserted by some, and denied by others, 
that these confessions were obtained by force. It was said that the 
minister beat her with his staff, and the men who guarded her in 
prison, by pinching her and pricking her with pins, kept her from 
sleep for many days and nights, and threatened her with instant 
death until she confessed. She was imprisoned by herself in a room 
in the steeple, but having contrived to escape, she fled to Leuchars, 
where she was discovered by the minister of the parish, and sent back 
to Pittenweem. It was in the middle of winter and at night when 
she was brought to the town under charge of two men. The news of 
her return quickly spread, and a crowd of persons soon gathered round 
the unfortunate wretch. She was dragged to the shore for the purpose, 
it was said, of being subjected to the witch- test of swimming. A rope 
was tied round her body, and the other end of it secured to the mast 
of a fishing boat lying alongside. In this manner she was ducked 
sevei-al times. When half dead, a sailor in the boat cut away the 
rope, and she was drawn to the beach. One of the Bailies then 


ordered the town officev and four men to carry her for safety to a 
private house, but before reaching it, she was again assaulted and cast 
down, and a loose door with a weight of stones upon it having been 
laid on her, she was pressed to death. 

This murder produced a great sensation in the country. The Lords 
of the Privy Council at once took up the matter, and appointed a 
Committee of their number to enquire into the facts. As the result of 
the investigation, the luovd Advocate was instructed to prosecute five 
persons who were implicated in the murder, and also the Magistrates 
of the Burgh for not keeping the peace of the place, and for permitting 
such outrages to be perpetrated within their jurisdiction, but no 
prosecution was raised. 

Some months after this, Beatrix Laing presented a petition to the 
Privy Council, setting forth that she had met with most cruel and 
nnchristian treatment in the town of Pittenweem, npon no other 
ground than the bare assertion of Patrick Morton^ a young man who 
being under a natural disease, which had some strange efiects iipon his 
body, pretended that she and others he named were witches, and 
tormented him ; that npon that very insufficient ground, she had 
been thrown into the tolbooth by the Magistrates and ministers, and 
because she would not confess that she was a witch and in compact 
with the devil, she was tortured by being kept without sleep for five 
days and nights together, and pricked with instruments in the 
shoulders, back, and thighs, so that the blood gushed out in great abun- 
dance, and her life was a burden to her : that after being continually 
urged to confess, she did so, to get rid of the torture, and because she 
had afterwards retracted, she was put in the stocks for several days, 
then carried to the thief's hole, and from that to a dark dungeon, where 
she was allowed no light nor human converse ; that in that condition 
she lay for five months together ; and at last, having found means to 
get out of her dungeon, she had wandered about in strange places in 
extremity of hunger and cold, not daring to come near her own house, 
although she had a competency there, because of the fury and rage of 
the people. She therefore craved protection to her j)erson until legally 
convicted of crimes rendering her undeserving of it. This request 
was granted, and the magistrates were ordained to defend her against 
all personal violence, and to grant security that they would do so ; but 
on this judgment being intimated to them, they refused to obey it, 
because Beatrix Laing might be murdered in the night without their 
knowledge. The Privy Council did not enforce their order. 

The last we hear of Pittenweem witches is in 1710, when one of the 
bailies having been summoned before the Court of Session for damages 
for wrongous imprisonment by a person whom he had incarcerated for 
witchcraft, was compelled to pay her a sum of money, and to grant an 
acknowledgment that he was convinced of the rashness, illegality, and 
unwarrantableness of his proceedings, having relied, as he said, on idle 
stories, and the apprehensions and suspicions of Patrick Morton, who 
was then labouring under a melancholy distemper, which might render 
him easily imposed upon by the enemies of the reputed witch. He 


confo.s:^od that the accused had been most \vroiii,'oii.sly cahinmiated and 
injui-od, and bogged God and her pardon for liis accession tliereto. 

A hirge share of the responsibility for these prosecutions rests uj)on 
the minister of the parish, Mr. Couper, who ap[)ears to have been a 
weak, meddlesome, injudicious man, full of the witch-sujterstition of 
his time, and not over scrupulous in his treatment of accused persons. 
It was said that he exercised more of the civic authority thau any of 
the bailies, and his name is certainly more mixed up with the pro- 
ceedings than theirs. 

However deeply wo may deplore the ignorance which led to such 
severe measures as those which were adopted against those poor 
women, it must bo ke])t in mind, for the honour of our good town, 
that prosecutions and death for witchcraft wore not confined to 
Pittenweom. It has been computed that the number of persons 
executed for that crime exceeded in Scotland 4000, in England, 
30,000, and in Grormauy, 100,000. Many of the trials which resulted 
in convictions w^ore conducted with the utmost deliberation and 
regularity, before judges and juries of calm judgment, great experi- 
ence, and acknowledged ability and probity ; and all that was done 
had the express sanction of a British statute, the abrogation of 
which, in 173G — about thirty years after the last case of witchcraft 
in Pittonweem — was bewailed by the Associate Synod as a national 
sin. Moreover, while we lament the great and barbarous cruelty of 
their treatment, it must not be forgotten that many of the reputed 
witches were far from being iunocent of crime, or undeserving of 
punishment. Few people now believe them to have possessed 
supernatural power, but there is evidence which cannot be gainsaid, 
that they practised on the credulity of those who offended them to 
the effect of subjecting them to grevious bodily maladies ; and if 
these would have justly called down the vengeance of the law, if 
produced by blows or the administration of noxious drugs, the cir- 
cumstance that they were the result of threatening words or 
mysterious charms, operating on a sensitive organization in an 
abnormal condition through excessive terror, was no reason for 
allowing the malicious perpetrators to escape with impunity. Their 
punishment was no doubt cruelly severe, and the source of their 
power was misunderstood; but that they had a power which they 
used to the detriment of their fellow-creatures, and that they de- 
served some punishment for doing so, seem almost undeniable. 

Such is a brief outline of the early history of Pitteuweem. Its 
well composed and carefully preserved municipal records would 
furnish materials for a more minutely detailed narrative, illustrative 
of the character, manners, opinions, and customs of the inhabitants 
of former times, but it does not fall within the scope of this sketch 
to touch upon these. Enough has been written to show that our 
quiet little burgh has a history not altogether uneventful, and 
that, although situated at a distance from the great centres of 
action, with a limited and obscure population, it yet had its own 
share in those stirring incidents which form the most attractive 


features in tlic history of the nation. It should quicken the interest 
of the burghers of Pittenwecm in that history to recollect that 
those who formerly walked their streets, lived in their houses, and 
whose blood still circulates in the veins of many of them, were 
actively engaged, to the full measure of their power, in those great 
struggles to which we are indebted for the enlightenment, the 
prosperity, and the civil and religious liberty of the present age. 


Besides the venerable Gothic Church of St. Monance, and the 
sequestered fane of Abercrombie, Newark Castle is the most remarkable 
object of antiquity m the paiish This ediface was elected on the 

rocky shore, a little to the westward of St. Mouance, and ^'iewed 
from the sea has a grand and lofty appearance. It was long inhabited 
by the family of Sandilands, who were superiors of St. Monance, but, 


in 1649, was sold to General David Leslie, who was afterwards 
created Lord Newark. Sir Alexander Anstruther, fifth son of Sir 
Philip Anstruther, in 1694, married the grand- daughter of the first 
Lord Newark; and the estate afterwards became the property of the 
chief of the Anstruther family, and is now the property of Mr. Baird 
of Elie. According to tradition, Newark Castle has been twice 
burned ; and, if the prediction of the famous Thomas the Rhymer is 
to be fulfilled, it is yet "to blink a third time upon the Bass," 


Trom authentic documents referred to by Sir John Conncl in liis 
" History of Tithes," Abcrcromhie, or Abercromlin, appears to have 
been a parish as far back as 1174. How long that character per- 

tained to this portion of Pife, \\c cannot ^a}, but the church is obvi- 
ously of very great antiquity. Having become so ruinous as to be 
imfit for a phicc of worship, it was abandoned in IGIG, and since 


that time the parishes of Abercrombie aud St. Monaus have been 
united, aud the old ehurch of St. Monaus, situated ou the sea-shore, 
has served for the use of both. 

lu a romantic and beautiful situation within the grounds now 
forming part of the domain of Sir Robert Austruther of Balcaskie, 
Baronet, M.P. for Fifeshire, aud Lord Lieutenant of that county, 
aud in the old burying-place, still used as a cemetery by the Bal- 
caskie family, stands the remains of the old grey parish church of 
Abercrombie, with its encircling lime-trees and its green ivy garment 
duskily investing its aged walls. 

Dedicated to St. Mary and St. Margaret, traditiou has deduced 
the origin of Abercrombie Church from the piety aud wealth of two 
sisters similarly named. 

About the middle of the twelfth century, the broad lauds and 
swelling cotfers of Sir Humphrey Abercrombie (failing male issue) 
devolved upon two maiden sisters, Mary and Margaret, ouly children 
of the baronet ; and as both were young, and of unimpeachable 
descent — the true Norman blood mantling in every vein — the 
heiresses early became objects of absorbing interest in the eyes of 
such of the surrounding kuights and thanes as could advance pre- 
tensions to as clear a shield and pure a lineage as their own. 

Educated within the walls of the convent at Haddington, the 
sisters' limited experience aud unripe notions of the world would 
have inadequately fitted them for the duties entailed upon them by 
their new position, were it not that nature had beueficently gifted 
the elder with a certain strength and self-reliance of character, im- 
perfectly developed in the cloister, but daily expanding and matur- 
ing in a broader sphere, in proportion as circumstances seemed to 
call it into action, and demand its vigorous exercise. 

The younger was a graceful, gentle girl, gifted with rare beauty, 
aud with a disposition as femininely soft and placid as the mild aud 
dovelike eyes through which her soul looked out upon a world but 
newly revealed to her enfranchised gaze. 

How was it, then, that thus difteriug — thus unlike in mind and 
feature — the high-souied Mary aud the shrinking, soft-eyed Margaret 
should, almost simultaneously, have set their hearts on one object? 
Was it that, under the handsome exterior of her soldier-couain, 
Philip de Candcla, the elder sister recognised a spirit similar to her 
own ? And was it that the pliant mind of Margaret, putting forth 
a host of tendrils— impulses, affections, sympathies — craved some 
object for support, something to cliiig to and weave tlu^iselves 
around, encircling what they garlanded ? "Was it in the harder 
nature of the soldier these budding tendrils found, as it were, a 
massive trunk wooing their embrace and strengthening their growth ? 
Was it that the elder loved him for the perils he had undergone in 
Palestine and in France, the exciting scenes in which had conspicu- 
ously borne a brave man's part, and for the spirit of daring and 

career r 

adveiiture by which he had been iullucnced in his busy brief 

We may know that it was so ; that continued intercourse confirmed 


and ripened love ; that Mary's ears were seldom regaled with tales 
of war and chivalry, while the songs of Provence were carolled with 
a frequency and fervour most gratifying, it would seem, to the 
happy, hopeful Margaret ; and that, in short, the soldier and liia 
soft-eyed cousin plighted their troth, and then irrevocably sealed it 
with a sacred union. The ceremonial was performed by 8t. Mouan, 
a hermit or religious recluse belonging to the Monastery of Pitten- 
weem, which was sheltered in a recess amongst the banks, walls, and 
cre\ices at the west end of the village of the same name, with a 
dusky-coloiired mass of hard whiustone overhanging it behind, and 
a stair or gully winding past it in front. Haste and secresy could 
be purchased then as now, and Philip and his bride were ferried 
across the frith, and landed at North Berwick, hours ere their 
lengthened absence had been noted by the elder sister as an unusual 

How fierce and violent a storm of passion then swelled -ft-ithin the 
disappointed sister's breast — how from her heart she cursed them 
bitterly — how vowed an unmitigable hatred to them both — how 
every soft and womanly feeling seemed utterly extinct — how in 
their stead arose an intense, consuming thirst to be avenged — how, 
in fact, her whole nature seemed changed, and how she moodily 
immured herself within her Castle of Abercrombie, day after day, 
week after week, brooding upon the scornful slight which had been 
put upon her love, and upon the cunning, as she deemed it, of the 
sister who had supplanted her — it were a charity to the infirmities 
of our common nature to touch upon but lightly, and so pass on to 
after incidents. 

Six months had scarcely run their course after the marriage, when 
the war broke out between Stephen, the unpopular usurper of the 
English throne, and his fair relative and competitor, Maude. 
Margaret's husband was among the first to join the standard of 
King Band, and to fling himself within the ranks of those who 
opposed Stephen. Alas ! he was among the first also to fall a vic- 
tim to that sanguinary strife, being slain in a mere chance skirmish, 
into which his zeal and well-known bravery had unhappily led him. 

Poor Margaret might well be overwhelmed by such a fearful and 
unlooked-for bereavement. Keason almost gave way ; and during 
the time that partial delirium deprived her of consciousness, her 
husband's kinsmen mercifully consigned the gashed and ghastly 
corpse to its last home, that the widow's eye might never look with 
agony upon the loved and distorted features of her slaughtered 

^VTien the elder sister heard of this sudden sharp calamity, her 
heart melted within her. In the presence of death, anger and hate, 
and jealousy, and wounded love, and baffled hope, stood solemnly 
rebuked. The cause of their disunion no longer found a place 
within their memory ; but a more unclouded past, childhood and 
girlhood, the recollections of an era teemin-j -^ith thoughts and 
images of love and tenderness — of a time when the two nestled their 


soft clieeks upon the same pillow, wove the same woof, shared the 
same rambles to Kellie-law and Kilconquhar Loch, to Macduff's 
Cave and Balcarras Craig — cherished the same dear rose-tree, wept 
and laughed, grew pale or crimson, sad or merry, as the same feel- 
ings swayed the hearts of both — came thronging to her mind ; and 
as the past brought with it such gentle harmonising influences, why 
should they not renew it in the future ? They had been too long 
widely and unwisely severed. Henceforth they would have, as they 
had had of yore, but one home and one heart. 

Borne down, indeed, still almost distraught with grief, the younger 
yet could find a solace and a mitigation of her sorrow in her reunion 
with her elder sister ; and when the latter fell upon the widow's 
bosom, and brokenly sobbed out her sorrow for the past, her grief 
for this last heavy stroke, and spoke of hope for better days, when 
sufii"ering should be softened down by time, and submission soothe 
regret, her dark eyes kindled through her tears, and a faint smile, 
like a ray of fleeting sunshine gilding the blackness of the storm, 
played momentarily upon her compressed and pallid lips. 

So the old Castle of Abercrombie received them once again, linked 
together by a closer tie— wiser and sadder both — the joyousness of 
youth displaced by thoughts of a graver, if not gloomier texture, as 
though a few short months had done the work of years, and prema- 
turely stamped the feelings of a later epoch upon their youthful 
minds. Perhaps the solitude in which they lived, disposing them to 
ponder on the after destination of the soul, or perhaps the converse 
of a priestly adviser, anxious to aggrandise the church (for there was 
only one church then, and for three hundred years after there was 
no other, namely, the Church of Eome) of which he was a member; 
or perhaps that natural revulsion of the mind from matters of 
momentary to matters of imperishable importance, which results 
from worldly disappointment and domestic calamities, influenced 
them in coming to the determination to which they came ; but 
whatever may have been the influences which operated on them, 
this alone is certain — that the sisters mutually resolved to found a 
church, and dedicate it to the service of the Almighty, in token of 
their reconciliation ; purposing likewise to endow it at their decease 
with the personal wealth of which they were possessed. 

At that time the whole surrounding country, or at least the muir- 
land portion of it, was little better than a leafy wilderness, inter- 
sected by numerous bridle-ways, with here and there a broader 
track, offering a passage for the slow and cumbrous carts and 
sledges of those rude days. At scattered intervals large clearances 
had been made ; and out of the old primeval trees, and with the aid 
of turf taken from the soil, and rushes gathered from the margin of 
the burns, rivulets, and lochs, groups of cottages were framed, win- 
dowless and chimneyless — a miserable shelter for the hardy cottars 
who tenanted them. A frank tenementer's more commodious abode, 
a smithy, or perhaps a huckster's store, were the only tenements 
that varied that uniform aspect of these primitive elachans. 


"WTierevcr the ground swelled into anything like a reasonable emi- 
nence, the stronghold of a baron might be observed perched on the 
summit, wliile the circumjacent hollow would exhibit its irregularly- 
clustered hovels, overlooked by the more massive and enduring resi- 
dence of the rural magnate. Such churches, too, as then existed, 
were mostly built u])ou a rising ground, and seemed to serve as 
landmarks in that wild untravclled breadth of muir, moss, and'forest- 
land. It may be readily conceived, therefore, that at such a time, 
and in such a district, the rumour of the meditated erection in the 
first instance, and afterwards the commencement, continued pro- 
gress, and completion of the sacred structure, were regarded as the 
gradual evolution of an event peculiarly important. 

It was an event, moreover, that was regarded \\4th the utmost 
satisfaction by the Eomish Church, upon whose dignitaries, in due 
time, devolved the task of formally consecrating the edifice to the 
sacred object for which it was intended, and who purposed to lavish 
in the ceremonial all those adventitious aids by which the Church 
of Eome imparted a character of such imposing grandeur to every 
rite and ceremonial to which she lent her countenance, or in which 
she bore a part : and hence the consecration of this edifice, followed, 
or rather accompanied, by a solemn presentation of the sisters at the 
altar, in token of compunction for dissensions past, and thankful- 
ness for love restored, was marked by features of such rare magni- 
ficence, by such impressive pomp, and such professional display, and 
witnessed by such a multitude of wondering spectators, gathered 
from far and near, that both the solemnity itself, and its strange 
issue, lived in the memories of succeeding generations for centuries 

On that solemnity we need not tarry to comment ; our legend 
has reference to its issue only. As the sisters knelt before the 
altar, thus by a formal act to ratify their reconciliation in the sight 
of G-od and man, and the venerable diocesan, Bishop Arnold of St. 
Andrews, bent down to give his benediction on them both, a flash of 
Tivid lightning on a sudden filled the sacred edifice with a ruddy 
light, and a rattling peal of thunder rolled, as it were, along the very 
roof of the building. 

There was a hush— a silence that was almost audible — a deep, 
dead calm reigning for a space in every portion of the holy pile 
Most of the congregation lay prostrate on the pavement ; the sisters 
knelt upon the altar steps, with buried heads and clasped hands ; 
the old prelate stood alone erect, and folding his hands upon his 
breast, with eyes uplifted and serene, at length emphatically said^ 
" Thy will be done ! " A thousand voices as by one impulse, blend 
ing into chaos, made response, " Amen, amen ! " 

And then the good old bishop, gently touching the kneeling sis 
ters, bade them rise ; but neither speech nor motion answered him 
for still they knelt, with heads bowed low and fingers intertwined— 
with mute lips and eyelids drooping heavily. Again and yet again 
he would have them raised from their kneeling posture, but there 


was neither word nor sign ; and then awe fell upon the hearts of all 
present, for they knew that death was there ! The spirits of the 
sisters, forgiving and forgiven, had passed away, and doubtless 
angels and redeemed spirits had heralded them to the mansions of 
the blessed. 





On the 21st of March 1743, Captain Richard Dundas, commander 
of the frigate Phoebe, carrying 44 guns and 200 men, sailed from 
Deptford with that vessel in perfect order and condition, and bound 
for Leith. The ship was one of the finest in the service, and the 
commander a man of great energy and intelligence. Mungo Murray, 
Esq., superintendent of his Majesty's dockyard at Deptford, a young 
officer of distinguished ability and exemplary character, was one of 
the passengers. No incident worthy of notice occurred until they 
reached St. Abb's Head, when they were overtaken with a strong 
adverse gale of wind, and heavy snow storm, which unfortunately 
drove them from their course, and prevented sight of land for a consi- 
derable time. The wind continued to increase in violence, but the 
snow ceased falling for a little, when it was discovered that they had 
been driven past the mouth of the Frith of Forth, and were now in 
St. Andrews Bay. 

They then close-reefed their sails, and made all snug ; and Captain 
Dundas declaring that they should have to encounter a strong south- 
easter", all their effiarts were directed to double the head-land of Fife- 
ness and the dreaded Carr Rock, and get into the Forth, but their 
utmost endeavours were unavailing, so that the best part of a day was 
spent in tacking and veering to, close in with the land, to no pur- 

The sun set angrily, and the wind veering more adversely, to their 
xitter dismay broughi. them on a lee shore. The storm increased with 
the night ; the snow began again to fall, and neither the stars nor the 
lights of Tay or of the Forth could be seen. The sea was lashed into 
tremendous fury. There was a fearful sullen sound of rushing waves 
and broken surges — " Deep called unto deep." At times the black 
volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning 
that quivered along the foaming billows, and made the succeeding 
darkness doubly terrible. The thunders bellowed over the wild waste 
of waters, and were echoed and prolonged by the mountain-like waves. 
As the ship was seen staggering and plunging among these roaring 
caverns, it seemed miraculous that she regained her balance, or pre- 
served her buoyancy. Her yards dipped into the water ; her bow 


was bui'ied almost beneath tlie waves. Sometimes an impending 
surge appeared ready to overwhelm her, and nothing but a dexterous 
movement of the helm preserved her from the shock. 
" The impervious horrors of a leeward shore " 
they were doomed to experience during a moon and starless night. 
They reduced their sails to a few yards of canvas, and lowered the 
yards on deck. The waves that rolled the vessel with irresistible 
force, threatened to swallow them up ; a ti^emendous sea carried away 
the boat which was hoisted up at the stern, and broke in all the bulk- 
heads of the quarters. For safety of lives and property, all hands, 
after being revived with a glass of rum, began to throw overboard the 
guns ; the long-boat was then released from her lashings, and, as they 
wished, the waves soon swept her from the deck. The two large 
anchors were cut from the bows, and the vessel, thus eased of a heavy 
top-load, danced more lightly over the tremendous billows, and in- 
spired them with fresh hopes. The crew were all ordered to the after 
part of the deck, and again refreshed with another glass of rum and 

A little before daybreak, the captain, who had been anxiously 
looking out, acquainted the officers, so as not to be heard by the crew, 
that he saw breakers nearly ahead, and had no thoughts of being able 
to weather them. Mr. Murray coincided in this opinion, to which 
some one said, " Well, we all are born to die ; I shall go with regret, 
but certainly not with fear." 

The breakers were soon visible to all the crew — being no nnore than 
a quarter of a mile distant on the lee-bow, when Captain Dundas 
remarked, "Our only chance is to put away a point before the wind, 
or we are sure to go broadside into the surf and perish at once." 

A heavy sea now struck the vessel — swept the deck fore and aft, 
and carried overboard five of the crew, who instantly sank to rise no 

The captain seeing a mighty wave approaching, and viewing nothing 
but death before them, exclaimed — " Lord, have mercy upon us," and 
at that moment the vessel rose upon a mountain billow to a tremen- 
dous height, from whose summit she descended with the velocity of 
lightning, as if she were going to bury herself in the remorseless deep. 
By this rapid movement, she was precipitated forward beyond the 
reach of the breakers, which now rolled behind her stern, and burst 
in impotence, as if incensed at the loss of their destined prey. 

" We are safe," exclaimed Captain Dundas, "jump men, from the 
yards, and make sail." 

This they did with tumultuous joy, which Mr. Murray checked, 
and said to them, " Whilst you are wox-king, silently thank God for 
your miraculous preservation." The sea on which the vessel rose was 
the means of her preservation, and that of her crew. Probably there 
was not, if the sea had been calm, a depth of tivofeet of water on the 
Carr Bock, for it was that dangerous reef she had passed ; but the 
mighty wave carried her safe over, at a moment when every hope but 
that of immortality was gone from the minds of the ship's company. 


The tempest having somewhat abated, and the wind veered round 
to a more favourable quarter, the vessel rode more smootlily, and the 
hour of eight being arrived, all hands were enabled to sit up and take 
cotfee for breakfast. 

For about three hours, the ship had been working up the Frith, and 
had come off Anstruther, into which port she entered shortly after- 
wards, in order to undergo a survey, and get all necessary repairs com- 
pleted in hull and rigging ; and as the vessel had been seen from the 
Windmill Tower and the Brae all the morning to be in great dis- 
tress, the eastern pier (for the west pier had not then been built) 
was crowded with spectators to witness her an-ival. 

Amongst others who had gone down to the pier, was Captain Thomas 
White, the Provost or Chief Magistrate of the burgh, who being a sea 
captain himself, deeply sympathized both as a sailor and a man with 
the otHcers and the crew of the Phcebe, on seeing them in such a 
miserable plight, and proffered to afford them all the aid and assist- 
ance in his power. He got into conversation with Mr. Murray, and 
found him so intelligent and gentlemanly in his manners, that he in- 
vited him to his house, (which stood on the Shore Street^ and on the 
east side of the Pend Wynd, and was that which formerly belonged to 
the late Mr. Willis, collector of customs, and is presently possessed by 
Mr. Lewis Russell, i)rinter, Mr. Walls, grocer, and others) until the 
vessel was repaired and made ready for sea. Mr. Murray thanked 
him for his kindness, and cordially accepted his hospitable invitation. 

Captain White, the chief magistrate of Anstruther, was a wealthy 
and respectable shipowner, and his family consisted of a son about 
twenty, and a daughter about seventeen years of age, besides some 
younger children. Mr. Murray, their guest, then in his twenty- 
fifth year, was a light-hearted and rising young officer. He was at 
first a little impatient of the delay occasioned by the repairs of the 
vessel, the superintendence of which fell to be his duty ; but circum- 
stances soon occurred which checked his impatience, and more than 
reconciled him to his present quarters. 

As Christian White is destined to occupy no unimportant posi- 
tion in tliis narrative, some description of her will therefore be 

Let us endeavour to draw her portrait. 

She was not only beautiful, but full of life and animation, her 
smiling face being the true index of a cheerful, hapjjy disposition. 
G-entle, amiable, affectionate, good-natured, she was beloved by all 
who knew her ; although from a maidenly modesty and natural 
reserve, she was really known by few. With the figure of a • sylph 
and the face of a Hebe, she had luxuriant hair of the darkest 
possible chestnut, which was wreathed in thick cable plaits round 
her beautifully-shaped head, which, owing to the fashion of that 
day, as well as of the present, of wearing the bonnets on the 
shoulders, enabled her well-formed head to be seen to the greatest 
advantage. In the delicate outline of her faultless features, there 
was a harmony that made of her whole face a concerted loveliness 


of form, colour, and expression, that was irresistible. Hackneyed 
as the simile is, her skin was literally like snow, upon which blush 
rose-leaves seemed to have fallen. Her long-cut oriental-looking 
eyes were " deeply, darkly, beautifully blue ;" while their heavy, 
snowy lids were fringed with long black silken lashes, that seemed 
continually trying to salute her cheeks, for which no one could 
possibly blame them. Her nose was white and transparent as 
ivory, with little dimples at each tip. In short, so pretty a crea- 
ture was seldom to be seen. 

But Miss White was something more than beautiful — she was 
amiable, and gentle, and affectionate ; and besides, she was a 
Christian in the true sense of the word ; and, young as she was, she 
had learned to look upon herself as a sinner, however innocent and 
pure she might appear in the eyes of her fellow-mortals. While enjoy- 
ing the blessings of health, peace, and competence that Providence 
had poured upon her, she looked upon them all as undeserved mercies 
— marks and tokens of her heavenly Father's love — a love mani- 
fested in man's redemj)tion in a way surj)assing all understanding. 
Wliere on earth can be found a more lovely character than that in 
which are blended true religion and natural amiability, rectitude of 
conduct, and tenderness of disposition ? 

Residing under the same roof with Miss White, who can wonder 
that, before many weeks had elapsed, Mr. Murray was as devoted 
to Captain White's daughter as any young and ardent lover could 
be ? Miss White was not conscious of any deeper feeling than 
that of affectionate friendship, nor was it till sometime after that 
her heart told her that Mungo Murray occupied a place in her 
affections which could be held by one, and one only. 

Several weeks had passed away, the repairs of the Phoebe had 
been nearly completed, and the time was fast approaching when 
Mungo Murray would be obliged to depart from Anstruther. It 
happened, however, that a day or two previously to his leaving, a 
party of pleasure was planned for visiting Kellie Law, near 
Carnbee, and Macduff's Cave, near Earlsferry. The party con- 
sisted of Mr. Thomas White, jun., and his sister, and Mr. Murray 
and Miss Anderson, a daughter of an opulent merchant in the 
town. A vehicle having been hired for the occasion, a drive of an 
hour brought the excursionists to Kellie Law. Having put up the 
horse and equipage at Grillingshill, and partaken of the hospitality 
of the occupants, they ascended this beautiful and conical eminence, 
which is 800 feet above the level of the sea, and about four miles 
distant from it, and rises from the ridge running eastward from 
Largo Law. Prom the summit of Kellie Law, on which there is a 
large cairn of stones, one of the most magnificent views in Scotland 
is obtained. Immediately below to the south is a rich and beauti- 
ful stretch of country, all enclosed and highly cultivated ; an 
extensive range of sea coast, studded with numerous little towns 
and villages ; the ample bosom of the Frith of Forth, enlivened with 
shipping and fishing boats ; and in the extreme distance, the coast 


of tlie Lothiaus from St. Abb's Head to Edinburgh. Near the 
south base of the hill stands KcUie Castle, a fine baronial building 
of the Earls of Kellie, surrounded by old trees, and containing 
some princely apartments. Sir Thomas Erskino of Gogar was one 
of those who rescued James VI. from the attemjjt of the Earl of 
Q-owrie to assassinate him at Perth in IGOO, and killed the Earl's 
brother with his own hands. He was created Viscount Eenton in 
1606, and Earl of Kellie in 1619. The earldom merged into that 
of Mar on the death of Methven, tenth Earl of Kellie, who was 
great-granduncle to Sir Thomas Erskine of Cambo, the present 
baronet. These earldoms are now disjoined, and the titles and 
honours of Mar and Kellie inherited by two distinct noblemen. 

After enjoying the splendid prospect from Kellie Law, the party 
set off for Elie, on their way to view the caves in Kincraig Hill. 
The drive between Gillingshill and Elie is delightful. The road 
passes in some places through a long line of tall trees, arching high 
overhead, and showing, at the termination, picturesque vistas. It 
skirts Kilconquhar Loch, and affords not very distant views of 
Charleton and Balcarras, Colinsburgh and Cairnie House, and pass- 
ing through Kilconquhar, the beautiful church of the parish and 
manse fwhich do credit to the heritors) are close by. The noble 
mansions of Elie and Kilconquhar, in the immediate neighbourhood, 
are also seen, surrounded with fine old trees, and standing in a rich 
and fertile district. 

On arriving at Elie, the party gave the horse and vehicle in 
charge of the ostler, and set out on foot for Kincraig. Imme- 
diately from the beach, at the south-west end of the i)arish, Kincraig 
Hill rises to the height of about 200 feet above the level of the sea. 
Its southern front presents a nearly perpendicular rugged wall of 
trap rock, of the most picturesque appearance, and in these rocks 
are several caves, called Macdufi's Cave, the Hall Cave, and the 
Devil's Cave. There is a tradition that Macduff, the Marmor or 
Earl of Fife, in his flight from the vengeance of Macbeth, was 
concealed in the cave which still bears his name, and was afterwards 
ferried across the Eorth to Dunbar by the fishermen of the place, 
from which circumstance it was called " Earlsferry;" and, besides 
being constituted a royal burgh by Malcolm III., about 1057, it 
obtained the privilege that the persons of all in flight, who should 
cross the Erith from thence, should be for a time inviolable — no 
boat being allowed to leave the shore in pursuit, till those who 
were pursued were half seas over. 

The party now resolved that they should partake of luncheon on 
the greensward, to fortify themselves for their proposed expedition 
among the cliffs. "While the viands were being produced, Mr 
Murray set forth by himself in quest of a very rare plant, which he 
was informed grew in this locality. 

On observing a group of persons gazing anxiously upwards at 
the overhanging cliffs, he joined them, enquiring on what their 
attention was so earnestly fixed. The persons addressed spoke 


not, but pointed to a spot about balf way up the face of the rock. 
Mr. Murray looked in the direction indicated, when, to bis borror, 
he bebeld a boy, apparently about fifteen years of age, climbing 
along a stony ledge, wbicb was so narrow as to be bardly visible 
from the spot where the group of terrified beholders was stationed. 
Scarcely had there been time for Mr. Murray to fix his eyes on the 
human form that had reached so perilous a position, when a portion 
of the ledge of rock on which the unhappy boy was standing gave 
way; a loud scream rent the air, echoing through the clifli's, and in 
another instant all that remained of him was a lifeless mangled 
corpse. The poor fellow's story is soon told. He was an idiot, 
and having wandered from his mother's side, had reached the fatal 
spot, no one knew how, and thus met a fearful death. 

His poor mother witnessed the dreadful catastrophe, and agon- 
izing was her grief as she followed the body of her child, which was 
borne on the shoulders of the awe-struck villagers to her home. 
Mr. Murray also followed the body to the house, and feeling that 
at such a time any attempt at comforting the childless widow would 
be of no avail, he merely placed a sum of money in the hands of a 
respectable-looking person, a bystander, for her use, and slowly 
and sick at heart, he was in the act of returning to his friends, 
when he met our heroine, who was in search of him for the purpose 
of bringing him back to luncheon. She saw that he was deadly 
pale, and hurriedly asked if he felt ill. He told her all that had 

" Oh !" she exclaimed, " if it had been you.''' 

" AYell," he replied carelessly, " and if it had, few would have 
missed me ; I should probably have had fewer mourners than that 
poor idiot boy." 

" Oh, how can you say so," she returned, and bending down her 
head became visibly agitated. And yet poor Christian knew not, 
even now, that she loved Mungo Murray; she understood not the 
true cause of the beatings of her disturbed heart. He looked at 
her ; as he looked a momentary smile passed over his features, 
which was soon exchanged for an expression of deep sorrow, as he 
thought of the lonely widow bending over the lifeless form of her 
lost son. The sad story was related to the rest of the party, and 
all cheerfulness for the time was at an end. 

This was destined to be an eventful day. Another calamity — 
and one that, although it was not attended with fatal results, 
affected Mungo more than that which had occurred — was yet to 
take place. We have said that there were some remarkable caves 
at this place, which had long been objects of interest to the traveller 
and excursionist. One there is in particular, called the Devil's 
Cave, which penetrates far into the heart of the rock, on the face 
of which lies its entrance. From the steepness of the path which 
leads into this cavern, it is rarely visited by tourists. The party, 
however, with perhaps more curiosity than prudence, determined to 
explore and visit this cave. A female guide was procured, and a 


candle supplied to each person. All being ready, in single file they 
entered the mouth of the cavern, carefully groping their way, not 
without difficulty. Miss Anderson soon lost courage and turned 
back, stating that she and Mr. White would return to the inn at 
Elie and prepai-e tea ; the other two resolved to proceed, along with 
the guide. The aperture through which they had to pass became 
at length so low and so narrow that a consultation was held, and it 
was agreed that it would be prudent to return. Mungo now led 
the way as they retraced their stops. He had not proceeded far 
when he heard a heavy tall, and turning quickly round, beheld, to 
his horror. Christian stretched upon the humid soil of the cavern ; 
her eyes were closed, and the candle had fallen from her hand. 
AVhetiier bad air had struck her down or not he could not tell. 
For an instant he believed her to be dead, but, bending over her, 
he perceived that she breathed. What was now to be done? 
Only one plan lay before him which he could adopt. Giving his 
candle to the guide, and directing her to keep in front of him, 
holding the light so as he could see, he raised her in his arms, and 
with all the strength he was master of, bore her along in the direc- 
tion of the entrance. The roof of the cave was so low that it was 
impossible to maintain an upright position, and his strength so 
entirely failed him that he was obliged to stop and take a rest 
before he could proceed with his precious burden. On reaching 
the mouth or entrance of the now detested cave, signs of returning 
consciousness began to appear in the poor sufferer. On breathing 
the fresh air of heaven she opened her eyes for a moment, then 
closed them again, drawing several long and apparently painful 
respirations. Mungo placed her on a grassy bank, and seating 
himself beside her, supported her by placing his arm round her 
waist. The guide was despatched for water. By and bye Christian^' 
looking round, said with her own sweet smile, " I am better now.'' 
Mungo pressed the form of her whom he already loved so well to 
himself, and then assisting her to rise, with slow and measured 
steps they returned to Elie. 

" You are very tired, I fear, and I am the cause," said Christian, 
as she leaned on Mungo's arm, turning her face to his. 

For a moment their eyes met, those of Christian fell, while a shade 
of colour tinged her still pallid face. She had met a look in Mungo's 
face that she had never seen there before. She again relapsed into 

Mungo, in reply to her remark, uttered something that was inaudi- 
ble ; the name of " Christian " however, was substituted for that of 
" Miss White." 

Any endeavour to conceal what had occurred would have been use- 
less. The pale face of the sufferer plainly told that she had been ill, 
and general was the consternation of all on hearing what had happened. 
Mungo resigned her to the care of Miss Anderson and the hostess, and 
passing to the little parlour of the village inn, flung himself on the 
sofa in a state of complete exhaustion. 


Long he remained buried in thought. At length his good nature and 
compassion prompted him to visit once more the poor childless widow, 
while preparations were being made for their return to Anstruther. 

She was alone with the body of her idiot son. Carefully had she 
cleaned away the blood and dust fi'om his face, which now appeared 
to exhibit more intelligence in death than it had done in life. 

As Mungo entered, the poor Irish widow exclaimed, " May the 
blessing of the great God who is above this day be about ye and wid 
ye for ever and ever, my jewel young gentleman.'' She held in her 
hand the money that he had left for her, and added, " Sure, isn't there 
enough here for the poor lone widow to buy her darliut son a dacent 
coffin for to lay him in the cowld earth, in the land of the stranger, 
before she goes far, far away to a land beyant the rowling say (refer- 
ring to America.) You've given me money when I wanted it sore, 
an' the blessin' of the lone widow woman will be wid ye wherever ye 
go ; but none can give me back my boy. Oh, Patrick, jewel ! why 
did ye die 1 Och ! my poor boy — my poor boy — my poor boy ! " 

The tears came into Mungo's eyes as he listened to this pathetic 
lamentation, but longer he could not remain. He succeeded, how- 
ever, in learning that she had i-esolved to accede to a proposal of her 
sister's, to join her in America; which his gift had provided her with 
the means of accomplishing. 

The drive to Anstruther was speedily made out, and in a few days 
Miss White was quite restored to her usual state of health and 

Time rolled on. The Phcebe has sailed ; Mr. Murray has 
returned to Deptford and resumed his ordinaiy duties. Has all inter- 
course ceased between him and Miss White 1 Assuredly not ; many 
a kind letter has passed between them. She has been to England 
visiting his sister at that sister's kind invitation, and is come back to 
Anstruther. Mungo has proposed to her, and been accepted, and has 
obtained a special license for their marriage. He comes back to 
Anstruther to claim his bride. 

If you, my reader, were at this moment greedily perusing a modern 
novel, you would here be gratified by a very romantic and touching 
account, three or four pages long at least, of the meeting of the two 
ardent lovers after a long separation — smiles and tears — sighs and 
sobs — broken accents ; protestations of eternal love and fidelity — and 
all that sort of thing. Here you will find nothing of the kind. I 
very much doubt myself as to whether anything of the kind took 
place in this instance at all. I rather imagine the meeting was a 
calm and quietly happy one, without anything strikingly romantic or 
stage-like about it. But even suppose there had been, and that I had 
been present to see, (which, by-the-bye, would have been an awkwai'd 
enough situation for me or any third pai'ty to have found himself in,) 
ought we to have disclosed it 1 Certainly not ; such a scene, every 
one knows; ought to be strictly private and confidential. Suffice it 
then to say, that doubtless both parties found themselves extremely 
comfortable and happy. 


Let me now convey you in thought backwards, one hundred and 
fourteen years, and place you in the street of Pittenweeni, opposite 
the Scottish Episcopal Chapel. We see a crowd. Let us enquire 
what is the occasion of it. 

" Policeman, what is this crowd collecting for so early this morn- 

" There's going to be a wedding, ma'am." 

" Do you know whose wedding it is 1 " 

" No, ma'am, I don't, I'm only here to keep order, nothing else to 
do with it." 

It is some time since we have seen a wedding, suppose we go into 
church. Here we are. We shall have a nice view of them from that 
front pew in the gallery. How tastefully the chapel is decorated with 
foliage and flowers. INlake haste ! I hear the carriages coming ; that 
will do. Wait ! here they come ; only fancy. It's Christian White, 
and — who 1 Mungo JNIurray, I declare! How nicely he looks in his 
naval uniform. Then the reports were all true. Poor Christian ! 
she's very much agitated. I suppose being married must be rather 
serious work. The clergyman who is marrying them is a relation of 
the bridegi-oom's — he's rector of a large parish near Deptford. How 
beautifully he reads! and there is our dear old clergyman, Mr. Spence, 
assisting { how happy he looks ; they say he has known the bride 
since she w;is an infant, and the bridegroom for some time. There ! 
she's no longer Christian White. I wonder where they are going to 
after breakfast. Blessings on them both ! 


The ocean rolling its surges from country to country is the most 
august and impressive object under the whole heaven. It is a spec- 
tacle of magnificence, and the emotions it produces is peculiar and 
indescribable : a strange mixture of awe, and wonder, and exhilara- 

At intervals it lies beneath us in such stillness and beauty, that in 
time its interest and its charms would be lost did it never alter ; but 
one great characteristic of the works of the Deity is, that with end- 
less beauty there is endless variety and change. The ocean is scarcely 
ever, even for an hour, the same ; — the morning breeze sinks into a 
mid-day calm, and ere another day, a careering blast has arisen which 
is maddening the billows into foam, and dashing them in thunder on 
the leeward shore. 

The ocean answers various important purposes in the economy of 
nature ; — it forms a general communication between the different 
nations of the earth, more accessible and convenient than if the whole 
had been land. By its constant motion it tends to preserve the air in 
a state of purity ; and it is the great reservoir into which the lochs 


and rivers empty themselves, and from which is again drawn by eva- 
poration that moisture, which, falling in showers of rain, fertilizes the 
earth, and supplies the waste of the springs and rivers, and furnishes 
a magnificent illustration of the wisdom and power of the Almighty. 
If the ocean in many of its aspects be beautiful, it is in others sub- 
lime, or awful, or terrific. 

Let any one who wishes to have a conception of the sublime, station 
himself upon the Billowuess, or western headland of the little bay in 
which Anstruther harbour is situated, during the violence of a winter 
tempest, and he will obtain it. The blast howls along the grim and 
desolate rocks around him. Black clouds are advancing in fearful 
masses, pouring forth torrents of rain and hail ; a sudden flash 
illuminates the gloom, and is followed by the deafeniag roar of the 
thunder, which gradually becomes fainter, until the roar of the waves 
upon the shore prevails over it. Meantime, as far as the eye can 
reach, the ocean heaves and boils, presenting one wide-extended field 
of foam, the spray from the summits of the billovys sweei^ing along its 
surface like drifted snow. No sign of life is to be seen seaward, save 
when a large gull, labouring hard to bear itself up against the blast, 
hovers overhead, or shoots across the gloom like a meteor. And when 
the long ranges of gigantic waves rush in succession towards the shore 
— when the thunder of the shock echoes among the crevices and 
caverns near Johnny Dowie's Hole — when the spray springs to an 
astounding height from the cliff — when the rocks shake to their sum- 
mit, and when the baffled wave rolls back to meet its advancing suc- 
cessor, to add to the perturbation of the scene — what spectator can 
view such a storm unmoved 1 what objects in nature are possessed of 
a greater degree of sublimity 1 and what manner of man can he be 
who should witness this wild commotion and battle of the elements 
without a feeling of breathless awe, of wonder, and adoration ? 

But if, while standing in safety on the shore, such a scene cannot 
be witnessed without feelings of awe, of wonder, and astonishment, 
how much more terrible must it be, to be overtaken with a storm on 
board of ship, in a narrow channel and on a lee shore 1 Such a scene 
could be laid before you, but, in the meantime, we shall simply en- 
deavour to entertain you with some narratives of maritime adventure 
of individuals connected with one of the small seaports on our own 
coast of Fife. 

Both in ancient and modern times, the county of Fife has given 
birth to fully more than its fair share of soldiers and sailors, as com- 
pared with the other counties of Scotland. The little village of Largo 
alone can boast of producing Sir Andrew Wood, the most illustrious 
of Scottish admirals before the Union, and in our own times Sir Philip 
Durham, the heir of Sir Andrew's estate, and of his gallant spirit and 

The love of adventure, which has been manifested in no small degree 
in our own qiiiet bui'ghs, and which is fostered and matured by a 
childhood brought up and spent by the sea-shore, also reared in the 
village of Largo the famous Alexander Selkirk, whose singular history. 


falling into the hands of Daniel Defoe, a celebrated novel-writer, be- 
came the ground -work of perhaps the most exquisite fiction in our 
language, that of Robinson Crusoe — a fiction which has afioi'ded more 
inscruction and delight to the youth of Great Biitain than any other 
narrative that could be named. 

The principal authority for the exploits of Andrew Wood is the 
interesting Scottish historian, Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie. He first 
makes mention of Wood towards the end of his history of James the 
Third, when he is relating the xxnhappy quarrels between that monarch 
and his nobles. Wood had two vessels, the names of which have been 
preserved in history. The one was called The May Flower and the other 
The Yellow Carvel — carvel being a general name for a ship. Wood 
vi^as the devoted adherent and friend of James, and took part with him 
and his faithful subjects against his rebellious nobles. Accordingly, 
fi'om Pitscottie's narrative, we learn that the king, intending to pass 
to the north in order to raise forces, went on board a vessel belonging 
to Captain Wood, who conveyed him to Fife, and put him on his 
route to the northern counties. The history of the defeat of the 
king's army by the rebels, and of his subsequent murder by an assassin, 
is familiar to all readers of Scottish History. 

Towards Captain Wood the young monarch, James the Fourth, felt 
great respect and attachment, on account of his friendship and regard 
for his murdered father ; and circumstances soon occurred which made 
the captain's services necessary for the defences of the country. 
Buchanan the historian states that some English pirates, with the 
connivance and encoui'agement of the English king, came into the 
Firth of Forth, and seized and plundered the vessels lying there, and 
committed outrages on the inhabitants on shore. Such was the fear 
in which these pii'ates were held, that there was no captain then in 
the country who would encoimter them except Wood. He proceeded 
to meet the enemy w4th his own two vessels, — the May Flower and the 
Yellow Carvel, and fell in with the Englishmen before the Castle of 
Dunbar, The enemy had five vessels, heavier and larger than the 
Scottish ships ; but by force of valour and superior seamanship, 
Captain Wood, after a desperate fight, defeated the pirates, took all 
their ships, and delivered their captain a prisoner to the king. James 
received his father's faithful friend and servant in the warmest and 
kindest mannei*, heaped honours on him for his skill and bravery, and 
ever after ranked the captain among his best and truest friends. It 
may reasonably be supposed that it was about this period that the 
king confirmed the grant of the lands and estate of Largo, which his 
father, James the Third, had made to Wood, and, in addition, created 
him a knight. This engagement took place in the month of July, in 
the year 1488, the first year of James the Fourth's reign. 

Of the subsequent history of Wood the memorials are scanty ; we 
ai'e not aware of any other active services in which he was employed, 
except in constructing the largest ship of war for King James which 
had ever been known in the Scottish navy ; but we are informed by 


board of her, in order to have an opportunity of exhibiting her ele- 
gance and magnificence. 

The family of the Woods, according to Sir Robert Sibbald, retained 
possession of the lands of Largo till the days of Charles the First. 
Aftei- the restoration of Charles the Second, these lands were pur- 
chased by Sir Alexander Durham, Lord Lyon king-at-arms, whose 
descendant, the late Admiral Sir Philip Durham, appears to have 
rivalled the heroism and good fortune of the first gallant knight of 

Largo House, the seat of the family, is an attractive object. It is 
a beautiful mansion, delightfully situated at the base of Largo Law, 
and was built in 1750. A circular tower,_ part of the residence of 
the celebrated Admiral Wood, still remains, in which is inserted a 
monumental inscription to his memory by the late General Durham. 

The name of Sir Philip Durham is historically connected with the 
loss of the Royal George, as one of the survivors of that awful cala- 
mity. As it is now eighty-seven years since this accident happened, 
and as a great many people, both young and old, must be ignorant of 
it, we have thought that a brief account of so remarkable an incident 
cannot fail to be interesting. 

In the year 1782, a fleet was fitting out at Portsmouth for the 
relief of the brave garrison of Gibraltar, which had long held out against 
the fleets of Spain. Amongst the ships destined for this expedition 
was the Royal George, fitted to carry 100 guns, but in reality mount- 
ing 108. She was the oldest first-rate in the service, and carried the 
tallest masts and squarest canvas of any English-built ship in the navy, 
and also the heaviest metal, namely, 52, 40, and 28 pounders. Before 
she could sail, it was deemed necessary, on account of her age, that 
she should receive a complete overhaul. So little difficulty or danger 
was apprehended from this operation, that the admiral, cajitain, and 
officers, among whom was Philip Durham, then a midshipman, and a 
crew amounting in all to about 900 persons, remained on board ; 
neither guns, stores, water, nor provisions were removed, and fully 
300 women and children, mostly relatives of the seamen, were on 
board from the neighbouring harbour. 

Early on the morning of the 29th August, the work was commenced 
l)y a gang of carpenters. The vessel was heeled over, or caused to 
incline in the water, so as to expose her lower timbers. It was after- 
wards stated that the workmen finding it necessary to strip off more 
of the sheathing than was expected, in order to come to a certain leak, 
heeled her more than was intended, and than possibly the comiuanders 
knew. About ten in the morning, while the admiral was writing in 
his cabin, and the larger number of the people were between decks, 
no one dreading any harm, a sudden and unexpected squall threw the 
vessel entirely over on her side, when, her port holes being ojjen, she 
filled and sank so very quickly, that, as one of the survivors declai-ed, 
he had only time to cry to his brother that she was going down, when 
down she went ! A victualler which lay alongside was swalloAved up 
in the whirlpool which the sudden plunge of so vast a body occasioned, 


and several small crafts, though at a considerable distauce, were in 
imminent danger of sharing the same fate. 

The adminU, with a number of brave officers, perished. The guard 
and most of the other people upon deck were more fortunate, being 
picked up by the boats of the fleet. About 300 in all, chiefly persons 
belonging to the ship's company, and among others Philip, afterwards 
Sir Philip Durham, were saved, while from 900 to 1000 were drowned. 

This incident was \iniversally bewailed, not so much for the loss of 
an old vessel, as for the destruction of human life that attended it. A 
large sum of money was immediately raised by subscription in London 
and elsewhere for the relief of the widows and children of the suff'erers. 

The diving bell was brought into operation for the recovery of pro- 
perty in the Royal Greorge, which was the more practicable, as she 
had not sunk in deep water. In the ensuing November, by this 
means, 16 guns and some cordage were fished up and brought into 
Portsmouth ; and in 1837 the late General Durham erected on a hand- 
some stage an iron 32 pounder recovered from the wreck of the vessel. 
This interesting menxorial was presented by the Board of Ordnance 
to the General in 183G, in remembrance of his brothei', Sir Philip's 

The Kirktown or upper Largo is an agreeable little village, with 
its neat and modern church and spire, and an elegant new hospital 
erected in 1831, in the Gothic style, on the site of a former one built 
in 1667, from the bequest of John Wood, a cadet of Sir Andrew's 
family, who in 1659 bequeathed £68,418 Scots, or £5701 10s. ster- 
ling, for the purpose ; to which any man of the name of Wood is 
entitled to admission. It is fitted up for 16 inmates, each of whom 
has a sitting and a sleeping apartment, £15 per annum, and the use 
of vegetables from the garden. A monument is placed in the chm-ch- 
yard wall to the memory of the founder, who died in London in 1661, 
and is buried in Largo aisle. Upper Largo was the birth-place of 
Sir John Leslie, Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University 
of Edinburgh, who died in 1832. 

We now pass on to Alexander Selkirk, the subject of Daniel Defoe's 
celebrated novel. 

Robinson Crusoe is a thoroughly British romance. The very pro- 
blem of the book — that of a human being thrown entirely on his own 
resources — is one remarkably adapted to the genius of a Scotchman, 
and it is wrought out with equal significance. Solitude has been made 
the basis of novels and memoirs in many notable instances ; but how 
difierent the treatment from that of Defoe 1 Poets, the most eloquent 
of modern times, have sung the praises of solitude — Byron, Foscolo, 
and Chateaubriand have set it forth as the sphere of imaginative plea- 
sure ; Zimmerman has dilated on its claims ; St. Pien-e and Humboldt 
have indicated how much it enhances the enjoyment of nature. But 
in these and similar instances the idiosyncrasy of the writers, and not 
?iuman nature in general, is alive to the experiment. Defoe gives a 
practical solution to the idea. He describes the physical resources 
available to a patient and active hei'mit. He brings man into direct 


contact with nature, and shows how he, with his single arm, thought, 
and will, can subdue her to his use. He places a human soul aloue 
with God and the universe, and records its solitary struggles, its 
remorse, its yearnings for companionship, its thirst for truth, and its 
resignation to its Creator. Robinson is no poet, mystic, or man of 
science, but a Scotsman of average mind and ordinary education ; 
and on his desert island of Juan Fernandez he never loses his nation- 
ality. Fertile in expedients, prone to domesticity, fond of a ramble, 
mindful of the JSabbath, provident, self-reliant, sustauied by his Bible 
and his gun, he is a philosopher by nature, a utilitarian by instinct, 
accustomed to introspection, serious in his views. Against the blank 
of solitude his figure, clad in goat skins, stands out in bold relief, as 
the moral idea and exemplar of his nation and of his class. 

At the mouth of the water of Kiel is the small village of Lower 
Largo, noted as the birthplace of Alexander Selkirk. This extra- 
ordinary man was born in this village in the year 1676. He was 
the son of a thriving country shoemaker, named John Selkirk, or 
Selcraig. Though he displayed some aptitude at school, especially in 
learning navigation, yet he was a restless youth, of a somewhat 
irritable temper, and often engaged in frolics and mischief. His 
father was one of those strict disciplinarians who formerly abounded 
in Scotland, whose s^everity in punishing trivial faults, and want of 
liberal feeling in restraining even from innocent indulgences, pro- 
duced in his son very different effects from what he expected. 

Alexander Selkirk was a favourite with his mother, on account of 
his being a seventh son born without the intervention of a daughter. 
The boy's own wish was to go to sea, in which he was encouraged by 
his mother, while his father's desire was to keep him at home as an 
assistant in his own trade. 

One day he committed an assault on his brother Andrew, for which 
he was brought before the kirk-session of his native parish, and the 
following extracts from the session book are curious, as giving the 
particulars of the quarrel, and also showing the pertinacity with 
which kirk-sessions in those days followed up any subject they had 
once taken in hand : — " 1701, Nov, 25. The session mett. John 
Selcraig, elder, compeared, and being examined what was the occasion 
of the tumult that was in his house, he said he knew not, but that 
Andrew Selcraig having brought in a canful of salt water, of which 
his brother Alexander did take a drink by mistake, and he laughing 
at him for it, his brother Alexander came and beat him ; upon which 
he ran out of the house and called his brother John. John Selcraig, 
elder, being again questioned what made him to sit on the floor with 
his back to the door 1 said it was to keep down his son Alexander, 
who was seeking to go up to get his pistole, and being inquired what 
he was going to do with it, he said he could not tell. 

" Alexander Selcraig compeared not, because he was at Coupar. 

" John Selcraig, younger, being questioned concerning the foregoing 
tumult, declared, that he being called by his brother Andrew, came 
into his father's house, and when he entered his mother went out, and 



lie seelntj his fatlier sitting on tlie floor with his hack at the door, was 
much trouhlod and ortercd to help him iij), and to bring him to the 
tiro, at which time he did see his brother Alexander in the other end 
of the house casting off his coat and coming towards him ; whereupon 
his father did get betwixt them, but he knew not what he did other- 
ways, his head being borne down by his brother Alexander, but being 
liberated by his wife, did make his esca])e. 

" Margaret Bell, wife of John Selcraig the preceding witness, 
declared that Andrew 8elcraig came running for her husband John, 
and desired him to go to his father's house ; which he doing, the said 
Margaret did follow her husband, and coming into the house she 
found Alexander Selcraig gripping both his father and her liusband, 
and she labouring to loose Alexander's hands from hei- husband's head 
and breast, her husband fled out of dooi-s, and she followed him, and 
called back again, ' You false loun, will ye murder your father and 
my luisband both ? ' 

"November 29. Alexander Salcraig comi)oared, and confessed that 
he having taken a drink of salt water out of the cann, his youngei" 
brother Andrew laughing at him, he did beat him twice with a staile. 
He confessed also that he liad spoken very ill words concerning his 
brothers, and particularly he challenged his elder brother John to a 
combate, as he called it, of dry neittells, which afterwards he did 
refuse and regret ; moreover, he said several other things — where- 
upon the session appointed him to com^jcar before the pulpit against 
to-morrow^, and to be rebuked in face of the congregation for his 
scandalous carriage. 

" November 30. Alexander Salcraig, according to the session's 
appointment, compeared before the pulpit, and made acknowledgment 
of his sin in disagreeing with his brothers, and was rebuked in face of 
the congregation for it : he promised amendment in the strength of 
the Lord, and so was dismissed." 

After this, there is reason to believe Alexander Selkirk kept his 
promise, and became quite a different kind of man. Indeed, his 
appearing before the congregation at all, which in our day seems so 
strange for such an offtaice, and his submitting to be publicly rebuked, 
when he miglit have declined to attend, or have left the place for a 
time, implied, that he was sorry for his misconduct, and had resolved, 
not ti'u sting in his own strength, but in the strength of a higher 
Power to lead a new life. 

Accordingly, he took his father's advice, and abandoned all thought 
of going to sea in the meanwhile, and followed his father's calling, that 
of a tanner and shoemaker, which at that time were almost always 
united. Intending to take a part in the coming harvest for the first 
time as a young reaper, which was a veiy common practice for artizans 
in those days, he began to look forward to its approach with some 
anxiety. He had been eager to learn to shear, and had often assisted 
at harvest work at Mounturpie and elsewhere, but to be placed on a 
rig as a man, with the responsibility of keeping it as well advanced as 
others — the risk of having ill neighbours, of falling behind and being 


laughed at by the whole field — these and many other contingencies 

made his first harst to him what a first battle is to a soldier a 

thought in which, for the time being, all other thoughts were merged, 
till, on the night previous to the day on which the harvest was to 
begin, his feelings were wrought up to the highest pitch of excite- 

He rose in the morning unrefreshed from want of rest, and went 
to the field, a good many miles off, and found nothing so terrible as 
he anticipated. The new faces by which he was surrounded afforded 
him a wide field of contemplation ; and among these it would have 
been strange, at his age, if the female part of them had not come in 
for a full share of his consideration. Young as he was, he had some 
perceptions of beauty and harmony of parts; and whether he viewed 
the females in reference to colour, regularity of feature, elegance of 
form, or free and graceful motion, he soon found that there were vari- 
ous degrees of perfection, and he took a pleasure in his own mind in 
settling their respective claims to merit. At last his attention began 
to fix u]:)ou a single individual, who ap]>eared to him to have no 
equal.^ Her name was Sophia Bruce. Youthful affection invests 
its object with all the attributes of excellence ; and to catch her eye, 
and attract her notice, was something of the highest importance. To 
admire the symmetry of her form, to hear her speak, to gaze on her 
expressive and beautiful countenance unnoticed by any one, and occa- 
sionally to be rewarded with a look or a smile from her, was all his 
heart aspired to ; and this to him was a sort of pleasure to which his 
past experience afforded nothing half so pure or so delightful. 

It was on one of those days in the month of September, when a 
frosty atmosphere in the morning had given place to a burning sun 
at noon— when not a cloud obscured the heavens, and not a blade of 
grass was stirred by the wind. A dead and sultry stillness reigned 
around, and nothing was to be heard save that rustle which the reap- 
ers themselves made. It seemed as if all other sounds had sickened 
and ceased in the intensity of the heat. Hard labour, and the pro- 
fuse perspiration which flowed from every pore, had occasioned the 
most distressing thirst long ere the hour of rest brought their mid-day 
refreshment. There was no water near ; their throats were dry and 
their lips parched. There was an univei'sal complaint, and many an 
anxious look cast in the direction from whence the bearers of the 
bread and ale for dinner were expected to come. At last, they were 
almost suffocating, and still there was no appearance of relief. In this 
distressing predicament Selkirk seemed to himself to suffer less than 
those around him — not that his throat was less dry, or his lips less 
parched than theirs, but the absorbing interest which Sophia Bruce 
had acquired in his bosom, prevented him from thinking of anv evil 
which might affect himself, while she was suffering from the same, or 
it might be even still greater privation. He now became aware that ' 
the comfort and happiness of another may sometimes sit nearer a 
man's heart than his own. Upon this occasion Sophia engrossed the 
-whole of his sympathies, but sympathy was all he had to bestow ; he 


could not moud tlio matter, and to cheat time ho indulged in the anti- 
cipation that he might i)erhaps be able to hel]) her to the cooling 
draught a little earlier than she could have procured it without his 

At last the bread and the alo arrived, and at the words " Tak your 
dinner," from the master, there was a general rush to the pitchers. 
Men and Avomen almost rolled over each other in their madness for a 
mouthful to drink. Selfishness was the ruling passion for the moment, 
and in the wish to slake their own thirst, no one either saw or heard 
his fellow. Selkirk had been fortunate iu reaching the ale among the' 
first ; he seized a jug, dashed it into the pitcher, and In-ought it away 
full. Though his own throat was like an oven, his first care was to 
discover Sophia. He fo\ind her straggling unsuccessfully to ])rocure 
some for herself, and drawing her gently back, helil it out to her, 
while his inward satisfaction displayetl itself in a smile. She could 
scarcely speak, but her look thanked him ; and in observing lier eye 
brighten as she drank, he was more than rewarded for the sacrifice he 
had made. She had not, however, more than half emptied the i)uny 
vessel, when a sudden recollection seemed to cross her, and she ofiered 
it back with what remained of its contents, imiuiring at same time 
with much solicitude in her manner, if he had got aiiy himself? 
•' Quick, quick," said he in reply to her question, " and I will get 
more." At his request thus liurriedly prefeiTcd, she drank it oft', 
though with seeming reluctance, and then sat down, observing, with 
something between a smile and a blush upon her countenance, that 
she was afraid that he had taken more care of her than of himself. 
After feasting for a moment on that feeling of satisfaction which now 
peiwaded his bosom, his first impulse was to look round to see if what 
he had done had attracted attention, for his heart shrank from the 
idea of its partiality being known, but such was the confusion and 
selfishness which prevailed, that no one had given the least heed to 
them. An opportunity was now afiTorded him, by sitting down, also, 
of being near her for an hour, a thing which had never before occurred. 
Such were his feelings on this occasion, and such was the satisfaction 
experienced at the foi'tnnate occurrence, which this entitled him to sit 
down on a stubble field beside a girl of seventeen, without either rank 
or fortune, that he believed he would not have exchanged his lot with 
the wealthiest of the land. His happiness, however, was alloyed with 
the recollection that harvest was now nearly over ; and the distance 
of Sophia's place of residence from his, fell upon his heart like a stream 
of cold water. 

For the two following days Selkii'k strove in vain to get near the 
object of his afiections ; but in spite of all his schemes, and all the arts 
he used to be beside her, some untoward accident always threw them 
asunder. At length the last of the corn was cut down ; the harvest 
was over; and it was with inexpressible feelings of regret that he felt 
himself compelled to bid farewell to his companions, as well as to her 
to whom he durst not explain the feelings with which he was animated. 
He was young — he was poor and friendless — what other coui*se covild 


lie la^^ followed ? The marriage of the penniless leads but to misery 
and self-condemnation, and he scorned to take advantage of Sophia's 
youth to try to engage her to himself, when, by being hee, she mi^ht 
accept an offer from a richer and better man. 

He returned to Lower Largo a disconsolate being; but winter 
spring, and summer came again and were past, and again the period 
of harvest returned. Most of the last year's shearers returned also • 
but Sophia ! where was she ? He would have asked, but could not ' 
At last, some one did so, and the reply was that she had gone to Dun- 
fermline with a brother, and it was reported she was shortly to be 
married. A sickness and giddiness came over Selkirk, and he sunk 
into a sort of apathetic trance. There was no external object to draw 
Jus attention from his toil, and no feeling in his bosom to triumi)h 
over the scene of weariness. His second harvest at length terminated 
but under very different feelings fi-om those formerly experienced ' 
In these circumstances, and after mature consideration, he thouo-ht 
the best course he could take was to go to sea, which he did : Tml 
after some years' service, he, in 1703, became sailing master of the 
ship Cinque Ports, bound for the South Sea, and was put ashore on 
the unmhabited island of Juan Fernandez by the brutal commander 

Here, then, was a single human being left to provide for his subsist- 
ence upon an uninhabited and uncultivated isle, far from all the 
haunts of his kind, aiid with but slender hopes of ever again minolino- 
with his fellow-creatures. Vigorous as the mind of Selkirk appears 
to have been, it sank for some days under the horrors of his situation- 
and he could do nothing but sit on his chest, and gaze in the direction 
of the receding ship, vainly hoping for its return. On partly recover- 
ing his equanimity, he found it necessary to consider the means of 
prolonging his existence. The stores which had been put ashore con- 
sisted, besides his clothing and bedding, of a firelock, a pound of "un- 
jDowder, a quantity of bullets, a flint and steel, (for there were no 
lucifer matches m those days, nor for long after), a few pounds of 
tobacco, a hatchet, a knife, a kettle, a flip-can, a bible, some books of 
devotion, and one or two on navigation, and his mathematical instru- 
ments. The island he knew contained wild goats ; but being unwil- 
ling to lose the chance of a passing sail, he preferred for a lon» time 
feeding upon shell-flsh and seals which he found upon the shore. The 
island, which is rugged and picturesque, but covered with luxuriant 
vegetation, and clothed to the tops of the hills with wood, was now 
in all the bloom and freshness of spring ; but upon our dejected 
islander its charais were spent in vain. He could onlv wander alon^ 
the beach pining for the approach of some friendly vessel, which might 
restore him under however unpleasant circumstances to the company 
and converse of human beings. 

At length the necessity of providing a shelter from the weather 
supplied him with an occupation that served in some measure to 
divert his thoughts. He built himself two huts with the wood of 
the pimento tree, and thatched them Avith the long grass which grows 
upon the island. One was to serve him as a kitchen, the other as a 


bedroom. But yot evory day, for tlie Krst oigliteeu niontlis, lio spent 
moi'e or less time on the beach watcliing for tlie appearance of a sail 
upon the horizon. At the end of that time, partly throa_i,di habit 
and jiartly throu,s,di the influence of relijfion, Avhicli here awakened in 
full force upon his mind, he became reconciled to his situation and 
circumstances. Every morning, after rising, he read a portion of 
.Scripture, sang a psalm, and prayed to Almighty God — speaking 
aloud, in order to preserve the use of his voice. He afterwards 
i-emarked, that during his residence on the island he was a better 
Christian than he had ever been before, or would probably be again. 
He at tirst lived much upon turtles, which abounded upon the 
shores, but afterwards found himself able to run down the wild goats, 
whose flesh he either i-oasted or stewed, and of which he kept a small 
stock, tamed, around his dwelling, to be used in the event of his 
being disabled by sickness. As a substitute for bread lie had turnips, 
])arsuips, and the cabbage palm-tree, all of excellent quality, and also 
radishes and waxer- cresses. Every ])hysical want being thus grati- 
fied, and his mind soothed by devotional feelings, he at length began 
positively to enjoy his existence, often lying for hours musing on his 
beloved Sophia, in the delicious bowers which he had formed for 
himself, abandoned to the most pleasing sensations. 

Selkirk was careful during his stay on the island to measure the 
lapse of time, and distinguish Sunday from the other days of the 
week. He several times saw vessels passing the island, but only two 
cast anchor beside it. Afraid of being taken by the Spaniards, who 
would have consigned him to hopeless captivity, he endeavoured to 
ascertain whether these strangers were so or not before making 
himself known. In both cases he found them enemies; and on one 
of the occasions, having aj)proached too near, he was observed and 
chased, and only escaped by running up and taking refuge in a tree. 
At length, on the last day of January 1709, four years and four 
months from the commencement of his solitary life, he had the 
unspeakable satisfaction of observing two British vessels ai)proach, 
evidently with the intention of touching at the island. The night 
having fallen before they came near, he kindled a large fire on the 
beach, to inform the strangers that a fellow-creature was there. 
During the night, hope having banished all desire of sleep, he 
employed himself in killing goats, and preparing a feast for those 
whom he expected to be his deliverers. In the moi-ning he found 
that the vessels had removed to a greater distance ; but, ere long, a 
boat left the side of one of them, and approached the shore. Selkii-k 
ran joyfully to meet his countrymen, waving a linen rag to attract 
their attention ; and having jiointed out to them a jiroper landing- 
place, soon had the satisfaction of clasping them in his arms. 

Joy at first deprived him of that imperfect power of utterance which 
solitude had left to him, and the strangers were so surprised by his 
rude habiliments, his long beard and savage appearance, as to be much 
in the same condition. But in a little they were mutually able to 
make explanations, when it appeared that the two vessels, called the 


Duke and Duchess, formed a privateering expedition under the com- 
mand of Captain Woodes Eoger. He was then brought on board the 
Duke, with his principal effects, and was engaged as a mate. 

A few weeks after leaving the island, Selkirk was appointed to the 
command of a prize which was fitted out as a privateer, and in this 
situation he conducted himself with a degree of vigour and prudence 
that reflects credit on his character. 

The business in which Alexander Selkirk was engaged was cer- 
tainly one by no means calculated to give play to the more amiable 
qualities of human nature ; but ever in the captures and expeditions 
which for months formed his cliief employment, our hero seems to 
have mingled humanity in as high a proportion as possible with the 
execution of his duty. At the beginning of the ensuing year, viz., 
1710, the vessels began their voyage across the Pacific, with the 
design of returning to England by the East Indies, and in this part 
of the enterprise Selkirk acted as sailing master ; and by his steadi- 
ness of conduct, becoming manners, and religious turn of mind, 
proved himself an acquisition to Captain Woodes Eoger, and was 
accordingly much valued by him and his officers. The ships did not 
reach Britain, however, till October 1711, when Selkirk had been 
absent for eight years from his native country, and his share of prize 
money seems then to have amounted to about £800. 

In the spring of 1712 Selkirk returned on a Sunday forenoon to 
Lower Largo, and finding that his friends were at church, went 
thither, and for some time sat eyeing them without being recognised, 
a suit of elegant gold-laced clothes perhaps helping to preserve his 
incognito. At length his mother, after gazing on him for some time, 
uttered a cry of joy, and flew to his arms. For some days he felt 
pleasure in the society of his friends, but in time began to pine for 
other scenes, his mind still reverting with regret to his lost solitude 
m his romantic island home. It would appear, indeed, that bis long 
absence from society had in some measure now unfitted him for the 
enjoyment of it. He tried solitary fishing in the beautiful bay of 
Largo, celebrated in song, built a bower like that of Juan Fernandez 
in the garden behind his brother's house, and wandered for days in 
the picturesque solitude of Kiel's Den, beneath the brow of Largo 
Law. But nothing could compensate for the meditative life which 
he had lost. 

Happening to stroll one day as far as Scoonie church, a very old 
building, which before the Reformation belonged to the priory of St. 
Andrews, and was placed in the churchyard about a quarter of a 
mile to the north of the town of Leven, Selkii-k entered the burial 
ground just before sunset, and as the twilight was beginning to fall 
over land and water. After climbing the abrupt bank to the hill 
top— for, strange enough, the burial ground still occupies the same high 
ground, with its sloping sides near the highway, as it did in Selkirk's 
time — he entered a path which led through the cemetery from angle to 
angle, winding its way w-ith careful veneration for the dead between the 
little mounds where "the rude forefathers of the village sleep." 


He giized round upon tlic headstones and tombs as he passed them 
with an air of mingled awe and curiosity, letting his step linger to a 
gi-aver i)ace, as if he was impressed with the solemnity of this city of 
the departed. He could read the inscri])tions by the soft glowing 
twilight, which cast over the white painted headstones a roseate tint, 
and lay like a smile from heaven uj>on all the scenery around. 

When he reached the summit of the eminence, he stoi)];ed and 
looked around him. The view was beautiful, and could not fail to 
command the admiration of one whose manly features evinced botli 
heart and mind. He let his eyes wander over the mellow-tinted and 
beautiful bay of Largo, Avith sundry vessels lying at anchor in its 
bosom, and the green isles of the May and Inchkeith, the blue ocean 
stretching far and wide, and the arching rainbow-coloured skies 
bending as it were to embrace it. The tine conical eminence of 
Largo Law, green to its summit, was close at hand, and the beautiful 
Lomond hills to the north, and North Berwick Law, Arthur's Seat, 
and the Peutlands across the water, were seen in the distance, while 
the bustling little town of Leven, with its thin veil of azure smoke, 
its confused hum, and its masts and vanes glittering in the harbour 
— all came within his gaze, and each in its turn awakened early 
associations, and for a time immovably fixed his observing eye. 

Selkirk was about to pass on after paying this brief tribute to 
the works of the Deity, displayed in his native locality, when his 
sight was arrested by the graceful form of a young woman. She 
was kneeling upon a grave near the path, and seemed to be plant- 
ing flowers upon it. He stood for a moment and watched her, 
hoping to obtain a glimpse of the lovely countenance Avhich he felt 
must belong to so much personal grace. She was dressed in deep 
mourning, and although she wore a veil, it was thrown back. It 
was her position that prevented him from having a view of her 
countenance. He remained stationary observing her. She was 
engaged in trimming and weeding the grave which affection had 
converted into a bed of flowers. 

At lengtli, gathering a rosebud, and placing it in her bosom, she 
rose up and met the gaze of the stranger full in the face. She 
instantly looked down, blushing with beautiful yet modest confusion, 
resuming her veil, while he stood entranced by his glimpse of her 
enchanting loveliness. 

" Pardon me," said Selkirk, " I have been rudely intruding my 
presence upon your sacred duties ; but a desire to behold the coun- 
tenance of one who was engaged in such an office of love must be 
my apology." 

" You have no occasion, sir, to make any," she answered with 
sweet propriety. " The place is open to all. I supposed, however, 
I was alone." 

" There is no head-stone to the grave, which seems to hold some 
dear friend of yours," said Selkirk. " May I ask who lies buried 

" An only brother, sir," she answered, not Tsdthout some emotion. 


" He was iu biisiuess nt Dunfermline. I was his liousekeeper, and 
he has been dead only two months. After slowly lingering for two 
years, he at length departed hence." 

" May I learn his name ?" asked Selkirk with interest. 

" Edward Brnce !" 

" Edward Bruce ! " repeated Selkirk, with surprise. " Is it possi- 
ble ? And you are his married sister Sophia." 

" His sister, certainly,'' said she, " but not " the rest was 

muttered inaudibly. 

" As it is now getting late," said Selkirk, " and you are probably 
going towards home, I will, with your permission, attend you." 

" Thank you," said she, " there is no danger near our quiet little 
town of Leven ; but if it is not leading you out of your way, I shall 
accept your courtesy." 

Selkirk was much altered in his appearance by his absence in 
warm climates, and Sophia did not know him. He wore a naval 
blue cloak thrown across his shoulder, and secured in front by a 
silver clasp in the shape of the Scots thistle. Beneath its folds was 
visible the uniform of a lieutenant, with belt and sword. He knew 
it was Sophia Bruce with whom he had become acquainted in the 
harvest-field eight years before, but he had never made any over- 
tures to her, and he had thought she was married. In the course of 
their walk, however, he ascertained that the report he had heard of 
her marriage was untrue ; and telling her who he was, and remind- 
ing her of their former acquaintance, and particularly of the hot 
day, and the happy hours which he spent in her company on the 
harvest-field, he, before parting with her at her door, respectfully 
requested liberty to call upon her and see her again, which we may 
well suppose, was not refused. 

Sophia lived in a house of her own at Leven. She had been left 
in comfortable circumstances by her brother, and had declined more 
than one advantageous offer from respectable parties, greatly to the 
surprise of her friends, but with which refusals, perhaps her early 
acquaintance with Selkirk, and his yet unfoi'gotten kindness and 
attention to her in the harvest-field, had had more to do than entered 
into those friends' philosophy. 

It is not difficult to forsee what was to be the upshot of this 
renewal of friendship between two young people, at least persons 
still in the prime of life ; and who in boy and girlhood had formed 
a romantic attachment to each other without making any declaration 
of their mutual predilection for, or coming under any actual engage- 
ment to each other. They were shortly after married, and after 
stopping at Largo for some time, they removed to London, and 
Selkirk was never more seen in Largo. 

In 1717 he once more went to sea. Nothing else is known for 
certain respecting him, except that he died in the situation of lieu- 
tenant on board the shij^ Weymouth, in the year 1723, leaving 
Sophia Bruce his widow, who afterwards realized his pati-imony at 
Largo, consisting of a house and garden. 


The house in whioli he was born is well authenticated, and remains 
in much the same primitive condition in its form as when built. 

The firelock, his clothes chest, and drinking cup used on the 
island, were brought home by him to his native village, and all of 
which the writer has seen and handled ; and, with the exception of 
the firelock,* now at Lathallan House, the seat of Mr. Lumsdaine, 
near Colinsburgh, the rest remain in the house in which he was 
born. The house, nominally at least, was formerly the property 
of Mrs. Grillies, a poor widow, and was tenanted by her ; she was the 
daughter of John Selkirk, grand-nephew of Alexander Selkirk, and 
was 80 years of age and upwards when she died, and she had been 
the mother of a large family, nine of whom preceded her to her 
long home. 

Widow G-illies was the last survivor of the family to which Selkirk 
belonged, and her circumstances were such that she was dependent 
on the benevolence of those who visited her interesting cottage, and 
the relics of her far-famed predecessor. "Visitors, it must be admitted, 
were not few ; some of them were persons of distinction ; among 
them not the least memorable was the master spirit of the north. 
Sir Walter Scott, and his publisher, Mr. Constable, the latter of 
whom, in consequence of the notices recorded respecting Selkirk in 
the parish registers, re-bound them handsomely at his own expense ; 
the upper side of each volume being inscribed — " Re bound for pre- 
servation at the expense of Archibald Constable of Balniel, 1820." 

The drinking cup, formed of a small cocoa-nut shell, having been 
the work of Alexander Selkirk, is three inches and a quarter deep 
by two and a half inches diameter. Mrs. Gillies states it had for- 
merly a silver foot and stem, but that her father had disposed of it. 
Wanting that appendage. Sir Walter and Mr. Constable took it to 
Edinburgh, where the present foot and stem of rosewood, nearly 
three inches high, were added, making the whole about half a foot 
it height. They also added the silver band or fillet that encircles 
the outside of tlie cup, bearing this inscription : — " The cup of Alex. 
Selkirk, wliilst in Juan Pernandez, 1704-9." 

The clothes chest, designated by the family in Mrs. Grillies' youth, 
" the cedar kist," from the top or lid being made of cedar wood, is 
two feet deep, eighteen inches wide, and three feet long. At one 
end is a small drawer or " locker," with a rudely ornamented lid. 
The hasp of the lock was a coarse sort of fastening, now useless. 
Upon the top of the slightly rounded lid are the letters A. S., and 
the figures 34 denoting the number of the chests on board Captain 
Woodes Rogers' ship at the time he was homeward bound; also 
four angular marks, equi-distant, all scratched with some sharp 
instrument. The contents of the chest, as may be supposed, are 
few — the drinking cup, a copy of Defoe's novel of Eobinson Crusoe, 
and the rusted key, long since past use, are all it now or lately con- 

* The veritable firelock of Robinson Crusoe was cxliibited at Elie, at a public 
exhibition of rare curiosities, in Aug-ust, 1869. 



On the 2nd of March, 1736, Andrew Wilson, in Pathhead, William 
Hall, in Edinburgh, and George Robertson, stabler, at Bristo Port, 
there, were indicted and accused at the instance of Duncan Forbes 
of Culloden, then Lord-Advocate of Scotland, before the High Couit 
of Justiciary at Edinburgh, of the crimes of stouthrief, housebreak- 
ing, and robbery, in so far as James Stark, collector of Excise in 
Kirkcaldy, being upon his circuit in collecting that revenue, and 
having along with him a considerable sum of money collected by him 
by virtue of his office, upon Friday, the 9th day of January then last, 
was at the house of Margaret Ramsay, relict of Andrew Fowler, 
excise-officer, keeper at Pittenweem ; and Andrew Wilson having 
formed a design to rob Collector Stark of the money and other effects 
he had along with him, and having taken William Hall and George 
Robertson as associates, they came together from Edinburgh that 
morning, and towards evening put up their horses in Anstruther- 
Easter, in the inn kept by James Wilson, brewer, there,* and after 
having had some deliberations ujion their intended robbery, leaving 
their horses there they went privately on foot to Pittenweem, and 
about eleven o'clock that night called at the house of Widow Fowler, 
and under the pretence of drinking, remained there until they were 
informed, or might reasonably presume Collector Stark was gone to 
bed; and about twelve that night, or one next morning, Andrew 
Wilson and William Hall, or one or other of them, did impudently 
and in defiance of law foi-cibly and with violence break the door of 
the room where Collector Stark was lying in bed, and having knocked 
out the under pannel, Collector Stark suspecting an attack upon his 
life, for his safety jumped out at a window in his shirt ; whereupon 
Andrew Wilson and William Hall, or one or other of them, entered 
the room, and did feloniously carry olf bank-notes in a pocket-book 
belonging to Collector Stark, and gold and money in his possession to 
the value of £200, less or more, and did rob and take away a pair 
of pistols, a seal, a penknife, a cloak bag, a pair of silver buckles, a 

* The inn or house here referred to, is now demolished. It was a back house 
which stood behind Mr. Thomas Foggo's shop, through which there was a passage 
or entry to it ; and from its concealed and back-lying situation it would seem to 
have been a very Hkely place for smugglers to resort to with their contraband goods. 
And here it may be remarked that less than 100 years ago, smuggUng was very pre- 
valent in the east of Fife ; almost every merchant and trader in the east coast burghs, 
and farmers from St. Andrews' district all along the south-east coast, were more or 
less concerned in the importation of Brandy, Gin, Teas, Silks, and Tobacco &c. The 
penalties at that time were only the forfeiture of the goods seized, and if one vessel's 
cargo escaped out of two or three it was a profitable trade. The measures of Govern- 
ment were then thought to be so stringent and despotic, that men of principle, of 
probity, and integrity in all other respects, manifested great obliquity of vision in 
viewing the traffic in smuggled goods, and felt no compunctious visitings in embark- 
ing in that trade. In the better class of houses in the district, hiding holes and 
places of concealment were always to be found, and some of these places are only 
now being discovered. It is not many years since, that an honest man in Pittenweem, 
while employed in his cellar, fell down into a large concealment capable of holding a 
great many ankers of spirits and boxes of tea, of which he previously knew nothing. 


hil)le, several suits of linens, and other goods belonging to Collector 
Stark and in his possession ; and when they went out of that room, 
did divide, dispose of, and distribute the gold, money, and other 
goods so robbed and taken away at their pleasure. And while the 
said Andrew Wilson and William Hall were committing the foresaid 
crimes, the said George Robertson was standing, sometimes at the 
door and sometimes at the foot of the stair of said house, as a sentinel 
and guard, with a drawn cutlass in his hand, to prevent any person 
from interfering and stopping the said violence and robbery, and 
did threaten to kill or otherwise intimidate the servants of the house 
when going towards the door of the collector's room ; and when 
several of the inhabitants alarmed by the noise, gathered together 
upon the street, and coming towards the door, inqiiired what was 
going on there, he, George Robertson, did treacherously endeavour 
to persuade them not to attemjit to enter the house, falsely affirming 
that he had tried to go up stairs, but being in danger of being shot, 
he was by fear obliged to leave the house. And in order to keep them 
still amused with his false suggestion of danger from entering the 
house, having gone along with them into the house of John Hyslop in 
Pittenweem, he detained them there for some time until he judged 
that his associates might have made their escape with their spoil ; and 
soon afterwards William Hall was seized in the street of Anstruther- 
Easter, between twelve and one next morning, being Saturday the 
10th January, having several of the goods and a purse of gold so robbed 
in his possession, which he dropped and endeavoured to conceal. And 
they, Andrew Wilson and George Robertson, having met some short 
time afterwards in the house of said James Wilson in Anstruther- 
Easter, where they were informed that the house was beset, conscious 
of their own guilt, they, one or other of them, did deliver to said 
James Wilson the seal, the penknife, the pair of buckles, some 
money, and other things robbed, telling that if they were found in 
their possession they would be hanged or undone, or words to that 
purpose, expressing an apprehension of the utmost danger; and imme- 
diately thereafter got into bed, as if they had lain all night asleep, 
where both were apprehended, and upon the top of which bed were 
found the bank notes robbed from Collector Stark, and his pocket- 
book above another bed in another room of the house, &c. Where- 
fore, on these crimes being confessed or proven, the parties ought to 
be most severely and exem2jlarily punished with the j^ains of law, in 
terror of others committing the like in time coming. 

The indictment to the foregoing effect was read — the case debated 
and the Lords ordered both parties to give in informations. 

On the 19th March 1736, the Lords found the libel relevant — but 
allowed George Robertson a proof, with respect to his behaviour at the 
time stated, for taking olf the circumstances tending to infer his being 
accessory, or art and pai-t of the crimes libelled. 

A jury was empanneled, and the trial proceeded. To give even 
notes of the depositions on both sides would exceed our limits. We 
shall therefore merely select the evidence of two or three witnesses, 

whose statements will serve to form a continuation of our narrative 
and pass over the remainder as unnecessary for our puniose. 

The first we shall adduce is the collector, the individual robbed. 

James Stark, collector of excise, Kirkcaldy, aged forty-nine years or 
thereby, married, solemnly sworn, purged of malice, partial counsel, 
examined and interrogated, depones time and place libelled— the 
deponent being then upon his collection as collector of excise. He 
went to bed about ten o'clock, and about an hour and a-half thereaf- 
ter, he was waked out of sleep by a noise and some chapping at the 
door of the room where he lay— which door he had secured before he 
went to bed by screwing down the sneck of the door— which noise the 
deponent at first imagined was occasioned by some drunken people in 
the house ; but afterwards, upon the strokes on the door being 
repeated with violence, the deponent jumped out of his bed, and heard 
the under part of the door of the bed-room giving way, upon which 
the deponent laid hold upon two bags of money, which, with the 
deponent's breeches, in which were about £100 in gold, and bank 
notes and silver, the deponent had put below his head when he went 
to bed ; and the deponent did then, in the confusion in which he was, 
put the table and some chairs to the back of the door to stop the gap, 
and thereafter opened the window, and returning to find the bags of 
money and his breeches, he could only find one of the bags of money, 
and being in fear of his life, he jumped out at the window with one of 
the bags of money, and fell at the foot of the stair, the said window 
being just above the entry to the house, and recovering himself a little, 
he went towards the corn-yard, and hearing a person call out " Hold 
him," the deponent apprehending the voice to be before him, he 
returnecl a few paces, and then perceiving a man standing or walking 
at the foot of the stair, the deponent returned again to the yard, where 
he hid the bag of money, and thereafter coming back towards the 
house to hear what was a-doing, the deponent heard a knocking in the 
room where he had been lodged, and thereupon retired to the yard 
again — lay covered with some straw till about four in the morning— 
and then returning to the house saw the panel, William Hall,' in 
custody of some soldiers; and the deponent having said to him that he 
had given him a cold bath that night, William Hall answered that he 
was not to blame, being only hired, and had no hand in it, but that 
Andrew Wilson and George Robertson had come there of a design to 
rob the deponent that night, and that this design had been formed 
several months before by Andrew Wilson, and particularly at the 
preceding collection at Elie ; and further depones that soon after the 
deponent got out of the window as aforesaid, he heard the clock strike 
twelve ; that when the deponent was first awakened out of his sleep 
as aforesaid, he heard Mrs. Fowler, the landlady, call to the persons 
who were breaking open the deponent's bed-room, "What are 
ye doing?" or "Why do ye this?" and the deponent heard 
them at ^ the same time cursing and sweaiing and making a 
great noise ; and the deponent having only carried one %ag 
of money along with him as aforesaid, he left in said bed- 



room the money and ^oods following, viz., tlie deponent's hreeclies, 
which was a jmrse with tifty-two and a-half guineas, betwixt six and 
seven pounds in silver, and a pocket-book with one and forty pounds 
in bank notes, which purse and pocket-book the deponent exhibits in 
court ; that besiiles the bank notes, there were several bills and other 
papers in the pocket-book, and that there were likewise in the dispo- 
nent's breeches, a seal, a pair of silver shoe-buckles, and a penknife, 
which the deponent likewise exhibits ; the deponent likewise left iu 
his room a cloak-bag with some linens in it, which cloak-bag the 
deponent likewise exhibits in court ; as also a bible, a pair of pistols, 
which the deponent likewise exhibits ; that upon the deponent return- 
ing to his room as aforesaid, he found the door of the room broken 
up, and saw a press in the room which had been broken uj), and found 
Lis breeches empty and all the several particulars above enumerated 
amissiug ; and thereafter, about seven o'clock in the morning, the 
deponent having gone to Anstruther-Easter, he soon thereafter saw 
the three ])auels in custody ; and the deponent did then see in the 
hands of the magistrates of Anstruther, the seal, the buckles, and the 
penknife above mentioned; depones that upon Monday following, 
being the 12th of January last, William Hall, panel, told the depo- 
nent that he had informed Alexander Clerk, suj^ervisor of excise, 
where the purse of gold was to be found, whereui)on the di'i)onent 
desired the supervisor to go in quest of it, which he did, and having 
found it, he restored it to the deponent with the whole gold in it; and 
that the bible was returned to the deponent by one of the soldiers who 
apprehended Hall ; that on Saturday night the 10th of January, the 
deponent got back his pocket-book and bank-notes, with the other 
papers in the said pocket-book, from Bailie Robert Brown in Anstru- 
ther-Easter. Causa scientits patet. And this is truth, as he shall 
answer to God. (Signed) James Stark ; Andrew Fletcher. 

Alexander Clerk, supervisor of excise at Cupar-Fife, being solemnly 
sworn, and depones time and place libelled, the deponent was lodged 
in the room next to Collector Stark, and went to bed aljout ten, and 
was wakened about twelve by persons rapping either at his door or 
that of the collector's; and heard a cry of " Murder the dogs and burn 
the house!" upon which the deponent swore that the first man that 
came in he would put a pair of balls in him. The deponent then put 
on some of his clothes and got out at a window at the backside of the 
house,* and walked to Anstruther, about a mile, and awakened the 
sergeant who commanded a small party of soldiers there, and with the 
sergeant and two of the soldiers set out for Pittenweem, and left 
orders for the rest of the party to follow as soon as possible. As they 
passed the entry to Sir John Anstruther's house in Easter Anstruther,t 
they met with some men who having challenged the deponent, "Who 

* The window referred to is still pointed out. It is that at the back of the house 
on the second storey, and is near the north-east comer of the tenement. 

t Anstruther House, which stood near where the Clydesdale Bank office now 
stands, was demolished in 1811. According to Miss Strickland Qneen Mary passed 
a night in it ; and it is a well established fact that King Charles II. lodged a night 
there in 1651. 


comes there'?" the deponent desired them to give an account of them- 
selves, and upon their running off, the deponent ordered the soldiers 
to seize them, upon which the sergeant with his halbert hooked one of 
them, the rest escaping, which afterwards proved to be William Hall, 
one of the panels, and whom the deponent carried along with him to 
the excise office at Pittenweem, and having brought him into the house 
of Mrs. Powler, Jean Finlaj, servant to Mrs. Fowler, upon seeing 
the said Hall, said, "This is the villain that broke my head a 
little while ago ;" and Thomas Durkie, another servant in the 
house, said, " This is one of the persons who robbed the collec- 
tor the night ;" and the soldiers who brought Hall produced a 
bag of linen and a bible, which they said they had taken up as Hall 
had dropped them by the way ; and William Geddes, clerk to the 
collector, did then say, "This is the collector's bible, and there are his 
linens," whereupon Hall confessed that he had been guilty of robbing 
the collector ; and the deponent thereupon telling Hall that he was 
now in for it, and that the best way for him was to discover the rest, 
which, if he would do, the deponent would do his endeavours to get 
him made an evidence, and having then asked if he promised to get 
him a pardon 1 depones that he understood it so, but does not remeni- 
ber that he used the word 2)a7-don; upon which Hall told deponent he 
would get these other persons whom he named; remembers particu- 
larly that he named Andrew Wilson, panel, to have been one of them. 
That they had come upon four horses that rooming from Kinghorn, 
and that he would find them all in the house of James Wilson in 
Anstruther-Easter, or oa a house twenty yards on this side of it, which 
the deponent understood to be Bailie Andrew Johnston's.* By this 
time the rest of the party having come uj) from Austruther, the de- 
ponent made some search for the collector, but could not find him, 
and thereafter the deponent carried up Hall to the room where the 
collector had lodged, the door of which he saw broken in the under 
part, and left Hall prisoner there in custody of some of the soldiers 
and the rest of the party, and Thomas Durkie and William Geddes. 
The deponent then went east to Anstruther in search of the rest of 
the robbers, and having surrounded tlie house of James Wilson there, 
he found three men in a room there, viz., Andrew Wilson and George 
Robertson, panels, ana one John Friar, and having shown them to the 
above Thomas Durkie, he declared that they Avere two of the persons 
who had robbed the collector ; upon which the deponent having ap- 
plied to Bailies Kobert Brown and Philip Millar, both in Anstruther- 
Easter, he got the accused committed to prison ; and further depones 
that as the panels were being carried prisoners to Edinburgh, and 
while tliey were halting at Kirkcaldy, the deponent asked George 
Robertson, panel, what was become of the collector's purse of gold, 
George answered that Andrew Wilson, the other panel, told him that 
William Hall got the purse ; upon which the deponent inquired at 

*_ Bailie Jolinston's house was that now occupied by Captain Key, with the brewefy 
behind the same. It was formerly a house of one storey, and was rebuilt and 
heightened on the walls by the late Mr James Roger, or Mr David Roger his son. 


Hall about it, and lulded tliat luiless lie confessed and discovered wlieic 
the purse was, lie could not expect that the promises made woxdd be 
ke]it to him ; when after some entreaty Hall told deponent that he 
had dropped it upon being seized in a wet furr near a dung-hill, and 
accordingly the deponent went back to Pittonweem, aiul upon applica- 
tion to Bailie Andrew Fowler, of Pittenweem, and in his i)resencethe 
jiurse was found near to a dung-hill between Anstruther- Wester and 
Pittenweem, in the spot described by Hall, with tifty two guineas and 
a-half in it, which pui'se and gold was given to the deponent, and the 
purse exhibited in court being shown to him, he thinks it is the very 
same purse. And all this is truth, as he shall answer God. (Signed) 
Alexander Clerk ; Andrew Fletcher. 

John Galloway, servant to Patrick Galloway, horse-hirer in King- 
horn, a^ed twenty-six, depones chat at the time libelled, William Hall 
came to the deponent's master's house in Kinghorn, and desired him 
to get two horses, one for himself and one for the deponent, telling 
him that they were going to Anstruther to get some brandy; and 
that George Robertson and Andrew Wilson were to be their 
masters and pay their expenses ; and desired him to go to the 
houses where they then were. The deponent having gone accord- 
ingly, and spoken to the said persons. George Robertson desired 
to get their horses ready, and Hall and the deponent to go 
before and they would overtake them ; that about six o'clock 
at night they came to Anstruther-Easter, and set up their horses 
in James Wilson's house, whei-e he found Andrew Wilson before 
him ; and after they put up their horses they went to Andrew 
Johnston's there, where they found Robertson and Wilson drinking 
punch. Depones that the three panels and the deponent w^ent from 
Anstruther to Pittenweem on foot, between ten and eleven o'clock 
at night. Depones that when they came to Pittenweem, he (the 
deponent), Hall, and Wilson went into a house, but does not know 
the name of the landlord, where they drank a bottle of ale, and it was 
agreed while they were there that Robertson and the other panel 
should walk on the street ; that when they came out of that house, 
the three panels and the deponent went to Widow Fowler's house, 
where they drank some ale and brandy. Andrew Wilson having 
asked the landlady if she could lodge any casks of brandy for him, 
she desired him to speak low, because the collector was in the house; 
upon which Wilson said. Is he here? She answered, he was. Robert- 
son, the panel, called for a reckoning, and all four went down stairs, 
at least went to the stair-head. Robertson, Hall, and the deponent 
went out to the street, and as the maid was going to shut the outer 
door, Andrew Wilson pushed it open and went in, upon which the 
deponent and William Hall went in also ; and George Robertson 
drew his cutlas and stood at the outer door, saying that no person 
should go out or in of that house but upon the point of that weapon. 
Depones when they went into the house they saw Andrew Wilson 
standing at the door of the room where the collector was lodged, and 
the lower part of the door broken ; that upon seeing the door broken, 


he, the deponent, asked Wilson what he meant 1 or what he woukl be 
at 1 to which Wilson answered, that he had lost a great deal of money, 
and understood that there was some of it there, and was resolved to 
have it back again ; upon which the deponent said to him that he 
would have nothing to do in the matter. Depones that after the 
door of the collector's room was broken open as aforesaid, Andrew 
Wilson went into the room, and brought out a pair of breeches, and 
showing them to the deponent, said, " Here is a good deal of money ;" 
the deponent telling him that he would have nothing to do with it, 
the said Andrew took out several handfuls of money, and put it into 
the deponent's pocket ; which money, excei)t a few shillings, the 
deponent delivered back to the said Andrew Wilson in the house of 
James Wilson in Anstruther. Depones that Andrew Wilson went 
again into the room, and brought out a cloak-bag, which lie desired 
the deponent to carry, which he refused to do. The said Andrew 
then carried the cloak-bag himself, till they came to the end of the 
town, together with a pair of pistols, which he then delivered to 
William Hall, who carried it half way to Anstruther, and then 
Andrew Wilson desired Hall to set it down, that they might see if 
there were any bank-notes in it ; and Hall, having opened the cloak- 
bag, took out some linens and a bible, which he stowed about him- 
self. That at the same time he saw Andrew Wilson take out of his 
pocket the pocket-book, out of which he took several bank-notes, and 
put in his pocket, and then threw the pocket-book on the floor. 
Depones that Andrew Wilson and the deponent went out of Wilson's 
house, and threw one of the pistols and some linens which they had 
brought from Pittenweem in among some straw in a barn-yard ; 
thereafter the deponent, Bailie Thomas Brown, Anstruther-Easter, 
and some soldiers, went to the place where the cloak-bag was left, 
and to the barn-yard where the pistols and linen were thrown, 
where they were all found. Being further examined, depones 
that as Wilson and Hall and the deponent were on the road 
from Pittenweem to Anstruther, a little to the west of Sir John 
Anstr-uther's house, they met Mr. Clerk, the supervisor, and some 
soldiers, who, having challenged him who they were, one of the 
soldiers seized Hall with his halbert, upon which Andrew Wilson and 
the deponent made their escape. Depones that the cutlass now 
produced is the same that George Robertson had in his hand at 
Widow Fowler's house. Causa sciential patet. And this is truth, as 
he shall answer to God, and depones he cannot write. (Signed) James 

Upon the indictment against the panels being read in court, they all 
pled "Not guilty," and certain defences were otfiered to them. 

And first, in opposition to what the indictment alleged with regard 
to Andrew Wilson having formed a design to rob Collector Stark, 
and having taken Hall and Robertson, his associates, from Edinburgh 
that morning, it was stated that they did not set out from Edinburgh 
in company, but met upon the water in the passage between Leith and 
Kinghorn, where two of them, Wilson and Hall, were passing in a 



yawl, and Robertson was croRsini^ in a passage boat ; that instead of 
leaving Edinburgh and going to tlie East Neuk on the criminal design 
libelled, they had each of them lawful business in that part of the 
country, viz., for buying goods in whicli they ordinarily dealt, and 
which it Avas neither criminal nor cai)ital to buy and sell; and parti- 
cularly George Robertson, who kept an inn near Bristo Port in 
Edinburgh, where the Newcastle carriers commonly put up; that 
having occasion to buy liquors in the east of Fife, he agi-eed to take 
share of a cargo with Andrew Wilson, and with that view got a 
letter of credit from Francis Russell, druggist, addressed to Bailie 
Andrew Waddell, Cellardyke, for the value of £50 sterling; and 
further, he carried with him an accepted bill of John Fullerton in 
Causeyside, to the like extent, as a fund of credit for the goods he 
might buy ; and William Hall, the third panel, was a poor workman 
in Edinburgh, commonly attending the weigh-house, who was carried 
along to take care of and fetch home the goods ; that accordingly, as 
soon as they came to Anstruther, and put up their horses at James 
Wilson's, they went to a respectable man, Bailie Johnston, and bought 
goods to the value of £46 10s., and whilst making the bargain tliey 
drank some quantity of liquor ; that after this, not finding at An. 
strnther all the sorts of liquor they wanted to purchase, they went on 

foot to Pittenweem, when they first went to the house of Drum- 

mond, another respectable merchant, and drank some time with him, 
desiring to buy some brandy of him, but he told them he could not 
furnish them at that time ; that after this the panels went into the 
house of Widow Fowler, where, calling for a room, they were shown 
into the kitchen, and inquired at the landlady if she could furnish 
them any place for lodging the goods they had bought, and there they 
drank both ale and jiunch, till, with Avhat they had got before at 
different places, they became all very drunk ; that at this place it was 
told by the landlady or servants, in conversation, that there was money 
to a considerable value in the next room, and if any part of the focts 
libelled were committed by the panels, Wilson and Hall, it must have 
been done upon occasion of this purely accidental information, when 
they were insane from strong drink : it was more like a drunken 
frolic than a preconcerted robbery. Asa further evidence of this ftict, 
it appeared by the libel itself that they acted like persons in such a 
condition ; for they, as well as the other panel Robertson, were all 
seized in an hour or two thereafter, before the efi:ects of the liquor 
had worn ofl:', and before they had time to come to themselves, and 
without any of them taking the most rational and obvious measures 
to make their escape. 

As to the case of George Robei-tson, it is not said that the inhabi- 
tants gathered together upon the streets, came there to save or 
i-escue what was contained in the room ; on the contrary, it was 
admitted on debate that the inhabitants of small coast towns are not 
very ready on these occasions to lend their assistance to the ofiicers of 
justice ; and if George Robertson had truly said to the person whom 
he met on the street that he was by fear obliged to leave the house, 


it miglit very possibly liave been true, and au argument of his inno- 
cence, and therefore ought not to be turned into a circumstance of 
his guilt. 

Our space will not admit of further argument. Suffice it to say 
that the jury unanimously found Andrew Wilson and William Hall 
guilty, and George Robertson art and part on the crime libelled ; ard 
the Lords of Justiciary passed sentence of death on all three, which 
sentence they appointed to be executed on Wednesday the 14th of 
April 1736. 

Leaving the criminals in the condemned cells, where they are to 
remain five weeks before being executed, let us, in the meanwhile, in 
order to the better understanding the case, and forming a clearer 
opinion in reference to the nature and origin of the Porteous mob — 
one of the most extraordinary events recorded in history, and which 
arose out of the trial and sentence against Andrew Wilson and the 
others before narrated — let us endeavour to give a brief sketch of Mr. 
Porteous' history, from his birth till the time of which we write, 
namely, the recording of the sentence of death against Wilson and his 

John Porteous, one of the captains of the Edinburgh City Guard, 
was son of Stephen Porteous, a tailor in Canongate. The father held 
a fair character, and was esteemed a good honest man in the whole 
conduct of his life, his greatest misfortune was his having such a son 
as John. 

The father early discovered in his son a perverseness of nature, and 
a proneness to commit mischievous and more than childish tricks. 
The mother, out of a blind affection for her child, took them all for 
growing proofs of spirit and manliness, and as marks of an extraor- 
dinary and sprightly genius. 

Thus the family were divided upon the education of the son, and 
from being often thwarted in his measures about him, the father lost 
his authoi-ity, and for the peace of his family winked at the faults 
which the good man saw it his duty to correct. The loss of parental 
authority begot want of filial regard, so that the boy, shooting up 
with these vicious habits and disregard of the father, advanced from 
reproaches and curses to blows, whenever the unfortunate old man 
ventured to remonstrate against the folly and madness of his son's 

The mother saw, when it was too late, what her misguided affection 
had pi'oduced, and how to her fond love in childhood the man made 
the base return of threatening language and the utmost disregai-d ; 
for he proved too hard for both father and mother at last. 

The father having a good business, wanted John to learn his trade 
of a tailor, both because it was easiest and cheapest for the old man, 
and a sure source of good living for the son, whether he began busi- 
ness for himself or waited to succeed the father after his death ; but 
as he grew up his evil habits increased, and at last when checked by 
his father in his mad career, he almost put the good old man to death 
by maltreatment. 


At last, pvovoked beyond all eiulunmce, tho father resolved to i-id 
himself of him by sending him out of the country, and managed to 
get him engaged to serve in the army under the command of Brigadier 

While in Flanders, ho savv, in passing along with one of his brother 
soldiers, a hen at a little distance covering her chickens under her 
wings, and out of ])ure wanton and malicious mischief he lireil his 
musket and shot the hen. The poor woman to whom it belonged, 
startled by the shot, went out and saw her hen dead ; and following 
the young soldier, asked him to pay the price of the hen and chickens, 
for both were lost to her, and they formed a great part of her means 
of subsistence ; but the unfeeling youth would not give her a fixrthing 
— threatening if she annoyed him he would send her after her hen ; 
upon which the injui-ed old women predicted, "that as many people 
would one day gaze in wonder on his lifeless body as that hen had 
feathers on hers." 

Young Porteous afterwards left the army and returned to London, 
where he wrought for some time as a journeyman tailor ; but his evil 
habits brought him to poverty, and he was found in rags by a friend 
of his father's, who wrote to the old man to remit £10 to clothe him 
and defray his travelling charges to Edinburgh, which, moved by the 
compassion of a father he. did ; and when John appeared, the kind- 
hearted old man received him with tears of joy, and embraced him 
with all the warmth of i)aternal affection. Vainly hoping that his 
sou was a reformed man, he gave up his business to him, and agreed 
that he should only have a room in the house, and his maintenance 
and clothes. 

Young Porteous, thus possessed of the house and trade of his father, 
and of all his other goods and effects, began by degrees to neglect and 
maltreat the old man, first, by refusing him a fire in his room in the 
middle of winter, and even grudging him the benefit of the fire in the 
kitchen. In addition to this, he disallo'/zed him a sufiiciency of 
victuals, so that he was in danger of being starved to death with cold 
and hunger. In this unhappy condition he applied for admission into 
the Trinity Hospital. 

John Porteous having been for some time in the army, and being 
known to be possessed of no small courage and daring, was selected 
by John Campbell, Lord Provost of Edinburgh, in the memorable year 
1715, to be drill-sergeant of the citj^ -guard, as it became necessary to 
have the guard well disciiilined and made as efiective as possible in 
that eventful period, for the support of the government and the pro- 
tection of Edinburgh. In this office he discharged his duty remark- 
ably well, and was often sent for by the Lord Provost to report what 
progress his men made in military discipline. This gave him an 
opportunity of meeting sometimes with a gentlewoman who had the 
charge of the Lord Provost's house and family, with whom he fell 
deeply in love ; after paying his addresses for some time, and pro- 
posing to her, he was accepted, and they were married. From a 
-"T-n.teful sense of her services, as well as from a conviction of Porteous's 


ability for the office, the Lord Provost proposed that John Porteous 
should be elected one of the captains of the city-guard, and it was 
agreed to. 

This was a situation of trust and respectability, and would have 
enabled the young couple to live in comfort and ease if the husband 
had conducted himself properly. The gentlewoman was a person of 
virtue and merit, but was unlucky in her choice of a husband — 
Porteous was no better a husband than he had been a son. They 
were not long married when he began to ill-use her. He di-agged 
her out of bed by the hair of the head, and beat her to the effusion 
of blood. The whole neighbourhood were alarmed sometimes at mid- 
night by her shrieks and cries ; so much so, indeed, that a lady living 
above them was obliged, between terms, to take a lodging elsewhere 
for her own quiet. Mrs. Porteous was obliged to separate from her 
husband, and this was her requital for having been the occasion of 
his advancement. 

His command of the city-guard gave him great opportunities of 
displaying his evil temper, and manifesting his ungovernable passions. 
Seldom a day passed but some of his men experienced his severity. 
The mob on all public occasions excited his naturally bad temper j 
and on all days of i^ejoicing, when there was a multitude from the 
country as well as from the town, the people were sure to experience 
otfeusive and tyrannical treatment from him. The hatred and terror 
of liim increased every year, and his character as an immoral man 
was known to everybody, so that he was universally hated and feared 
by the lower orders both in town and country. 

This was the position in which Captain Porteous stood with the 
people when he was called upon to take charge of the execution of 
the law in reference to Andrew Wilson, whose case it had been 
thought proper to detail before proceeding to narrate the extraor- 
dinaiy events that followed, and which, indeed, partly serves to 
explain the cause of these events. 

We have stated that Andrew Wilson, Greorge Robertson, and 
William Hall, were condemned by the High Court of Justiciary to 
die on AVeduesday, the 14th of April, 1736. Hall was reprieved, 
but Wilson and Robertson were left to sutler the extreme penalty 
of the law. A plan was concocted to enable them to escape out of 
the Tolbooth, by sawing the iron bars of the window ; but AVilson, 
who is described as a " round, squat man," stuck fast, and before he 
could be disentangled, the guard were alarmed. It is said that 
Robertson wished to attempt first the escape, and there is little 
doubt he would have succeeded, but he was prevented by Wilson, 
who obstinately resolved that he himself should hazard the experi- 
ment. This circumstance seems to have operated powerfully on 
the mind of the criminal, who now accused himself as the more im- 
mediate cause of his companion's fate. The Tolbooth stood near 
to St. Griles' Church ; it was customary at that time for criminals 
to be conducted on the last Sunday they had to live to church to 
hear their last sermon preached, and, in accordance with this prac- 


ticc, AVilscm aud Eobcrtson were, upon Sunday llio lltli of April, 
carried from prison to the place of worship. Thej were iiot well 
settled there, wlien AVilson boldly attempted to break out, by 
wrenchin^r himself out of the hands of the four armed soldiers, 
riudini? himself disappointed in this, his next care was to employ 
the soldiers till Eobertson should escape ; this he cflccted by secur- 
ing two of them in his arms, and after calling out, " Bun, Grordie, 
run for your life! " snatched hold of a tliird with his teeth. There- 
upon Eobertson, after tripping up the heels of the fourth soldier, 
jumped out of the pew, and ran over the seats with incredible agility, 
the audience opening a way for him sufficient to receive them both ; 
in hurrying out at the south gate of the church, he stumbled over 
the collection money. Thence he reeled and staggered through the 
Parliament Close, and got down the back stairs, which have now 
disappeared, often stumlding by the way, and thus got into the 
Cowgate, some of the town-guard being close after him. He crossed 
the Cowgate, ran up the Horse Wynd, aud proceeded along the 
Potterrow, the crowd all the way covering his retreat, and by this 
time become so numerous, that \t was dangerous for the guard to 
look after him. In the Horse A^^■nd there was a horse saddled, 
which he Avould have mounted, but was prevented by the owner. 
Passing the Crosscauseway, he got into the King's Park, and tf»ok 
the Duddingstone road, biit seeing two soldiers walking that way, 
he jumped the dyke and made for Clear Burn. On coming there, 
hearing a noise about the liouse, he stopt short, and, repassing the 
dyke, he retook the route for Duddingstone, under the rocks. 
When he crossed the dyke at Duddingstone, he fainted away ; but 
after receiving some refreshment, the first he had tasted for three 
days, he passed out of town, and, soon after getting a horse, he rode 
oft", and was not afterwards heard of, notsvithstauding a diligent 

Upon Eobertson's getting out of the church door, Wilson was 
immediately carried out without hearing sermon, and put in close 
confinement to prevent his escape, which the audience seemed much 
inclined to favour. 

Not^^-ithstanding his surprising escape, Eobertson came back about 
a fortnight afterwards, and called at a certain house in the neigh- 
bourhoo^d of Edinburgh. Being talked to by the landlord touching 
the risk he ran by his^ imprudence, and told that, if caught, he would 
puffer unpitied as a madman, he answered, that as he thought him- 
self indispensably bound to pay the last duties to his beloved friend, 
Andrew Wilson, he had been hitherto detained in the country, but 
that he was determined to steer another course soon. He was 
resolved, however, not to be hanged, pointing to some weapons he 
had about him. 

It was sti-ongly surmised that plots were laid for favouring 
Wilson's escape. It was well known that no blood had been shed 
at the robbery ; that all the money and effects had been recovered, 
except a mere trifle ; that Wilson had sTifiered severely in the 


seizure of liis goods on several occasions by the revenue o fficers ; 
and that, however erroneous tlie idea, he thought himself justified 
in making reprisals. Besides, Wilson's conduct had excited a very 
great symi:)athy in his favour ; and the crime for which he was con- 
demned was considered very venial at that time by the pojnilace, 
who hated the malt tax, and saw no more harm in smuggling, or in 
robbing a collector of excise, than any matter of trifling importance. 
The magistrates of Edinburgh, in order to defeat all attempts at a 
rescue, lodged the executioner the day previous in the Tolbooth, to 
prevent his being carried off ; the sentinels were doubled outside 
the prison ; the officers of the trained bands were ordered to attend 
the execution, likewise the city constables with their batons ; the 
whole city-guard having ammunition distributed to them, were 
marched to the place of execution with screwed bayonets, and, to 
make all sure, at the desire of the Lord Provost, a battalion of the 
Welsh Fusiliers, commanded by commissioned officers, marched up 
the streets of thecity, and took up a position on each side of the 
Lawnmarket ; whilst another body of that corps was placed under 
arms at the Canongate guard. A little before two o'clock, Porteous 
came to receive Wilson, the prisoner, from the captain of the city 
prison. He was in a terrible rage, first against AYilson, who had 
affronted his soldiers, and next against the mob, who were charmed 
with Wilson's generous action in the church, and had favoured 
Eobertson's escape. They are always on the side of humanity and 
mercy, unless they are engaged themselves. Porteous was also 
infuriated because the Welsh Fusiliers had been brought to the 
Canongate, as if he and his guard had not been sufficient to keep 
down any riot within the city. The manacles were too little for 
Wilson's wrists, who was a strong, powerful man ; when the hang- 
man could not make them meet, Porteous flew furiously to them, 
and squeezed the poor man, who cried piteously during the opera- 
tion, till he got them to meet, to the exquisite torture of the miser 
able prisoner, who told him he could not entertain one serious 
thought, so necessary to one in his condition, under such intolera- 
ble pain. " No matter," said Porteous, " your torment will soon be 
at an end." " Well," said Wilson, "you know not how soon you 
may be placed in my condition; Grod Almighty forgive you as 
I do." 

This cruel conduct of Porteous' still more embittered the minds 
of the populace, who were sufficiently exasperated against him 
before, and the report of it was soon spread over town and country. 
Porteous conducted Wilson to the gallows, where he died very 
penitent, but expressing more sorrow on account of the common 
frailties of life, than the crime for which he suftered. His body was 
given to his friends, who carried it over to Pathhead in Fife, where 
it was interred ; Greorge Eobertson having, as we have seen, rashly 
attended the funeral before going abroad. 

Duringthe melancholy procession of the criminal and his guard, 
accompanied by the magistrates, ministers, and others from the Old 


Tolbooth, which stood iii the Lawnmarket, to tlic sf-afTold, wliicli 
was phiced In the Grrassmarket, there was not the slightest a|)pear- 
auee of a riot, nor after Wilson had been suspended, until life waa 
extinct, did the least manifestation of the disturbance occur on the 
part of a vast crowd of people collected from town and country to 
witness the execution. The magistrates of Edinburgh liad retired 
from the scaffold to a house close by — concluding, with reason, that 
as all was over with poor Wilson, no disturbance could then happen, 
and the executioner was actually on the top of the ladder, cutting 
Wilson down, Avhen a few idle men and boys began to throw peb- 
bles, stones, or garbage at him (a common practice at that time,) 
thinking he was treating the all'air rather ludicrously ; whereupon 
Captain Porteous, wdio was in very bad humour, became highly 
incensed, and instantly resented, by commanding the city-guard, 
without the slightest authority from the magistrates, and without 
reading the riot act or proclamation according to law, to fire their 
muskets, loaded with ball, and by firing his OAvn fuzee among the 
crowd, by which four persons were killed on the spot, and eleven 
wounded, many of them dangerously, who afterwards died. The 
magistrates, ministers, and constables, who had retired to the first 
storey of a house fronting the street, were themselves in danger of 
being killed, a ball, as was discovered afterwards having grazed the 
side of the w^indow where they stood. The. Lord Provost and 
magistrates immediately convened, and ordered 'Captain Porteous 
to be apprehended and brought before them for examination ; after 
taking a precognition, his lordship committed Porteous to close im- 
prisonment for trial for the crime of murder ; and, next day, fifteen 
sentinels of the guard were also committed to prison, it clearly 
appearing after a careful examination of the firelocks of the party, 
that they were the persons who had discharged their pieces among 
the crowd. 

On the 25th of March 1736, Captain Porteous was put on trial, 
at the instance of the lord-advocate of Scotland, before the High 
Court of Justiciary, for the murder of Charles Husband, and twelve 
other persons, on the 14th of April preceding, being the day of the 
execution of Andrew Wilson ; and after sundry steps of procedure, 
having been found, by the unanimous voice of the jury, guilty, lie 
was, on the 20th of July following, sentenced to sufier death in the 
Grassmarket of Edinburgh, on Wednesday the 8th of Septembei', in 
the same year — that was, about five months after Wilson's execution. 

On the 2Gth of August, the Duke of Newx-astle, one uf the Secre- 
taries of State, wrote a letter to the right honourable the lord justice- 
general, justice-clerk, and otjier lords of justiciary, of which the 
following is a copy : — " My lords, application having been made to 
her Majesty * in the behalf of John Porteous, late captain-lieutenant 
of the city -guard of Edinburgh, a prisoner under sentence of death in 
the gaol of that city, I am commanded to signify to your lordships 

* This was Queen Caroline, who was regent of the kingdom during the absence of 
her husband, George the First, at Hanover. 


Tier Majesty's pleasure, tliat the execution of the sentence pronounced 
against the said John Porteous be respited for six weeks from the 
time appointed for his execution. I am, my lords, your lordships' 
most obedient humble servant, (Signed) Holies, Newcastle." 

On I'eceipt of this letter, the lords of justiciary granted warrant to 
the magistrates of Edinburgh for stopping the execution of Porteous 
till the 20th day of October following. 

The effect of this respite on the minds of the people of Scotland 
was to induce the belief that the government did not intend to carry 
out the sentence of death against Porteous at all — that it was merely 
a preliminary step to his pardon and liberation — and that, so far from 
condemning him, the government had rather taken up a prejudice 
against the town of Edinburgh, on account of the proceedings, and 
in some measure against all Scotland. A number of persons, there- 
fore, who were never discovered, resolved to take the matter into 
their own hands, and on the 7th of September 1736, a body of stran- 
gers, supposed to be from the counties of Fife, Stirling, Perth, and 
Dumfries, many of them landed gentlemen, entered the West Port of 
Edinburgh between nine and ten o'clock at night, and having seized 
the Portbburgh drummer by the way, brought along his drum with 
them, and his son. Some of them advancing up into the Grassraarket, 
commanded the drummer's son to beat to ai"ms. They then called 
out, " Here ! all. those who dare to avenge innocent blood ! " This 
probably was a signal for their associates to fall in. It was followed 
by instantly shutting up the gates of the city, posting guards at each, 
and flying sentinels at all places where a surpise might be expected, 
while a separate detachment threw themselves upon and disarmed the 
city-guai'd ; and seizing the drum, beat ;ibout the High Street to 
notify their success so far at least. At that instant, a body of them 
proceeded to the Tolbooth, called for the keeper, and finding he was 
gone, fell a-breaking the door with fore-hammers ; but making no 
great progress in that way, they got together a parcel of dried broom, 
whins, and other combustibles, and heaps of timber, and a barrel of 
pitch, all pi'eviously provided for the purpose, and taking the flam- 
beaux or torches from the city ofiicers, they set fire to the pile. When 
the magistrates appeared, they repulsed them with showers of stones, 
and threatened, if they continued in the streets and offered resistance, 
they would discharge platoons of fire-arms among them ; and it is 
even reported they placed sentinels on the magistrates to watch their 

Upon the prison door taking fire, two gentlemen made up to the 
rioters, and remonstrated with them on the imminent danger of set- 
ting the whole neighbourhood on fire, insinuating that this outrage was 
likely to be deeply resented, and might bring them to trouble ; to 
which it was answered that they should take care no damage should 
be done to the city, and that as to the rest, they knew their business, 
and that they (the gentlemen) might go about theirs. 

Before the px'ison door was burnt down, several persons rushed 
through the flames, ran up stairs, demanded the keys from the keepers ; 


and thou<:jh they could scarcely sec one another for tlic smoke, got 
into Captain Porteous' apartment, calling, " Where is the murdering 
villain V He is said to have answered, " Gentlemen, I am liere ; but 
what ai-e you going to do with me 1 " When they answered, " We 
are to carry you to the place where you shed so much innocent blood, 
and hang you." He begged for mercy, but they instantly seized and 
])ulled him to the door in his bedgown and cap ; and as. he struggled, 
they caught him by the legs and dragged him to the foot of the stair, 
while others set all the rest of the prisoners in the Tolbooth at liberty. 
As soon as Porteous was brought to the street, he was set on his feet, 
and some seized him by the breast, while others pushed behind. He 
was thus conducted to the Bow-head, where they stopped a moment, 
at the pressing solicitation of some of the citizens, on the })retence 
that he might die peaceably, but really that time might be gained, as 
they expected the Welsh Fusiliers eveiy moment from the Canongate, 
or that the garrison of the Castle would come to Porteous' relief. By 
this time some who appeared to be leaders in the enterprise ordered 
him to march, and he was hurried down the Bow and to the gallows 
stone, where he was to kneel, — to confess his manifold sins and wicked- 
ness, particularly the destruction of human life he had committed in 
that i)lace, and to offer up his petitions to Almighty God for mercy on 
his soul. After which, in a ^ery few minutes, he was led to the fatal 
tree. A halter being wanting, they broke open a shop in the Grass- 
market, and took out a coil of ropes, for which they left a guinea on 
the counter,* and threw the one end over a dyer's crosstrees close by 
the place of execution. On seeing the rope, Porteous made remon- 
strances, and caught hold of the tree, but being disengaged they set 
him down, and as the noose was about to be put over his head, he 
appeared to gather fresh spirit, struggling and wrenching his head and 
body. Here again some citizens appeared for him, telling that the 
troops being now in full march, they must all expect to be sacriticed, 
and that the artillery of the Castle would doubtless be discharged 
among them. They answered, " No man will die till his time come." 
About a quarter of an hour before twelve they put the rope about 
his neck, and ordered him to be pulled up ; which being done, observ- 
ing his hands loose, he was let down again ; after tying his hands he 
was hauled up a second time, but after a short space, having wrought 
one of his arms loose, he was let down once more, in order to tie it up 
and cover his face. Stripping him of one of the shirts he had on, they 
wrapped it about his head, and got him up a third time with loud 
huzzas and a ruff of the drum. After he had hung a long time, they 
nailed the rope to the tree ; then formally saluting one another, 
grounding their arms, and another ruff of the drum, they separated, 
retired out of town, and numbei's of them were seen riding off in bodies 
well mounted to different quarters, leaving the body hanging till near 
five next morning. 

* The person who did this was a man of the name of Bruce, belonging to Anstru- 
ther, who retunaed some time after to the town, and was well known to the late Mrs. 
Black, the mother of the late Admiral Black. 


Neither the two gentlemen who converged with the rioters at the 
Tolbooth, nor those who were sent out by the magistrates to see if 
they knew any of thein, could say they had ever seen any one of them 
before, though the flames of the fire at the Tolbooth door rendered it 
as light as noonday ; so that it was generally believed no citizen acted 
any principal part in the tragedy ; though, indeed, it is certain that 
many of the burgesses and inhabitants of Edinburgh, led by curiosity, 
went to the streets to behold the surprising boldness and incredible 
extravagance of the scene. 

Upon the whole, it would seem that the rioters were a body of 
gentlemen and others in disgiiise, some having masons' aprons, others 
joiners', fleshers', shoemakers', dyers', and those of other trades, who 
had concerted their plot with judgment, conducted it with secresy, 
executed it with resolution and manly dai'ing, and completed the 
whole in the short space of two hoiirs with unparalleled success. 


Paul Jokes was a native of Kirkbean, in the stewartry of Kii-k- 
cudbright. He was the youngest surviving son of John Paul, 
gardener to Mr. Craik of Arbiglaud, and of Jean Duff, daughter of 
a small farmer in the parish of New Abbey. His eldest brother 
"William, who appears to have been a man of ability and enterprise, 
went abroad when young and settled in Yirginia. 

John Paul's residence, near the Solway, seems early to have 
inspired his sou with a strong predilection for a seafaring life. 
According to the tradition of the family, the boy was often seen, 
when a mere child, launching his miniature boat, and issuing hia 
commands to his imaginary crew with dignity and authority. 

As the maritime profession was his decided choice, his parents 
sent him, at the age of twelve, to be bound as an apprentice to Mr. 
Younger of Whitehaven. In this respectable gentleman, who was 
engaged in the American trade, he found a kind and an attentive 

Young Paul's education at the parish school of Kirkbean termi- 
nated with his first departure from his paternal roof; but he had 
the good sense and ambition to devote a portion of his time to 
private study, and he always eagerly seized every favourable oppor- 
tunity for cultivating his understanding and increasing his profes- 
sional acquirements. His first voyage was made to America'in the 
Priendship, of "Whitehaven. Whilst the vessel remained in port, 
the young sailor resided in the house of his brother William, and 
studied navigation, with some other branches of maritime know- 
ledge. By his excellent conduct and surpassing intelligence, he 
soon gained the esteem and confidence of his master, who promised 
to exert his influence and interest in promoting young Paul's 


advancement. Mr. Tounger's affairs, however, became embar- * 
passed, and he was rendered unable to perform liis promise ; but 
he did all in his power for his youthful apprentice, by giving up 
his indentures and granting him a certificate of good conduct, 
recommending him as a valuable and promising young man. Paul, 
though still but a boy, next obtained the situation of third mate of 
the King Grcorge of Whitehaven, engaged in the slave trade. In 
17GG, though only nineteen, he was appointed chief mate of the 
brig Two Friends, a vessel engaged in the same abominable traffic. 
He became at length so disgusted with the enormities of this 
diabolical trade, that he abandoned it. He now took a passage 
home on board the John of Kirkcudbright, Captain Macadam 
commander. On this voyage, both the master and mate died of 
fever ; and as there was no one on board capable of navigating the 
vessel, he assumed the command and brought her safe to Kirkcud- 
bright, her destined port. As a reward for his valuable services, 
Currie, Beck, & Company, the owners, appointed him master and 
supercargo. The firm, however, was soon after dissolved, and the 
vessel sold. 

Not long after this period, John Paul obtained the command of 
the Betsey of London, a West India ship; and having engaged in 
commercial speculation, he remained for some time amongst the 
islands. Jn 1773 he repaired to Virginia, for the purpose of 
arranging the affairs of his brother William, who had died intestate 
and without issue. About this time he assumed the name of Jones. 

The American revolution called him from his retirement. He 
was now twenty-eight years of age, vigorous, active, and ambitious. 
The cause of the colonies appeared to him the cause of justice, 
freedom, and humanity. 

Under the united influence of many powerful motives, Paul Jones 
entered the American service. Though he had not been educated for 
naval command in ships of war, he had often sailed in armed vessels, 
and had received an excellent training as a practical seaman ; his 
services were therefore eagerly accepted by the young republic of 
America. From this date, he owned no other country. 

In organizing their infant navy, Congress appointed three classes of 
lieutenants, and Jones was placed at the head of the first class. His 
first commission was dated the 7th of December, 1775. He was 
assigned to the Alfred, and on board of that vessel, he hoisted with 
his own hand the stripes and starry flag of America, being the first 
time it was displayed — a flag which he bravely defended in many seas. 

On the 9th of May, 1777, Jones was ordered by Congress to pro- 
ceed to France, having in his possession an order to the American 
commissioners at Paris, to invest him with the command of a first- 
rate ship, as a reward of his zeal and the signal services he had per- 
formed in vessels of small force. Jones now sailed for Europe in high 
spirits, in command of the Ranger of 18 guns, and captured two brigs 
on the voyage with valuable cargoes of fruit and wine. 

On the 10th of April, 1778, Captain Jones sailed from Brest on 


that cruise which afterwards became so celebrated from its reckless 
daring. We shall give part of the account in his own words : 

" I sailed from Brest, the 10th of April • mj plan was extensive, I 
therefore did not at the beginning wish to encumber myself with pri- 
soners. On the 14th I took a brigantine between Sicily and Cape 
Clear, bound from Ostend, with a cargo of flax seed for Ireland— 
sunk her, and proceeded into St. George's Channel. 

" On the 17th I took the ship Lord Chatham, bound from London 
to Dublin with a cargo consisting of poi-ter and a variety of merchan- 
dise, and almost within sight of her port ; this ship I manned and 
ordered for Brest. 

" Towards the evening of the day following, the weather had a pro- 
mising appearance, and the wind being favourable, I stood over from 
the Isle of Man, with an intention to make a descent at Whitehaven; 
at ten, I was ofl^ the harbour with a party of volunteers, and had 
everything in readiness to land ; but before eleven the wind greatly 
increased and shifted, so as to blow directly upon the shore; the sea 
increased of course, and it became impossible to effect a landing. This 
obliged me to carry all possible sail so as to clear the land,°and to 
await a more favourable opportunity. 

" On the 18th, in Glenluce Bay, on the south coast of Scotland, I 
met with a revenue wherry. It being the common practice of these 
vessels to board merchant ships, the Eanger then having no external 
appearance of war, it was expected that this rover would have come 
alongside. I was, however, mistaken, for though the men were at 
their quarters, yet this vessel outsailed the Ranger, and got clear in 
spite of a severe cannonade. 

" The next morning, off the Mull of Galloway, I found myself so 
near a Scotch coasting schooner, loaded with barley, that I could not 
avoid sinking her. Understanding that there were ten or twelve sail 
of merchant ships, besides a tender brigantine, with a number of im- 
pressed men on board, at anchor at Lochryan, in Scotland, f thought 
this an enterprise worthy of my attention; but the wind, which at first 
would have served equally well to have sailed in or out of the Loch, 
shifted to a hard squall, so as to blow almost directly in, with an 
appearance of bad weather. I was therefore obliged to abandon my 
project. In the evening I fell in with a sloop from Dublin, which I 
sunk to prevent intelligence. 

" The next day, the 21st, being near Carrickfergus, a fishing boat 
came off, which I detained. I saw a ship at anchor in the road, which 
I was informed by the fishermen was the British ship-of-war Drake, 
of 20 guns. I determined to attack her in the night ; my plan was to' 
overlay her cable, and to fall upon her bow, so as to have all her decks 
open and exposed to our musketry, &c. At the same time it was my in- 
tention to have secured the enemy by grapplings, so that had they cut 
their cables, they would not thereby have attained any advantage. The 
wind was high, and unfortunately the anchor was not let go^so soon 
as the order was given, so that the Ranger was brought to, upon the 
enemy's quarter, at the distance of half a cable's length. We had 


made no warlike appearance — of course had given no alarm. Tliis 
determined me to cut iiiimediately, vvliicli might look as if the cable 
had parted, and at the same time enable me, after making a tack out 
of the loch, to return with the same pros[)ect of advantage which I 
had at lirst. I was, however, prevented from retui-ning, as 1 with 
difficulty weathered the lighthouse ou the lee side of the loch, and the 
gale increased. The weather now became so very stormy and severe, 
and the sea ran so high, that I was obliged to take shelter under the 
south shore of Scotland. 

" The 22nd introduced fair weather, though the three kingdoms 
were, as far as the eye could reach, covered with snow. J now 
resolved once more to attem2)t Whitehaven ; 1)ut the wind became 
very light, so that the ship would not in premier time ap])roach so near 
as I had intended. At midnight I left the ship with two boats and 
thirty-one volunteers ; when we reached the outer j)ier the day began 
to dawn; I would not, however, abandon my enterprise, ])ut des])atched 
one boat under the direction of Mr. Hill and Lieutenant Wallingsford, 
with the necessary combustibles, to set fire to the shipping in the 
north side of the harbour, while I went with the other party to 
attempt the south side. 1 was successful in scaling the walls, and 
spiking u}) all the cannon on the first fort ; tiuding the sentinels in 
the guard-house, they Avere secured without being hurt. Having 
fixed sentinels. I now took with me one man only (Mr. Green), and 
s})iked all the cannon on the southern fort, distant from the other a 
quarter of a mile. 

" On my return from this business, I naturally expected to see the 
fire of the ships on the north side, as well as to find my own i)arty 
with everything in readiness to set fire to the shipping on the south ; 
instead of this, I found the boat under the direction of Mr. Hill and 
Mr. Wallingford returned, and the i)arty in some confusion, their 
light having burnt out at the insxant when it became necessary. 

" By the strangest fatality, my own party went in the same situa- 
tion, the candles being all burnt out. The day too came on apace, 
yet I would by no means retreat while any hopes of success remained. 
Having again placed sentinels, a liglit was obtained at a house dis- 
joined from the town, and fire was kindled in the steerage of a large 
ship which was surrounded with at least an hundred and fifty others, 
chiefly from two to four hundred tons burden, lying side by side 
aground, unsurrounded by the water. 

" There were, besides, from seventy to one hundred large ships in 
the north arm of the harbour aground, clear of watei-, and divided 
from the rest merely by a stone pier of a ship's height. I should 
have kindled fires in other places, if the time had permitted ; as it did 
not, our care was to prevent the one kindled from being easily extin- 
guished. After some search, a barrel of tar was found, and poured 
into the flames, which now ascended from all the hatchways. The 
inhabitants now began to appear in thousands, and individuals 
ran hastily towards us. I stood between them and the ship on fire, 
with a pistol in my hand, and ordered them to retire, which they soon 


did with i^recipitation. The flames had ah^eady caught the riggin"-, 
and began to ascend the mainmast. The sun was a full hour's march 
above the horizon, and as sleep no longei' ruled the world it was time 
to retire. We re-embarked without opposition, having released a 
number of prisoners, as our boats could not carry them. After all 
my people had embarked, I stood upon the pier for a considerable 
space, yet no person advanced. I saw all the eminences round the 
town covei-ed with the amazed inhabitants. 

" When we had rowed to a considerable distance from the shore, 
the English began to run in vast numbers to their forts ; their dis- 
appointment may easily be imagined when they found at least thirty 
heavy cannons, the instruments of their vengeance, rendered useless. 
At length, however, they began to fire, having, as I apprehend, either 
brought down ship's guns, or used one or two cannons that lay on the 
beach at the foot of the walls dismounted, and which had not been 
spiked. They fired with no aim, and the shot fell short of the boats, 
and instead of doing us any harm, afforded some diversion, which my 
people could not help showing, by discharging their pistols, &c., in 
return of the salute. 

" Had it been possible to have landed a few hours sooner, success 
would have been complete ; not a single ship out of more than two 
hundred could possibly have escaped, and all the world would not 
have saved the town. What was done, however, is sufficient to show, 
that not all their boasted navy can protect their own coast, and that 
the scenes of distress which they have occasioned in America may 
soon be brought home to their own doors. One of my people was 
missing, and must, I fear, have fallen into the enemy's hands after 
our departure, I was pleased that in this business we neither killed 
nor wounded. I brought off" three prisoners as a sample." 

After the attack on Whitehaven, the Eanger sailed across the 
Sol way Firth, and anchored at the mouth of the Dee, about five miles 
from the town of Kirkcudbright, Having selected a party of his 
crew, to the number of fifteen, with his two lieutenants, Simpson and 
Wallingford, Paul Jones immediately proceeded in the long boat to 
St. Mary's Isle, the seat of the Earl of Selkirk. ^'^ Upon landing, two 
men were left in charge of the boat, and the rest of the party, well 
armed, set out for Lord Selkirk's mansion. After leaving the beach, 
they came to some labourers, of whom they inquired if the Earl was 
at home ; but, being answered in the negative, Jones gave orders that 
his men were immediately to return to the boat. Observing, however, 
in their looks some dissatisfaction, after a few words between himself 
and his officers, he commanded the party to repair to Lord Selkirk's 
house, and demand the silver plate. He then returned to the shore. 
«■ St. Mary's Isle is situated about a mile below the town of Kirkcudbrig-ht on the 
liver Dee, the banks of which, from Tongueland to Kirkcudbright Bay on both sides, 
are particularly romantic; and the beautiful seat of the Earl of Selkirk is placed on a 
pomt of land jutting out in the river. It is surrounded with water at full tide, but the 
shore is dry on both sides at low water. It is one of the most enchanting localities in 
Scotland, and is surrounded by extensive plantations, in which are many noble old trees. 
St. Mary's Isle was the seat of a priory, founded by Fergus, Lord of "Galloway, in the 
reign of David I. 


On tlie way, the parly mot with two female servants, who confirmed 
the jjrevious information respecting his lordship's absence. When 
the i)arty reached tlie house, they surrounded it on ail sides to pre- 
vent communication, and two men were detained as prisoi)ers in the 
vicinity of tlie building. Lieutenant Simpson then inquired for the 
Countess of Selkirk, and was shown into the parlour, Wallingsford 
remaining at thu outer door. The Countess was still in the drawing- 
room, where she had breakfasted with her family. Simpson, who 
considered her ladyship as dilatory in coming down, desired one of 
the servants to inform her that he had business of peculiar importance 
immediately to transact, and was desirous to see her as soon as possible. 
She then made her appearance. Her ladyship supposing him to be 
comiected with some -press gang, said, " She was sorry he intended 
to take away her men-servants, as she had but few of them." He 
informed her, however, that he wished to see the Earl of Selkirk, but 
as he understood his lordship was in London, he had been ordered by 
his commanding officer, Captain Jones, to demand her sih'er plate. 
Lady Selkirk replied that his request should be complied with. For 
tlie purpose of intimidation, Simpson represented to the Countess, in 
the blackest colours, the damage which his men had done at White- 
haven a few hours before. Feeling herself somewhat overcome by 
the danger of her situation. Lady Selkirk, becoming faint, called for 
a glass of water, and anxiously inquired at the officer if anything 
was intended against herself; but he assured her that she sliould 
receive no personal injury. She then desired her footman to hand to 
Lieutenant Simpson the inventory of the plate. When the lieutenant, 
accompanied by the Countess and another lady,pi-oceeded to the butler's 
pantry, where it was kept, he glanced over the paper, and although 
there were several articles mentioned in it which were not ijresented 
to him, he took no notice of the omissions. The plate was now 
put into two linen bags, and consigned to the charge of two 
men, who stood as sentinels at the south door. Before their 
departure. Lady Selkirk asked the officers if they would take a glass 
of ^vine, for Wallingsford had also entered the house. After expres- 
sing their thanks, they respectfully drank her ladyship's health. The 
men also receiA^ed wine, but as they did not wish to consume time, 
they carried it away in the bottles, remarking that " sailois seldom 
drink out of glasses." The party lost no time in regaining their 
boat, and were soon out of the reach of danger. This daring robbery, 
committed in the face of day, and within one mile of the county town, 
did not occupy above three quarters of an hour in the execution. In 
this enterprise much modei'ation was certainly disj^layed ; for none of 
the party entered the house except the two officers, and though each 
of the ladies had a gold watch at her side, no hint was given that such 
articles would be acceptable. The injunctions seemed to have been 
strictly obeyed. 

During this tiying scene, the amiable Countess of Selkirk displayed 
much firmness and dignity. Instead of shunning danger, she never 
quitted the spoilers whilst they remained within her walls ; and after 

their departure, she followed them at a little distance, till she saw 
them leave the shore. 

Next day an engagement took place between the Drake, mountinrr 
twenty guns, and the Ranger (18) in which the latter was victorious^ 
" On the morning of the 24th," says Jones, " I was again off Carrick- 
forgus, and would have gone in, had I not seen the Drake preparing 
to come out. The tide was unfavourable, so that the Drake wrou'dit 
out but slowly ; at length she weathered the point, and having ted 
her out to about mid channel, I suffered her to come witliin haif the 
Drake hoisting English colours, and at the same instant the American 
stars were displayed on board of the Ranger. The sun was now little 
more than an hour from setting ; it was therefore time to begin, the 
Drake being rather astern. I ordered the helm up, and gave her the 
first broadside. The action was warm, close, and obstinate ; it lasted 
an hour and five minutes, when the enemy called for quarter, her fore 
and maintop-sail yards being both cut away and down on the cap ; 
the fore topgallant -yard and mizen-gaff boats hanging up and down 
along the mast; the second ensign which they had hoisted shot away, 
and hanging over the quarter gallery in the water, her sails and rig- 
ging entirely cut to pieces; her masts and yards all wounded, and her 
hull also very much galled. 

*' I lost^ only Lieutenant Wallingsford and one seaman, John 
Dougall, killed, and six wounded, among whom are the gunner, Mr. 
Falls, and Mr. Powers, a midshipman, who lost his arm. One of the 
wounded, Nathaniel Wills, is since dead, the rest will recover. 

*' The loss of the enemy in killed and wounded was far greater. All 
the prisoners allow that they came out with a number not less than 
an hundred and sixty men, and many of them affirm that they 
amounted to an hundred and ninety. The medium may perhaps be 
the most exact account, and by that it will appear that they lost in 
killed and wounded forty-two men. 

" The captain and lieutenant were amongst the wounded ; the for- 
mer, having received a musket ball in the head the minute before they 
called for quarter, lived, and was sensible for some time after my 
people boarded the prize; the lieutenant survived two days. They 
were buried with the honours due to their rank, and with the respect 
due to their memory." 

On the 8th of May, Captain Jones returned to Brest roads, having 
been absent twenty-eight days. The first leisure which he had at his 
disposal, he employed in writing his celebrated letter to the Countess 
of Selkirk, of which the following is a copy : — 

"Ranger, Brest, 8th May, 1778. 
" To the Countess of Selkirk. Madam, — It cannot be too much 
lamented that, in the profession of arms, the oflicer of fine feelings 
and real sensibility should be under the necessity of winking at any 
action of persons under his command which his heart cannot ajiprove"; 
but the reflection is doubly severe when he finds himself obliged in 
appearance to countenance such acts by his authority. 


" This hard case was niine when, on the 23rd of April lust, 1 landoil 
on St. Mary's Isle. Knowing Lord Selkirk's interest with the king, 
and esteeming as I do his private character, I wislied to make him 
the hapjiy in&trument of alleviating the horrors of hopeless cajitivity, 
when the brave are overpowered and made prisoners of war. 

" It was perhaps fortunate for yon, madam, that he was from home ; 
for it was my intention to have taken him on hoard the Ranger, and 
to have detained him until, through his means, a general and fair 
exchange of prisoners, as well in Europe as in America, had hecn 
effected. When I was informed hy some men whom I met at landing, 
that his lordship was absent, I walked back to my boat dotermiiied 
to leave the island. By the way, however, some officers who were 
with me could not forbear expressing their discontent, observing tliat 
in America no delicacy was shown by the English, who took away 
all sorts of moveable property, setting fire not only to towns and to 
the houses of the rich without distinction, but not even sparing the 
wretched hamlets, and milk cows of the poor and lielpless at the 
approach of an inclement winter. That party had been with me the 
same morning at ^^'hitehaven ; some complaisance, therefore, was their 
due. I had but a moment to think how I might gratify them, and 
at the same time do your ladyship the least injnry. I charged the 
officers to permit none of the seamen to entei- the house or to hurt 
anything about it ; to treat you, madam, with the utmost respect ; to 
accept of the plate that was offered ; and to come away without mak- 
ing a search or demanding anything else. 

" I am induced to believe that I was punctually obeyed, since I am 
informed that the plate which they brought away is far shoit of the 
quantity specified in the inventory which accompanied it. I have 
gratified my men ; and when the plate is sold I shall become the pur- 
chaser ; and will gratify my own feelings by restoring it to you by 
such conveyance as you shall please to direct. 

" Had the Earl be. n on boaid the Eanger the following evening, he 
would have seen the awful pomp and dreadful cainage of a sea engage- 
ment ; both affording ample subject for the pencil, as well as melan- 
choly reflection for the contemplative mind. Humanity starts back 
from such scenes of horror, and cannot sufficiently execrate the vile 
promoters of this detestible war. 

For they, 'twas they, unsheathed the ruthless blade, 
And heaven avenge the havoc it has made. 

" The Britith ship of war Drake, mounting twenty guns, with more 
than her full complement of officers and men, was our opponent. The 
ships met_, and the advantage was disputed with great bravery on each 
side for an hour and four minutes, when the gallant commander of 
the Drake fell, and victory fell in favour of the Ranger. The amiable 
lieutenant lay mortally wounded, besides nearly forty of the inferior 
officers and crew killed and wounded — a melancholy demonstration of 
human prospects, and of the sad reverse of fortune which even an 
hour can produce. I buried them in a spacious grave, with the 
honours due to the memory of the brave. 


" Though I have drawn my sword in the present generous struggle 
for the rights of civilization, yet 1 am not in arms in pursuit of riches. 
My fortune is liberal enough, having lived sufficiently long to know 
that riches cannot ensure happiness. I profess myself a citizen of the 
world, totally unfettered by the little mean distinctions of climate or 
of country, which diminish the benevolence of the heart, and set 
bounds to philanthropy. Before this war with America began, I had 
at an early time of life withdrawn from the sea service in favour of 
' calm contemplation and poetic ease,' I have sacrificed not only my 
favourite scheme of life, but the softer affections of the heart, and my 
prospects of domestic happiness ; and I am ready to sacrifice my life 
also with cheerfulness, if that forfeiture could restore peace and good- 
will among mankind. 

"As the feelings of your gentle heart cannot but be congenial with 
mine, let me entreat you, madam, to use your persuasive eloquence 
with your husband's to stop this cruel and destructive war, in which 
Britain never can succeed. Heaven can never countenance the bar- 
barous and unmanly practice of the British in America, which savages 
would blush at, and which, if not discontinued, will soon be retaliated 
on Britain by a justly enraged people. Should you fail in this (for I 
am persuaded you will attempt it, and who can resist the power of 
such an advocate 1) your endeavours to effect a general exchange of 
prisoners will be an act of humanity which wiJl afford you golden 
feelings on the bed of death. 

" I hope this cruel contest will soon be closed, but should it continue, 
I wage no war with the fair. I acknowledge their power, and bend 
before it with submission. Let not, therefore, the amiable Countess 
of Selkirk regard me as an enemy. I am ambitious of her esteem and 
friendship, and would do anything consistent with my duty to 
merit it. 

" The honour of a line from your hand in answer to this ^ill lay me 
under a singular obligation ; and if I can render you any acceptable 
service in France or elsewhere, I hope you see into my character so 
far as to command me without the least particle of reserve or hesitation. 

" I wish to know exactly the behaviour of my people, as I am 
determined to punish them if they have exceeded their commission. 

" I have the honour to be, with much esteem and the most profound 
respect, madam, your most obedient servant (signed) John Paul 

Captain Jones fulfilled the promise which he had made to Lady 
Selkirk, by purchasing her plate at an enormous price ; but it was 
some years before he could get it conveyed to her. At last, however, 
he found means to send it from L'Orient to Calais, and at length it 
reached her ladyship in safety. 

After the restoration of the plate, the Earl of Selkirk wrote a letter 
acknowledging receipt of it in the following terms : — 

"London, 4th August, 1785. — Sir, I received the letter you wrote 
at the time you sent off the plate, in order for restoring it. Had I 
known where to direct a letter to you at the time it arrived in 


Scotland, I would have then wrote to you ; but not knowing it, nor • 
fiudinii; that any of niy acquaintance in Edinburgh knew it, 1 was 
obliged to delay writing till I came here, when, by means of a 
gentleman connecttd with America, I was told Mr. LcGraud was 
your banker at Paris, and would take proper care of a letter for you ; 
therefore I inclose this to him. 

" Notwithstanding all the due precautions you took for the easy 
and uninterrupted conveyance of the plate, yet it met with con- 
siderable delays, first at Calais, next at Dover, then at London. 
However, it at last arrived in Dumfries, and I dare say quite safe, 
though as yet I have not seen it, being then at Edinburgh. I intended 
to have put an article in the newspa])ers about you having returned 
it; but before I was informed of its being arrived, some of your 
friends, I suppose, had put it in the Dumfries newspapers, whence it 
was immediately cojiied into the Edinburgh papers, aud thence into 
the London ones. 

" Since that time I have mentioned it to many people of fashion ; 
and on all occasions, sir, both now and formerly, I have done you the 
justice to tell that you made an offer of returning the plate very soon 
after your return to Brest ; and although you yourself was not at my 
house, but remained at the shore with your boat, that you had your 
officers and men in such extraordinary good discipline, that you 
having given them strict orders to behave well, to do no injuiy of any 
kind, to make no search, but only to bring off what plate was given 
them ; that in re;ijity they did exactly as ordered, and that not one 
man stirred from his post on the outside of the house, nor entered the 
doors, nor said an imcivil word ; that the two officers stood not a 
quarter of an hour in the parlour and butler's pantry, while the butler 
got the plate together — behaved politely, and asked for nothing but 
the plate, and instantly marched their men off in regular order; and 
that both officers and men behaved in all respects so well, that it 
would have done credit to the best disciplined troops whatever. 
Some of the English newspapers at that time having put in confused 
accounts of your expedition to Whitehaven and Scotland, I ordered 
a proper one, of what happened in Scotland, to be put in the London 
newspapers by a gentleman who was then at my hoxise, by which the 
good conduct and civil behaviour of your officers and men vere done 
justice to, and attributed to your orders, and the good discipline you 
maintained over your people. I am, sir, your humble servant 
(signed), Selkirk." 

This letter must have afforded much gratification to Commodore 

Notwithstanding the brilliant success which attended his exei'tions, 
Jones M'as now subjected to no small degree of mortification. As a 
token of good-will to the United States, the French ministry had pro- 
mised to furnish him with a ship aboard of which he was to hoist the 
American flag ; but after multiplied aj^plications, and a niimber of 
written memorials, the promise seemed to be foi-gotten or disregarded. 
Wearied out with the delays and apologies which he was daily receiv- 


iug, Jones set out foi* Puris, to make his application to the French 
luiiiistry in person, in consequence of wliich he obtained the command 
of the Duras, a frigate of forty guns, the name of which he changed 
to Le bon Homme Richard. 

In this vessel Captain Jones sailed from France on the 10th of 
August, 1779, with a little squadron of which he acted as commodore. 
The squadron consisted of the Alliance of 36 guns, the Pallas, of 32, 
the Serf of 18, the Vengeance of 12, the Le Grand of 14, and a large 
cutter of 18 guns, having on board in all about two thousand men. 
Of these, two were privateei's, who were promised their share of the 
pi'izes that might be taken. Shortly afterwards, an express arrived 
in Dublin that Paul Jones had made his appearance on the coast of 
Ireland with his squadron, and that being in want of provisions and 
fresh water, he landed a number of men, who carried off a parcel of 
sheep and oxen, for which he paid the owners in the most handsome 
manner, and immediately weighed anchor without committing any 
sort of outrage or act of hostility. On the morning of the 23d of 
Avigust, seven men landed at Inveragh, who said they had made their 
escape the preceding night from Jones' squadron, and that since they 
left France they had taken four prizes ; and at one o'clock the same 
day seventeen men landed, supposed to be in pursuit of the seven 
deserters. The squadron lay off BuUenskellix in full view, and had 
a formidable appearance. The people imagined that Jones' intentions 
were to scour the coast, and burn some principal towns, as he had a 
quantity of combustibles shipped on board the vessels in France. 
According to a letter, dated Cork, 31st August, Jones was then off 
Dingle ; and the Tartar, a British privateer of 22 guns, then in Cork 
harbour, had had an engagement for an hour with one of Jones' ships, 
but the Tartar escaped by being a fast sailer.